Biology 12: Final Exam Review

Cell Structures

1. describe the following cell structures and their functions:

- cell membrane

- mitochondria

- smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum

- ribosomes

- Golgi bodies

- vesicles

- vacuoles

- Iysosomes

- nuclear envelope

- nucleus

- nucleolus

- chromosomes

2. identify the functional interrelationships of cell structures

3. identify the cell structures in diagrams and electron micrographs


Cell Compounds

1. describe how the polarity of the water molecule results in hydrogen bonding

2. describe the role of water as a solvent, temperature regulator, and lubricant

3. distinguish among acids, bases, and buffers, and indicate the importance of pH to biological systems


Biological Molecules

1. demonstrate a knowledge of synthesis and hydrolysis as applied to organic polymers

2. distinguish among carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids with respect to chemical structure

3. recognize the empirical formula of a carbohydrate

4. differentiate among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

5. differentiate among starch, cellulose, and glycogen

6. Iist the main functions of carbohydrates

7. compare and contrast saturated and unsaturated fats in terms of molecular


8. describe the location and explain the importance of the following in the human body: neutral fats, steroids, phospholipids

9. draw a generalized amino acid and identify the amine, acid (carboxyl), and R-groups

10. differentiate among the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins

11. list the major functions of proteins

12. relate the general structure of the ATP molecule to its role as the "energy currency" of cells



1. name the four bases in DNA and describe the structure of DNA using the following terms: - nucleotide (sugar, phosphate, base) - complementary base pairing - double helix - hydrogen bonding

2. describe DNA replication with reference to three basic steps: - "unzipping" - complementary base pairing - joining of adjacent nucleotides

3. define recombinant DNA

4. describe three uses for recombinant DNA

5. compare and contrast the general structural composition of DNA and RNA


Protein Synthesis

1. demonstrate a knowledge of the basic steps of protein synthesis, identifying the roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes in the processes of transcription and translation

2. determine the sequence of amino acids coded for by a specific DNA sequence, given a table of mRNA codons

3. give examples of two environmental mutagens that can cause mutations in humans

4. use examples to explain how mutations in DNA affect protein synthesis and may lead to genetic disorders



1. describe cancer with respect to:

- abnormal nuclei

- disorganized and uncontrolled growth (anaplasia)

- lack of contact inhibition

- vascularization

- metastasis

2. Iist the seven danger signals that may indicate the presence of cancer

3. differentiate between a proto-oncogene and an oncogene

4. use examples to outline the roles of initiators and promoters in carcinogenesis

5. demonstrate a knowledge of how a virus can bring about carcinogenesis


Transport Across Cell Membranes

1. apply knowledge of organic molecules to explain the structure and function of the fluid-mosaic membrane model

2. explain why the cell membrane is described as "selectively permeable"

3. compare and contrast the following: diffusion, facilitated transport, osmosis, active transport

4. explain factors that affect the rate of diffusion across a cell membrane

5. describe endocytosis, including phagocytosis and pinocytosis, and contrast it with exocytosis

6. predict the effects of hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic environments on animal cells

7. collect, display, and interpret data

8. demonstrate an understanding of the relationship and significance of surface area to volume, with reference to cell size



1. demonstrate an understanding of the following terms: metabolism, enzyme, substrate, coenzyme, activation energy

2. identify the source gland for thyroxin and relate the function of thyroxin to metabolism

3. explain the "lock and key" model of enzymatic action

4. identify the role of vitamins in biochemical reactions

5. differentiate between the roles of enzymes and co-enzymes in biochemical reactions

6. apply knowledge of proteins to explain the effects on enzyme activity of pH, temperature, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, competitive inhibitors, and heavy metals

7. devise an experiment using the scientific method


Digestive System

1. identify and give a function for each of the following:

- mouth

- tongue

- teeth

- salivary glands

- pharynx

- epiglottis

- esophagus

- cardiac sphincter

- stomach

- pyloric sphincter

- duodenum

- liver

- gall bladder

- pancreas

- smallintestine

- appendix

- large intestine (colon)

- rectum

- anus

2. relate the following digestive enzymes to their glandular sources and

describe the digestive reactions they promote:

- salivary amylase

- pancreatic amylase

- proteases (pepsin, trypsin)

- lipase

- peptidase

- maltase

- nuclease

3. describe swallowing and peristalsis

4. identify the components and describe the digestive actions of gastric, pancreatic, and intestinal juices

5. identify the source gland for and describe the function of insulin

6. explain the role of bile in the emulsification of fats

7. Iist six major functions of the liver

8. demonstrate the correct use of the dissection microscope

9. examine the small intestine and describe how it is specialized for digestion and absorption

10. describe the functions of E. cold in the colon


Circulation and Blood

1. describe and differentiate among the five types of blood vessels

2. identify and give functions for each of the following:

- subclavian arteries and veins

- jugular veins

- carotid arteries

- mesenteric arteries

- anterior and posterior vena cave

- pulmonary veins and arteries

- hepatic vein

- hepatic portal vein

- renal arteries and veins

- iliac arteries and veins

- coronary arteries and veins

- aorta

3. demonstrate safe and correct dissection techniques

4. distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circulation

5. identify and describe differences in structure and circulation between fetal and adult systems

6. demonstrate a knowledge of the path of a blood cell from the aorta through the body and back to the left ventricle

7. Iist the major components of plasma

8. identify and give functions of Iymph capillaries, veins, and nodes

9. describe the shape, function, and origin of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

10. demonstrate the correct use of the compound microscope

11. explain the roles of antigens and antibodies

12. describe capillary-tissue fluid exchange


Blood Structure and Function

1. identify and give funchons for each of the following:

- left and right atria

- left and right ventricles

- coronary arteries and veins

- anterior and posterior vena cave

- aorta

- pulmonary arteries and veins

- pulmonary trunk

- atrioventricular valves

- chordae tendineae

- semi-lunar valves

- septum

2. describe the location and functions of the SA node, AV node, and Purkinje fibres

3. describe the autonomic regulation of the heartbeat by the nervous system

4. relate factors that affect and regulate blood pressure to hypertension and hypotension

5. demonstrate the measurement of blood pressure

6. distinguish between systolic and diastolic pressures


Respiratory System

1. identify and give functions for each of the following:

- larynx

- trachea

- bronchi

- bronchioles

- alveoli

- diaphragmand ribs

- pleuralmembranes

- thoraciccavity

2. explain the roles of cilia and mucus in the respiratory tract

3. explain the relationship between the structure and function of alveoli

4. compare and contrast the mechanics of the processes of inhalation and exhalation

5. describe the interaction of the lungs, pleural membranes, ribs, and diaphragm in the breathing process

6. explain the roles of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions in stimulating the breathing centre in the medulla oblongata

7. describe the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen during internal and external respiration

8. distinguish between the transport of CO2 and O2 in the blood by explaining the roles of oxyhemoglobin, carbaminohemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, and bicarbonate ions


Neuron, Impulse Generation and Reflex Arc

1. identify and give functions for each of the following: dendrite, cell body, axon

2. distinguish among sensory, motor, and interneurons with respect to structure and function

3. explain the transmission of a nerve impulse through a neuron, using the following terms: - resting and action potential - depolarization and repolarization - sodium and potassium gates - sodium-potassium pump - recovery period - threshold ("all-or-none response")

4. relate the structure of a myelinated nerve fibre to the speed of impulse conduction

5. identify the major components of a synapse

6. explain the process by which impulses travel across a synapse

7. demonstrate knowledge of how neurotransmitters are broken down in the synaptic cleft

8. relate the structure of a reflex arc to how it functions


Divisions of the Nervous System and the Brain

1. contrast the locations and functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems

2. differentiate between the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system

3. identify the source gland for adrenalin and explain its role in the "fight or flight" response

4. identify and give functions for each of the following: - medulla oblongata - cerebrum - thalamus - cerebellum - hypothalamus - corpus callosum

5. explain how the hypothalamus and pituitary gland interact as the neuroendocrine control centre


Urinary System

1. identify and give functions for each of the following: - kidney - ureter - urethra - urinary bladder - renal cortex - renal medulla - renal pelvis

2. identify and give functions for each of the following: - nephron - glomerulus - Bowman's capsule - afferent and efferent arterioles - peritubular capillary network - proximal and distal convoluted tubules - collecting duct - loop of Henle

3. contrast the blood in the renal artery and the renal vein with respect to urea and glucose content

4. identify the source glands for ADH and aldosterone and explain how these hormones are regulated

5. relate ADH, aldosterone, and the nephron to the regulation of water and sodium levels in the blood


Reproductive System

1. identify and give functions for each of the following:

- testes (seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells)

- epididymis

- ductus (vas) deferens

- prostate gland

- Cowper's glands

- seminal vesicles

- penis

- urethra

2. demonstrate a knowledge of the path of sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the urethral opening

3. list the functions of seminal fluid

4. identify the tail, midpiece, head, and acrosome of a mature sperm and state their functions

5. describe the functions of testosterone

6. demonstrate a knowledge of the control of testosterone levels by the endocrine system

7. identify and give a function for each of the following:

- ovaries (follicles and corpus luteum)

- oviducts (fallopian tubes)

- uterus

- cervix

- vagina

- clitoris

8. describe the functions of estrogen

9. describe the sequence of events in the ovarian and uterine cycles

10. demonstrate knowledge of the control of the ovarian and uterine cycles by hormones

11. demonstrate knowledge of a positive feedback mechanism involving oxytocin

12. describe the hormonal changes that occur as a result of implantation