Practice Multiple Choice Questions for Plant Nutrition and Plant Development
1. In plants, mineral ions ____. a. have roles in metabolism b. help establish gradients across membranes c. influence water movement into cells d. maintain cell shape and growth e. all of the above
2. The nutrition of some plants depends on a root fungus association known as a _____. a. root nodule b. mycorrhiza c. root hair d. root hypha
3. The nutrition of some plants depends on a root bacterium association known as a ______. a. root nodule b. mycorrhiza c. root hair d. root hypha
4. Water evaporation from plant parts is called ___________. a. translocation b. expiration c. transpiration d. tension
5. Water transport from roots to leaves is explained by ______. a. the pressure flow theory b. differences in source and sink solute concentrations c. the pumping force of xylem vessels d. the cohesion tension theory
6. The _____ in endodermal cell walls forces water and solutes that entered roots to move through the cells, not around them. a. cutin strip b. lignin strip c. Casparian strip d. cellulose strip
7. During the day, most plants lose _____; ______ accumulates. a. carbon dioxide; oxygen b. water; oxygen c. oxygen; water d. water; carbon dioxide
8. At night, most plants lose _________ and take up _________. a. carbon dioxide; oxygen b. sieve tubes c. oxygen; water d. water; carbon dioxide
9. In phloem organic compounds flow through _____ a. collenchyma cells b. sieve tubes c. vessels d. tracheids
10. Seed germination is over when the _______. a. embryo sporophyte b. embryo sporophyte resumes growth c. primary root pokes out of the seed coat d. cotyledons unfurl
11. Which of the following statements are false? a. Auxins and gibberellins promote stem elongation. b. Cytokinins promote cell division but retard leaf aging c. Abscisic acid promotes water loss and dormancy. d. Ethylene promotes fruit ripening and abscission.
12. Plant hormones _______. a. interact with one another b. are influenced by environmental cues. c. are active in plant embryos within seeds d. are active in adult plants e. all of the above
13. Plant growth depends on _______. a. cell division b. cell enlargement c. hormones d. all of the above
14. Light of _______ is the strongest stimulus for phototropism. a. red wavelengths b. far-red wavelengths c. green wavelengths d. blue wavelengths
15. Light of _______ wavelengths causes phytochrome to switch from inactive to active form; light of ______ wavelengths has the opposite effect. a. red; far-red b. red; blue c. far-red; red d. far-red blue
16. The flowering process is a ______ response. a. phototropic b. gravitropic c. photoperiodic d. thigmotropic
17. Abscission occurs during _______. a. seed germination b. flowering c. senescence d. dormancy
18. The essential parts of a flower are the a. petal, anther, stamen b. stamens and pistols c. anther and stamens d. ovary and pollen
19. The endosperm is a. a haploid cell. b. a triploid nutritive tissue. c. the precursor of the embryo. d. the central portion of the sperm.
20. Double fertilization results in a. pollen tube development. b. triploid embryos. c. a zygote and an endosperm. d. a zygote and a pollen tube.
21. The fruit is a. a ripened pollen grain. b. the mature egg cell. c. a ripened ovary. d. a mature calyx.
22. The epicotyl eventually develops into the a. root and stem. b. stem and flower. c. upper part of the stem and leaf. d. lower part of the stem and upper part of the root.
23. The critical period for photoperiodic plants is the a. amount of direct light b. amount of indirect light c. amount of darkness d. amount of nitrogen in the soil during the summer
24. Xerophytes would probably be found in a. an ocean b. a forest c. a desert d. a pond
25. Guttation is a process that occurs with plants found in a. deserts b. jungles c. African plains d. grasslands
26. The elongation of cells produced by breaking chemical bonds in cell wall is stimulated by a. auxins b. cytokinins c. phytochromes d. nectar
27. Apical dominance occurs because IAA a. stimulates lateral growth b. stimulates root growth in primary roots c. causes abcission d. promotes growth in terminal bud
28. To prevent fruits from dropping off their stems, farmers often spray the fruit with a. cytokinins b. auxins c. phytochromes d. dioxin
29. The process of bolting is stimulated by a. auxins b. cytokinins c. gibberellins d. phytochromes
30. Cytokinins a. promote cell division b. inhibit cell division c. promote cell elongation d. inhibit cell elongation