Solar XUV is identified as Bharat Radiation emission
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Solar XUV is identified as Bharat Radiation emission from radioisotopes produced by uranium fission

 

Revolutionary Breakthroughs in Solar Physics

 

M.A.Padmanabha Rao

114 Charak Sadan, Vikas Puri, New Delhi 110018, India, raomap@yahoo.com

 

 

Explanation to the change in solar optical emission in Suns waning period

The most noteworthy common spectral feature between solar spectrum and the newly detected optical spectra of radioisotopes is the UV dominance, suggesting that reproduction of Suns UV dominant optical emission became a possibility at laboratory level from radioisotopes [1-9]. The first evidence to reproduction of UV dominant Sun light at the laboratory level has come when the newly detected UV dominant optical spectra of radioisotopes hold the key to the unexpected findings of Joanna Haigh et all during the Suns waning period from 2004 to 2007 [10]. They have analyzed daily measurements of the spectral composition of sunlight made between 2004 and 2007 by NASA's Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) satellite. The study period covers the declining phase of the current solar cycle. Solar activity, which in the current cycle peaked around 2001, reached a pronounced minimum in late 2009 during which no sunspots were observed for an unusually long period. The amount of ultraviolet radiation in the spectrum was four to six times smaller than that predicted by the empirical model, but an increase in radiation in the visible wavelength, which warms the Earth's surface, compensated for the decrease.

 

The author briefly explained that the variation in solar optical spectrum is due to radioisotopes produced by Uranium fission taking place in Sun, the possibility of which has been briefly dealt in Ref.9.  Uranium fission seems to take simultaneously at several places on the core of the Sun.  The site of fission appears as Sun spot to a distance through satellites.  During solar maximum number of these sun spots would be more and the number gradually falls during waning period until one or two spots remain at solar minimum during 11 year solar cycle. The fission products, a wide range of radioisotopes with different half lives cause solar γ, β, and X-ray emissions having different energies. The γ, β and XRF generate some energy at eV level higher than that of UV, termed Bharat radiation [6-8], within the same excited atom that in turn causes UV dominant optical emission by the previously unknown atomic phenomenon described in Ref.9.  The phenomenon was previously termed Padmanabha Rao Effect [6-8].  

The optical technique that the author newly developed with a pair of sheet polarizers demonstrated that the UV, visible (VIS), and near infrared (NIR) radiation intensities newly detected from radioisotopes and XRF sources vary with the energy of dominant γ, β or XRF emission of a radioisotope. Variations in UV, VIS, and NIR radiation intensities from one radioisotope to another depending upon energy of dominant γ, β or X-ray emission [Fig.3, Ref.9] hold the key for variations in solar UV, visible (VIS), and near infrared (NIR) radiations.

The solar X-rays seem to be the XRF from radioisotopes dominant in XRF emission. All low energies not only X-rays but also γ, and β contribute to maximum solar UV in the gross light intensity [Fig.3, Ref.9]. That is why solar UV reaches maximum while visible and near infrared radiations remain very low in the gross light intensity, when solar cycle is at its maximum. Low energy, say, 0.013336 MeV (Rb XRF source) causes UV intensity as high as 99.62% in the gross light intensity [Table 1, Ref.9]. Likewise, 0.05954 MeV (γ, 241Am) causes 98.03% UV. In comparison VIS, and NIR radiation intensities will be correspondingly low, say, 0.37, 0.01% respectively from Rb XRF source, and 1.91%, 0.06% from 241Am. Maximum solar UV and minimum VIS, and NIR intensities seem to be responsible for fall in temperatures when approaching towards North and South poles. 

Sun serves as constant source of light, because radioisotopes which emit low γ, β or X-ray energies and having long half life maintain UV to be between 83-96%, while VIS and NIR radiations share the rest of percent light. The 13% variation noticed in UV with the radioisotopes tested [Table 1 & Fig.3, Ref.9] agreeing  with the 16% fall in solar UV reported by Robert Hodges and Jim Elsner [11], and 13% fall between 1996 and 2008 reported by Stanley C. Solomon et all [12] further strengthens the view on Sun light from fission products. During Suns waning period, the 96% UV slowly falls to 83% with the decay of short lived radioisotopes and long lived radioisotopes like 60Co, 90Sr remains at the spot of fission (Sun spots) and spread all over the Suns surface due to fall out. Though UV is predominant in general from radioisotopes  and XRF sources, UV falls from 99.62 to 83.36% when energy of maximum abundant γ, β or X-ray emission increases from 0.013336 MeV (Rb XRF) to 2.288 MeV (β, 90Y). The UV dips not below 83.36 in any case, from a relatively high energy source. In the current situation, decrease in solar UV and rise in visible and near infra red radiations between 2004 and 2007 can be due to emission of high energy γ, X-ray and β radiations from certain radioisotopes [9]. For instance 131I, with 8.0197 days half life decays to insignificant levels after ten half lives, nearly 80 days later. Its predominant energy 0.6065 MeV (β) causes maximum UV (96.64%), while 3.22% VIS, and 0.14% NIR radiation intensities remain low in the gross light intensity [Table 1, Ref.9]. In comparison, 90Sr undergoes slow decay with long half life of 28.8 years and continue to produce 90Y (half life: 64 hours) until reaches insignificant levels after 288 years. The 96.64% UV caused by 0.6065 MeV energy (from 131I) dipped to 83.36% caused by 2.288 MeV energy (of β from 90Y), but VIS, and NIR radiation intensities raised to 8.02% and 8.62% respectively in the gross light intensity. Fall in UV and rise in VIS and NIR radiations from radioisotopes such as 90Sr + 90Y with long half life and strong ionizing energy that remain at the site of Uranium fission or as fallout on Suns surface explains the fall in UV and rise in VIS NIR radiation levels observed during Suns waning period by Joanna Haigh et all [2].  

Notably, the UV, VIS, and NIR radiations also result from fission fragments (radioisotopes) reaching the Earth, by Padmanabha Rao Effect.  The raise in NIR radiation caused by hard γ and β emissions from long lived fission products such as 90Sr + 90Y may have to be taken into consideration in regards to warming the Earth's atmosphere. Besides the current wisdom that fusion powers Sun light, this alternative approach helps to examine whether Padmanabha Rao Effect really causes UV dominant Sun light from radioisotopes, produced by Uranium fission.

 

Solar XUV is identified as Bharat Radiation

Most likely, the γ, β, or X-ray emissions from radioisotopes produced by Uranium fission taking place in Sun first causes Bharat Radiation with energy higher than that of UV at eV level, in turn causes Sun light [8, 9].  Solar X-ray ultraviolet (XUV) reported to have been detected since 1960s has been identified with solar Bharat radiation generated by γ, β, or X-ray from one and the same excited atom and from the same Sun spot. Existence of a wavelength gap between X-ray and optical spectra in electromagnetic spectrum, where Bharat radiation is located plays the key role in the identification. If really succeeded in identification of XUV with Bharat radiation, it strengthens the view that uranium fission powers Sun light.

 

The most noteworthy aspect of solar spectra reported since 1960s lies in successful measurement of wavelengths lying between X-ray and EUV spectra. However, the interpretation of their valuable data suffered since γ, β, or X-ray causing Bharat wavelengths, which in turn causing UV dominant optical emission within excited atoms of radioisotopes being recent progress in X-ray physics, Nuclear  Physics and atomic spectroscopy has not yet made any inroads into solar physics. Therefore, in the fresh interpretation of solar spectral data, first a search is made for wavelength gap that exists between X-ray and optical spectra.

 

Solar XUV reported to have been detected since 1960s by various researchers has been identified with the Bharat radiation, as it lies between X-ray and EUV or UV in electromagnetic spectrum. Characteristic X-rays, Bharat radiation, UV dominant optical emissions of a XRF source or dominant XRF from radioisotope like Cs X-rays  from 133Ba lye in a line in electromagnetic spectrum. In the case of Rb XRF source, the maximum wavelength in Rb X-ray spectrum is well documented as 12.87 nm [13]. Only after experimentally found that Rb X-ray causes the UV dominant optical emission from within the same excited atom by Padmanabha Rao Effect, the gap between X-ray and optical spectra in electromagnetic spectrum was conceived [4].  The minimum wavelength in UV that the author could measure was 330 nm, with the limited narrow band optical filters available. Measurements below 330 nm were not possible due to lack of facilities for vacuum and narrow band optical filters. However, the literature clearly mentioned the minimum wavelength of optical spectrum of Rb II atom begins at 47.488 nm [13]. In clear words, Rb atom that emits Rb X-ray spectrum ending at 12.87 nm on gamma excitation can emit optical spectrum beginning at 47.488 nm on thermal excitation.  Keeping the gap from 12.87 to 47.488 nm between X-ray and optical spectra in mind, some of the measurements of wide range of wavelengths of solar spectrum reported since 1960s have been reviewed.

 

Fresh interpretation of solar spectrum

Hinteregger, H. E., et all reported continuous spectra from about 60 to 305 recorded at different heights over New Mexico on 29 January 1960 [14].  The wide spectrum at 198 km height displayed two unidentified mounts in Fig.1.  The right most mount raised steeply at 60 and fallen to minimum level at around 120 could be identified as solar X-ray spectrum, on the basis of known X-ray spectra [9, 13]. Immediately next to X-ray spectrum, Bharat Radiation spectrum is supposed to be situated [Fig.5, Ref.9]. However, the spectrum maintains minimum level between120-175. The second mount of peaks starts at around 175 extending up to 305 , which includes a tall peak at around 305 . The spectrum from 175 to 305 may come under Bharat Radiation. The range of Bharat wavelengths estimated from the graphs available is a rough estimation. Solar X-rays from 60 -120 causing Bharat wavelengths from 175 to 305 nm demonstrates only the 1st stage of Padmanabha Rao Effect [Fig.6, Ref.9]. Bharat wavelengths in turn causing EUV at 335 and beyond, the 2nd stage of Padmanabha Rao Effect was not reported.

 

Another spectrum was recorded from 55 to 310 on May 2, 1963 with improved AFCRL monochromator. The counting rates were produced by the Rocket instruments photomultiplier (LiF cathode).  The flat spectrum with number of small peaks from 55 to 165 represents solar X-rays.  Since Bharat Radiation lies next to X-rays, a mount from 165 to 205 with intermittent and tall peaks are identified as Bharat wavelengths. It is followed by a flat spectrum from 205 to 304 . At 304 a tall peak appeared. There is a reason when a Bharat Radiation peak appears at a particular wavelength. That means a definite γ, β, or X-ray energy has caused the peak at that wavelength. First it is necessary to verify whether there is any peak correspondingly appeared at the same time in X-ray region. If so, that particular X-ray has caused the Bharat radiation peak. Otherwise, there is a possibility that the Bharat radiation peak is caused by definite γ, or β energy from a radioisotope. In the case of the peak at 304 , no (corresponding) tall peak appeared at the (same time) in X-ray region. Therefore, it is presumed to have caused by a definite energy of γ, or β. Same is the case with tall peaks seen from 165 to 205 . The peaks from 165 to 205 , and the peak at 304 are identified as Bharat Radiation peaks. The Bharat Radiation peaks taller than the X-ray peaks from 55 to 165 indicate that Bharat Radiation peaks need not necessarily be due to X-rays measured, and can be due to γ or β from radioisotopes as said already. Their findings demonstrate only the 1st stage of Padmanabha Rao Effect. Bharat wavelengths in turn causing EUV, the 2nd stage of Padmanabha Rao Effect was not reported.

 

On March 30, 1964, L.A. Hall et all recorded a wide range spectrum from 55 to 312 and termed the entire range as XUV [15]. Because of very low intensity, difficulty arises in assessing the exact range of solar X-rays in their spectrum marked XUV. Very low intensity peaks from around 50 to 120 may represent solar X-rays. The next range of peaks approximately from 148 to 155 represents low intense Bharat radiation.  There is a reason why some Bharat radiation peaks appear at relatively low wavelengths. Low energy of γ, β, or X-ray cause Bharat radiation peaks at low wavelengths.  They relatively lose more energy though at eV level while passing through core-Coloumb space. Since the loss of energy appear as Bharat radiation with the same energy, it appears at low wavelengths. Very tall and sharper peaks from 170 A to 205 represent intense Bharat radiation peaks.   As there are no tall peaks in X-ray region, each one of these tall peaks may have been caused by a definite energy of γ, or β. Similarly, three sharp Bharat radiation peaks are seen at around 256, 284, and 304 caused by a definite energy of γ, β, or X-ray.

 

C.W. Allen reported interpretation of solar spectrum ranging from 1340 to 140 labeling entire spectrum as XUV, though 12 to 0.1 was clearly labeled X-ray spectrum [16]. Difficulty arises in assessing the range of Bharat radiation from their data. If assumed that roughly 160 to 305 in their data represents Bharat radiation, peaks in that region cannot be labeled as that of highly ionized Fe etc.

 

A.K. Bhatia and E. Landi [17] reported that Silicon is sufficiently abundant to be observed in a variety of different conditions in solar and laboratory plasmas: Si VII lines fall in three distinct wavelength ranges: soft X-rays (≃68110 ), extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, between 190 and 300 ), and ultraviolet (UV, λ≥700 ). However, on the basis of other studies reported here the wavelengths that they measured between 190 and 300 have been considered as Bharat Radiation. 

 

J.L. Culhane et all reported measurements of solar corona and upper transition region emission line wavelengths using spectrometer, which has a large effective area in two EUV spectral bands through the use of Mo/Si multilayer coatings optimized for high reflectivity in the given ranges [18]. The optics are coated with optimized multilayer coatings. They have selected highly efficient, backside-illuminated, thinned CCDs. The Sun count rates measured from 184.54 to 202.04 and from 256.32 to 284.16 come under Bharat Radiation on the basis of other studies reported here. Since sufficient data is not available, it is not possible to draw a better logical conclusion on the range of Bharat Radiation in their spectra. If this interpretation is true, the prominent peaks labeled as ionized Fe, Ca, He, S, and Si the lines labeled as that of highly ionized Fe may have to be reconsidered as Bharat radiation peaks. 

 

G A Doschek, and U Feldman reviewed high resolution x-rayUV orbiting spectrometers [19]. The wavelengths 150350 A measured by Tousey et al [20] using EUV spectroheliograph S082A on Skylab, 180210 A measured by Zhitnik et al [21] using Spectroheliograph on Coronas-I, and 280330 A measured by Zhitnik et al [22] using Spectroheliograph (SPIRIT) on Coronas-F may might come under Bharat Radiation. An active region in different spectral lines of the upper transition region and coronal ions shown in Fig.3 by G A Doschek, and U Feldman, say, at 184.54, 185.21, 188.23, 262.98 etc come under Bharat radiation. That is why they cannot be labeled as ionized atoms of Fe etc. The images were generated in raster mode by Hinode/EIS.  For clear understanding of these lines study of atomic spectra of radioisotopes is needed.  G A Doschek, and U Feldman were also of similar view. The spectra of the solar atmosphere obtained in two limited EUV wavelength bands from EIS reveal that about half of the lines seen are not yet identified (Brown et al 2008). So a new surge in pure laboratory atomic spectroscopy is needed in order to fully identify the spectra. Also, comparisons of plasma diagnostic calculations involving some prominent solar lines of Fe have revealed apparent inconsistencies in atomic data. Iron ions such as Fe XII are difficult theoretical subjects because of the myriad levels and configuration interactions involved and therefore we need highly detailed atomic models to make accurate intensity predictions. Thus, concurrent with the pure spectroscopy, deeper investigations of the atomic physics of the ions useful for solar density diagnostics are needed.

 

Giulio Del Zanna [23] reported unidentified lines in the solar spectrum that appear as a mount from 166 212 A come under the range of Bharat Radiation.

 

While C.W. Allen referred 16.0 to 121.6 nm as XUV [13], Thomas N. Woods et al. have divided the near ultraviolet (NUV) as the 300 to 400 nm range, the middle ultraviolet (MUV) as the 200-300 nm range, the far ultraviolet (FUV) as the 120 to 200 nm range, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) as the 30 to120 nm range, the X-ray ultraviolet (XUV) as the 1 to 30 nm range, and X-rays as wavelengths less than 1 nm [24, 25].  In contrast, J. Lilensten et all referred 0.110 nm as Soft X-rays or XUV, 10121 nm as EUV, and 0.00530 as X-ray, and [26]. While making this broad classification, no space is allocated for X-ray wavelengths in the range 1 to 30 nm, while the well documented literature shows Rb X-ray spectrum, for example, extends up to 12.87 nm [13].  Solar X-ray spectrum represents XRF from many stable elements as well as from several radioisotopes, so difficulty arises in fixing the exact end of X-ray spectrum.  

Identification of three types of electromagnetic radiation from the graph of Thomas N. Woods et al. 2011 :

http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/584780main_eve_flare4_2010125.jpg

 

Solar X-rays: 6.5 to 12.5 nm

A look at the left side spectrum of May 5, 2010 shows number of small peaks gradually falling in intensity from 6.5 nm to minimum level at 12.5 nm approximately represent solar X-rays, according to  Fig.5, Ref. 9. The graph dipped to minimum level at 12.5 nm indicating probably the end of solar X-rays. Next Bharat radiation starts after 12.5 nm.

 

Bharat Radiation: 12.5 to 31 nm.

Bharat radiation spectrum is supposed to be next to X-ray spectrum. Fortunately, the mount for occupying central position in between X-ray and EUV helped in its identification as Bharat Radiation. The middle mount with sharp and tall peaks showed a raise starting at around 12.5 nm, attained maximum around 19 to 23 nm, and fallen to minimum at around 31 nm comes under the range of Bharat Radiation in electromagnetic spectrum [9]. The tall peak at 30.4 or 30.5 nm could be due to Bharat radiation.

 

EUV: from 31 nm on wards.

Since EUV follows Bharat Radiation in electromagnetic spectrum, the right side mount with sharp and tall peaks continuously rising in intensity from 31 to 37 nm represent solar EUV.

 

Padmanabha Rao effect explains their graph as follows. Solar X-rays from 6 to 12.5 nm have caused Bharat radiation peaks from 12.5 nm to around 31 nm, and in turn caused EUV beyond 31 nm on valence excitation of Bharat wavelengths. 

 

 

http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/584231main_apj_movie_EVE_AIA_HMI.jpg

 

Interpretation of their video

The solitary peak in the left side video represents solar X-ray peak, comprising of several X-ray wavelengths at and around 9.4 nm, as can be understood from Fig. 5 of Ref. 9.

 

Padmanabha Rao effect explains that the solar X-rays have caused the solitary tall EUV peak simultaneously appeared in the right side video at 335A .

 

In the right side video, the mount from 12-15 to 15-00 hr representing EUV appear taller than the corresponding X-ray spectrum from 12-15 to 15-00 hr on the left side video.  It indicates that the EUV from 12-15 to 15-00 hr can be due to γ or β from radioisotopes produced by Uranium fission as suggested previously [9].

 

A tall line seen in EUV spectrum at 15-00 hr did not simultaneously appear in X-ray spectrum at the same time. It might be a line caused by thermal excitation from highly ionized atom of a stable element or by a definite γ or β energy from a radioisotope.  For detailed analysis on this, video data is required at 131, 177, 211, and 304A.

 

The following data given in table extracted from the satellite pictures of 05 May 2010 supplements further information.  Series of Suns pictures recorded reveal that that solar X-rays at 94 A have caused Bharat radiation at 131, 177, 211, 304A , in turn have caused EUV at 335A .  For clear understanding refer Table here.

 

Analysis of satellite pictures taken on 05 May 2010 at different wavelengths: http://sdowww.lmsal.com/suntoday/index.html?suntoday_date=2010-05-05#

 


http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l0094.jpg

Suns disc at 94A (X-rays).

Sun spots are well delineated.

 

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l0131.jpg

Suns disc at 131A (Bharat Wavelengths) Sun spots are well delineated. 2. Diffused Bharat Radiation seen throughout the disc.

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l0171.jpgSuns disc at 177A (Bharat Wavelengths). Sun spots are well delineated. 2. Diffused Bharat Radiation seen at central region of Suns disc.

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l0193.jpgSuns disc at 193A (Bharat wavelengths). Sun spots are well delineated. 2. Diffused Bharat Radiation raised than that at 177A at central region of Suns disc.

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l0211.jpgSuns disc at 211A (Bharat Wavelengths). Sun spots are well delineated. 2. Maximum diffused Bharat Radiation seen throughout the Suns disc. 3. Suns periphery is also very bright than at 131, 171, or 193A .

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l0304.jpg

Suns disc at 304A (Bharat Wavelengths). Sun spots are well delineated. 2. No diffused Bharat Radiation seen over the Suns disc.

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l0335.jpg

Suns picture at 335A (UV). Sun spots are bright. 2. Diffused UV seen throughout the Suns disc. 3. Suns periphery is bright but less than that at 211A .

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l1600.jpg

Suns picture at 1600A (UV). Sun spots are well delineated. 2. No diffused UV seen over the Suns disc or at periphery.

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l1700.jpgSuns picture at 1700A (UV)

Sun spots are well delineated. 2. Some diffused UV is seen at  central region of Suns disc.

 

http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/SunInTime/2010/05/05/l4500.jpg

Suns picture at 4500A [Visible light]

 

 

 

 INTERPRETATION

 

Sun spots are well delineated at all wavelengths and seen clearly except the last one at 4500A :

1.            It means all the emissions including X-rays (94A ), Bharat Radiation at 131, 171, 193, 211, and 304A, EUV at 335A, UV at 1600, and 1700A originated from the same Sun spots.

 

2.            Solar X-rays have caused Bharat radiation, in turn caused EUV at 335A. However, very low intense Sun spots at UV at 1600, and 1700A infer very low intense UV emission. Tiny 3 spots seen at right side top periphery say at angle 1-30 hr infer Solar X-rays seen at 94 A caused very insignificant visible light at 4500 A. Solar X-rays causing Intense EUV at 335A and very insignificant visible light means that the X-rays involved are of low energy, according to Table 1 & Fig.3 Ref.9.

 

1.      Bharat radiation intensity raised significantly at 193 and further more at 211 A at and around Sun spots as well as over the periphery than at 131 or 177A.. On the other hand, solar X-rays are not seen the same way at 94A . Logically, the Bright Bharat Radiation at 193 and further more at 211 A at and around Sun spots as well as over the periphery might have been caused by γ, or β. Bharat Radiation in turn caused slight brightness at the centre of the disc at 1700A and 4500A. Bharat radiation intensity seen more at 193 and further more at 211 A and causing UV slightly more at 1700A than at 1600A, These three black Sun spots support the fact that fission products could be Dark Matter. Note: The graph and video shown here are downloaded from the following Url purely for  academic purpose, yet if this is a copy right material and objectionable to copy here, please email (raomap@yahoo.com), so that I would delete immediately. 

 

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