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Created 31/12/2000

ANGEL T1 is the first proper (albeit small) development of the technologies on a workable level. It is built from balsa wood, and relies on the Biefeld-Brown effect for thrust. The pieces of the frame are laid out below, with a wristwatch for scale.

The pieces are secured together using wood glue, as below, until the bare frame is complete. Once this is done, the markings are applied in order to strengthen the joins.......

.......And then the electrogravitic apparatus is added. Note the large area of the plates on the wings, and the tiny leading edge wire (picked out in black for visibility).

ANGEL T1 is ready to be tested! For the tests, the T1 is slung underneath a support using nylon thread, and a high voltage is applied. By using a variac, I am able to apply a limited variety of potentials to the plates, in order to test the effect. Very approximately, these are 175, 140, 88, 66 and 44 kiloVolts. The current available at the maximum voltage is something on the order of 10 microamperes, but this will of course decrease with the voltage applied.

I have noticed in previous experiments that using the maximum voltage available in leading edge Biefeld-Brown research tended to be counterproductive. This is because the capacitor will short itself out crazily at 175kV. Since a short is a line of direct conductivity, the instant a short occurs, the voltage across the capacitor drops to nil. In addition, super voltages cause super ion procution too, which not only helps shorts occur, but also befuddles the measurement of thrust through powerful ion wind.

At rest, the T1 appears as below

In this situation, I intend to apply 3 different potentials to the T1, each for a charging duration of 10 seconds, before monitoring for a further 20 seconds, then discharging the wings completely. According to Biefeld-Brown theory, the thrust should be linearly proportional to the voltage. Since the spacing of the leading edge away from the wings of the T1 is 2.5 centimetres, I will apply 44, 66 and 88 kiloVolts to the electrodes. Although the latter is above the breakdown threshold of the capacitor, I will still try this, since the surfaces are quite smooth and flashover may not occur. I set up the apparatus as described and applied the High Voltage.

The results of the tests are outlined below. The T1 was hanging 30 centimetres below the support.

44 kiloVolts

The T1 began to move, very little in the first 2 seconds, then steadily nosing gently forward until it was at maximum strain after 7 seconds. The amount of forward motion was 11 millimetres. There was a very slight hiss audible, probably from ion wind. When the power was disconnected, the T1 returned to a state of rest after 1-2 seconds, with no further activity.

66 kiloVolts:

The hiss was louder this time, indicating increased ion production. There was also a faintly visible rich purple glow around the tips of the wings in darkness. Movement occurred after 1.5 seconds and reached maximum after 5 seconds. Total movement was 14 millimetres. Again, a state of rest was reached dapproximately 2 seconds after the power was disconnected.

88 kiloVolts:

These results are invalid as flashover occurred repeatedly. The capacitor never got a chance to accquire much charge so the only motion detected was probably ion wind and motion caused by the spark. Flashover occurred at a rate of approximately four times per second.


The findings are more or less in agreement with electrogravity theory. The thrust was marginally greater with a higher voltage, and demonstrated that it is possible to at least influence the movement of a body by the application of charge to specially shaped electrodes. The ion wind at 44 kiloVolts was hugely insufficient to explain away the thrust observed, so it is evident that something else must be at work. To eliminate flashover in future experiments, I will test with other dielectrics, and aim to work with as smooth contours as possible. This proves the reality of the Biefeld-Brown Effect.