Author: M.A.PADMANABHA RAO
Address: 114 Charak Sadan, Vikaspuri, New Delhi-110018, India, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
SOLAR X-RAYS, GAMMA RAYS, AND ELECTRONS CAUSE EUV BY A PREVIOUSLY UNKNOWN ATOMIC PHENOMENON
The author's experimental study explains that gamma, X-ray, and beta emissions cause UV emission in solar flares by a previously unknown phenomenon. The author has predicted that gamma rays, X-rays, and beta particles first cause some exciting energies higher than that of UV at eV level from the same parent excited atom that could be the familiar Dark Radiation, which in turn causes UV. Results of the current study with radioisotopes and XRF sources suggest possibility for fission taking place in Sun. Highly ionized fission fragments left with single filled orbit constitute Dark Matter. The fission products and ionizing radiation emissions that reach Earth could be nothing but cosmic rays.
Several study groups on solar flares have found coincident soft X-ray, hard X-ray, gamma ray, electron, and EUV emissions [1-5]. However, the source of X-rays gamma rays, and electrons remained debatable, and why EUV takes place remained unclear. This paper provides first and definite experimental evidence for gamma, X-ray, and beta emissions causing UV dominant optical radiation from radioisotopes including metallic 57 Co unprecedented at room temperature, as well as from XRF sources [6-13]. Understanding the newly detected optical radiation led to previously unexplored area of subatomic research, suggesting that it is an optical emission from excited atoms of these sources by a previously unknown atomic phenomenon. The current study serves as a laboratory model to explain how solar X-rays, gamma rays and electrons cause solar UV by the new phenomenon. Solar Flare on April 21, 2002 have shown strong, localized bursts of high energy X-rays coming from the base of the flaring region well before the initial brightening in the EUV . The author attributes the observed delay in EUV emission to the X-rays causing EUV, and X-rays traveling faster than EUV, against the traditional wisdom that X-rays and EUV travel at the same speed C. The UV emission newly detected from radioisotopes provides the key that Sun may have radioisotopes produced by fission.
Results and Discussion
A surprise finding triggered this entire study, while testing a bare photomultiplier tube (9635QB THORN EMI) for performance evaluation in ionizing radiation detection. It could be due to uncommon way of keeping a radioisotope or XRF source directly on its quartz window and setting of the linear amplifier to be slightly higher than what is required for a scintillation detector . Of all the sources tested, the Rb XRF source (AMC 2084, U.K.) displayed spectacularly 125,321 cps against the expected Rb X-ray yield of 4400 per sec-1 quoted by the manufacturer. However, after various trials, a steep fall in counts to 60 cps on interposing a thin black polyethylene sheet in between source and photomultiplier tube (PMT) strongly suggested Rb X-rays might be causing optical radiation from Rb XRF source pending confirmation by a full proof method.
Atomic spectrometer was of no avail due to possibility of very low quantum yield from Rb XRF source and the necessity to test it at room temperature. Therefore, manual use of narrow band optical filters operating at 330, 350, 365, 383, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, 750, 800, and 850 nm was opted in order to verify optical radiation just by measurement of optical intensities, if any, at peak wavelengths in terms of counts per sec (cps). First, background level of the bare PMT was noted (12 cps), keeping the 600 nm filter directly on its quartz window. Next, on keeping Rb XRF source (AMC 2084, U.K.) on the filter noted 28 cps, just a marginal raise in counts due to poor efficiency of PMT to Rb X-rays and weak intensity in the spectral near infrared (NIR) region (Fig.1). Further measurements in the rest of the spectral near infrared (NIR) region at 650, 700, 750, 800, and 850 nm showed poor intensity like the previous reading. Sudden raise to 330 cps at 450 nm, (6th peak from left in Fig.1) and 356 cps at 400 nm (5th peak from left in Fig.1) provided concrete evidence for weak visible intensity. In the spectral UV region, steep raise to 852 cps at 383 nm, 710 cps at 365 nm, 3095 cps at 350 nm, and 2527 cps at 330 nm (1st peak from left in Fig.1) revealed maximum UV intensity, while contribution by Rb X-rays remained below 16 cps (Fig.1). Rb XRF source spectrum displaying stronger intensities in spectral UV region than in spectral visible and near infrared regions represents high energy spectrum unlike classical spectrum, which show strong lines at 424.460 nm Rb II, and 780.027 nm Rb I. In general, all the sources tested including Rb, Ba, and Tb XRF sources (salts); 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 241 Am, 57 Co, 60 Co, 22 Na, and 204 Tl (radiochemicals); metallic 57 Co, and Cu XRF sources showed analogous high energy spectra , as shown for example in Fig.1. Therefore, from the results of Fig.1 it can be safely concluded that that solar gamma rays, X-rays, and beta particles cause UV dominant optical radiation.
Fig. 1 Narrow band optical filters with peak wave-lengths at 330, 350, 365, 383, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, 750, 800, and 850 nm were the first to provide evidence for gamma rays, X-rays, and beta particles causing UV dominant optical radiation from 137 Cs, 60 Co, Rb XRF source, and metallic Cu XRF source at room temperature.
A further study was made to understand the phenomenon involved in optical emission. Despite low quantum yield, a pair of sheet polarizers proved very promising to gauze the nature of optical spectrum from UV (up to 400 nm), VIS (400 to 710 nm), and NIR (beyond 710 nm) radiation intensity estimates [10,13]. Analysis of spectral data revealed an excellent correlation between abundant β, γ, or X- radiation energy of any source and the detected UV, VIS, and NIR intensities. This key spectral finding pinpointed that at low energies the β, γ, and X- radiations cause maximum UV intensity . A few electron-volts (eV) loss of ionizing radiation energy at keV or MeV level resulting into optical energies at eV remains the hallmark of the atomic phenomenon involved. Since it is a question of energy degradation within excited atom, optical radiation was resulted eventually even from metals including Cu XRF source, and metallic 57 Co.
Metallic sources provided the key that the newly detected optical radiation is atomic emission of light from excite metal atoms. Fig.1 shows the first UV, VIS, and NIR intensity measurements from metallic Cu XRF source at room temperature against the incandescence of metals pinpointed more of optical emission by previously unknown phenomenon than familiar luminescence, scintillations, or Cherenkov radiation [16, 17]. Since metal constitutes exclusively metal atoms, the optical emission from Cu XRF source pinpointed to be atomic emission from excited Cu metal atoms. Solar EUV line emissions reported recently support the author's view on ionizing radiations causing UV dominant atomic spectra . The hypothesis on optical emission gained further ground with the author's prediction that the atomic ionizing radiation emissions might be responsible for further fluorescent light emission from the same parent excited atom. To be true, Cu X-ray may be responsible for the observed atomic emission spectrum of Cu XRF source by indirectly causing valence excitation within parent excited Cu atoms as exemplified in Fig.2. Probably, valence excitation enables excited metal atoms to be free from surrounding metal atoms in ground state within Cu metal. Like Cu XRF source, metallic 57 Co also showed optical radiation at room temperature. The unprecedented high energy spectrum of metallic 57 Co representing excited 57 Co metal atoms lying in between normal metal atoms could be mainly due to valence excitation indirectly by abundant γ- emission, though the excitation can also be independently and indirectly caused by less abundant emissions like Fe X-rays as exemplified in Fig.2. The atomic spectra of metallic sources providing the first evidence for formation of free atoms within solid radioisotopes and XRF sources notably at room temperature mark an important step on the existence of a new 'atomic state of matter' in solids at room temperature. These excited atoms are expected to behave differently from those thermally excited atoms in gaseous phase in classical spectroscopy resulting into a new class of `room temperature atomic emission spectra of solids'. The current study suggests that the solar gamma ray, X-ray, beta, and EUV emissions could possibly from excited atoms of radioisotopes that can take place even at room temperature. And solar EUV line spectrum reported is in conformity to this .
The author has succeeded in explaining how valence excitation takes place leading to UV dominant optical emission from the excited atoms of radioisotopes and XRF sources. To address the limitation that the keV or MeV ionizing radiations can ionize the atom but fail to do valence excitation to optical levels, the author has made the first postulate as follows:
Ionizing radiation, particularly X-ray, γ-ray, or β-particle looses energy in eV level while passing through core - Coulomb field. The loss of energy reappears as electromagnetic radiation with the same energy in eV level, higher than that of the UV or EUV radiation that the source emits.
It has been termed temporarily as Bharat radiation for convenience, which could be the familiar `Dark Radiation'. The phenomenon involves first ever core- Coulomb interaction common to X-ray, γ-ray, or β-particle. As Rb X-ray spectrum ends at 144.4 A° while Rb II line (optical) spectrum begins at 474.88 A°, the author feels that the wavelength gap between the X-ray and UV regimes in the electromagnetic spectrum as the place for the predicted exciting energies . On the basis of the present study, both X-ray and atomic spectra can be obtained from a single XRF source. The author has made the second postulate as follows:
Bharat radiation does valence excitation and gives rise to UV dominant atomic spectrum from the same excited atom the ionizing radiation originates [Fig.2].
The exciting energies produced internally within excited atom causing non- thermal valence excitation and generating the `UV dominant room temperature atomic spectra of solids' could be a significant step in the field of atomic spectroscopy. That means ionizing radiations generate two more emissions: firstly some exciting energies higher than that of UV as predicted by the author (Bharat Radiation), that in turn generates the observed optical emission, the second generation [6-13]. It was demonstrated in the case of excited Rb atom of Rb XRF source in Fig.2. Otherwise, the core - Coulomb interaction remains the same in generating Bharat photons even for gamma ray, beta particle or abundant X-ray produced by EC of an excited atom of any radioisotope like 137 Cs.
Fig.2. Schematic diagram illustrates the previously unknown atomic phenomenon by which gamma ray, X-ray or beta particle causes UV dominant optical emission. In an excited Rb atom of a Rb XRF source (Rubidium sulfate excited by γ-rays from 241 Am), the Rb K X-ray that passes through Coulomb field (core- Coulomb interaction) of an M shell electron looses energy in eV level only to reappear as electromagnetic (Bharat) radiation with intermediate energies lying between K X-ray and the observed UV or EUV. Similarly, when Rb L X-ray passes through Coulomb field of M shell electron looses energy in eV level, only to reappear as Bharat Radiation with certain energy in between that of L- X ray and UV, at eV level. The Bharat radiation thus produced excites 5S electron and gives rise to UV dominant Atomic spectrum.
Tritium source did not show any optical emission, on testing with sheet polarizers. As tritium atom has only one filled orbit, the beta emitted may have produced a Bharat photon while passing through Coulomb field of K electron. Bharat photon may have simply escaped from tritium atom without producing any optical radiation, as no other core electron exists in L shell for valence excitation. Absence of optical emission from tritium validates the new phenomenon, yet awaits further confirmation by others. The currently available Photomultiplier tubes are not good in efficient detection of these predicted energies higher than that of UV. It is the hope existence of these energies can be confirmed by a detector sensitive in this energy region in future. Bharat radiation, which can not be efficiently detected by PMT, came to be known as `Dark Radiation'. As in the case of tritium, the Dark Radiation arises from highly ionized radionuclides having only a single filled K orbit. The new phenomenon succeeded in explaining that gamma rays, X-rays, and beta particles cause Dark radiation followed by UV in solar flares pinpointing strong possibility for existence of predominantly gamma, X-ray, and beta emitting radioisotopes in Sun. If true, fission in Sun is a viable possibility. During fission, most core electrons of fission products can be knocked out, leaving a single filled orbit. Such fission products constitute Dark Matter, which emit only Dark Radiation (Bharat radiation) but not UV dominant optical emission. The source of cosmic rays remained debatable, though some scientists attribute to Sun . If fission really takes place in Sun, the fission products and their ionizing radiation emissions reaching Earth, more so towards North and South Poles, are nothing but cosmic rays.
Acknowledgements : The experimental research was done at the Defence Laboratory (DRDO), Jodhpur, Rajasthan State, India where the author worked as Deputy Director (Sc.E.). The author gratefully acknowledges Dinesh Bohra, and Arvind Parihar for associating in initial experiments.