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Chapter 18 Questions

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Answer the following questions in the space provided.  Answers can be found on pages 351-366.


1.       When are most genes expressed?

 2.       What does it mean to be expressed?

 3.       What is cellular differentiation?

 4.       What must transcription enzymes do and what happens if they donít complete their function at the right place and time?

 5.       Approximately how many nucleotide pairs are found in eukaryotic DNA?

 6.       Define histones.

 7.       Define nucleosome.

 8.       What role does histone H1 play in the packing of DNA? 

9.       Compare heterochromatin to euchromatin.

 10.  How much eukaryotic DNA is made of repetitive sequences?

 11.  What is satellite DNA and what function doe it have in DNA?

 12.  What are telomeres?

13.  What is the function of telomerase?

 14.  What is a multigene family and what is its importance?

 15.  What are pseudogenes and what do they lack?

 16.  What determines whether a specific gene is expressed?

 17.  Why must cells be able to alter gene expression?

 18.  What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes?

 19.  How does RNA polymerase work?

 20.  What are enhancers and what role do they play in DNA?

 21.  How is transcription controlled?

 22.  What is posttranscriptional control?

 23.  What is mRNA degradation and how does it take place?

 24.  What determines the time period before degradation?

 25.  What are translational controls?

 26.  What are posttranslational controls?

 27.  What are coordinately controlled genes?

 28.  What does coordinately controlled genes involve?

 29.  How do cell differentiations occur?

 30.  What are chromosome puffs?

 31.  What do function do steroid hormones play in gene expression?

 32.  What is gene amplification?

 33.  What are immunoglobulins?

 34.  What is DNA methylation?

 35.  What are tumor suppressor genes?