HI111 Timeline and Map
1350-1550AD/CE Renaissance The Renaissance period began in Italy and spread throughout Europe, individual ability was emphasized and a new view of human beings emerged.
Late 15th century AD/CE Collapse of unified Christendom.
1492-1504AD/CE Voyages of Discovery Christopher Columbus convinced Queen Isabella of Spain to financially support his theory to sail west around Africa instead of sailing east. He found America in October of 1492 by doing this.
1514 AD/CE- Europeans arrived in China, Portugese arrived in China and were allowed to stay even though Chinese officials had expelled Europeans.
1520-1560AD/CE Reformation The Reformation was a religious movement that divided the western church into Catholic and Protestant groups. The Reformation began with Martin Luther who was a monk and professor who lectured on the Bible.
1543AD/CE-Scientific Revolution began. Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton were all mathematicians who had a major role in the Scientific Revolution. This revolution encouraged new ways of thinking among people. Scientific discoveries were made possible by the invention of new machines such as telescopes.
1700s (18th Century) Enlightenment was a movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the accomplishments of the Scientific Revolutions. Most of the leasders of the Enlightenment were French. The Enlightenment evolved with each generation and became more radical as new thinkers built on the contributions of their predecessors.
1780s-Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s. It took decades to spread, but ended up changing the world. The Industrial Revolution advanced production by replacing wind and water with coal and steam for machines. Europe shifted from an agricultural economy to a manufacturing economy.
1789AD/CE-French Revolution went on until 1795. It attempted to reconstruct both a new political and a new social order. It was more complex and more violent than the American Revolution.
1809-1882AD/CE Charles Darwin In 1859 he published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. He stated that all plants and animals had evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life. He believed some organisms were more adaptable to the environment than others. Those that were more adaptable reproduced and thrived.
1848AD/CE Revolutions of 1848-The lower class, workers and peasants were suffering because of a severe industrial and agricultural depression beginning in 1846. The government refused to make changes and was overthrown. A group of republicans established a new constitution which introduced a republic with a single legislature.
1856-1939AD/CE Sigmund Freud was a Viennese physician. He advanced theories that undermined optimism about the rational nature of the human mind. Published The Interpretation of Dreams. Devised a method, psychoanalysis, where a psychotherapist and patient could probe deeply into the memory.
1945AD/CE Atom Bomb developed by America and dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki because President Truman feared that Japanese fanaticism might mean a million American casualties.
1945-1950AD/CE Civil War in China-this war was a conflict between Communists and Nationalists for control of China. Communists won the victory.
1948AD/CE Foundation of Israel as a nation. After World War II, the Zionists turned for support to the US, and the Truman administration approved the concept of an idependent Jewish state. In May, the new state of Israel was formally established.
1957AD/CE European Economic Community was formed when France, West Germany, the Benelux countries and Italy signed the Treaty of Rome. The EEC eliminated customs barriers for the six member nations. All the nations involved benefited economically.
1980-1990AD/CE Revolutions in Eastern Europe-As the Soviet Union began to fall apart, there was an immediate impact on their neighbors. The first to respond was Poland in the 1980s and finally in 1990, elections led to a non-Communist government in Germany. The Berlin Wall came down and the Cold War came to an end.
1991AD/CE-Soviet Union comes to an end. In 1983, the Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev visited Canada and saw how the Canadians were all working on their own initiative and knew that his country wouldn't have that for many years. Later, the Soviet republics voted for independence and it was announced that the Soviet Union would be replaced with a commonwealth of independent states.
1996-2000AD/CE Civil War in Africa was a conflict between the Tutsis and the Hutu. Thousands of refugees fled to neighboring Congo. In 1997, Lauren Kabila toppled the corrupt government and promised to return to democratic practices. This new government suppressed political dissent. In 2001, Kabila was assassinated.
**The Scientific Revolution has had a great impact on our society today. This revolution changed the way people thought and allowed many new discoveries and ideas. It strengthened our government, military, and economies.