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Chapter 2 

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Chapter 2 The chemical Context of Life

 

I.                     Matter

a.     All organisms are composed of matter

                                                              i.       

b.     The Greeks felt that matter arose from four basic elements earth, fire, wind and water

c.      An element is

                                                              i.       

d.     Combining two or more elements in a fixed ratio makes a ______________.  A compound has characteristics

II.                   Essential Elements

a.      

b.      

c.       

III.                  Atomic Structure

a.     The units of matter are called

b.      

c.      An atom is

IV.               Subatomic Particles

a.     Protons were founded by Ernest Rutherford in 1914.

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

b.     Neutrons founded by Sir James Chadwick in 1932

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

c.      Electrons were founded by Sir J.J. Thompson in 1897

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

d.     All three subatomic particle masses are measured in Daltons after John Dalton, the writer of the atomic theory.

V.                 Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

a.     The atomic number is

b.     When the element is electrically neutral,

c.      The atomic number increases by

d.     The mass number or atomic weight is.

VI.               Isotopes

a.     All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons

b.     A radioactive isotope is

VII.              Energy levels

a.     Energy is the ability to do

b.     Potential energy is

c.      Kinetic energy is

d.     The electrons of an element contain potential energy.

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

VIII.            Electron Orbitals

a.     The three dimensional space where an electron is usually found is called the orbital.

b.     Founded by Werner Heisenberg in 1926.

c.      No more than two electrons can be in the same orbital.

IX.               Electron Configuration

a.     The chemical behavior of the atom is determined by its configuration.

b.     The outer electrons in this configuration are called

c.      A complete valence shell means

X.                 Chemical Bonds

a.     Bonds are the interactions that result in atoms staying close together.

b.     Covalent bonds

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

c.      Electronegativity is the attraction of atoms for the electrons of a covalent bond.

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

                                                             v.       

                                                           vi.       

d.     Ionic bonds

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

                                                             v.       

                                                           vi.       

                                                         vii.       

e.     Weak Chemical Bonds

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

                                                             v.       

                                                           vi.       

f.        Hydrogen bonds

                                                              i.       

                                                            ii.       

                                                          iii.       

                                                           iv.       

g.     Van der Waals Interactions

                                                              i.      Weak interactions that occur between atoms and molecules that are very close together and result from charge asymmetry in electron clouds.

XI.               A Molecules biological function is related to its shape.

a.      

b.      

c.       

d.      

e.      

XII.              Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds

a.      

b.      

c.       

d.      

e.      

f.