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Chapter 4

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Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

 

I.                     Organic Chemistry

a.      

b.      

c.       

d.      

e.      

II.                   Carbon atoms are most versatile

a.      

b.      

c.       

d.      

e.      

f.         

g.      

h.       

III.                  Variation in Carbon skeletons

a.      

b.      

c.       

d.      

e.      

f.         

g.      

IV.               Isomers

a.      

b.      

c.       

d.      

e.     Structural isomers

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

f.        Geometric isomers

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

g.     Enatiomers

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

V.                 Functional Groups

a.      

b.      

c.       

d.      

e.     Hydroxyl group

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

                                                             v.       

f.        Carbonyl group

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

                                                             v.        

                                                           vi.       

                                                         vii.       

g.     Carboxyl group

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

                                                             v.       

h.      Amino group

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

                                                             v.       

                                                           vi.       

i.        Sulfhydryl Group

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

 

j.        Phosphate Group

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

                                                             v.       

                                                           vi.