|This material is
Open Game Content, and is licensed for public use under the terms of the
If you buy a class skill, your character gets 1 rank (equal to a +1 bonus
on checks with that skill) for each skill point. If you buy other classesí
skills (cross-class skills), you get 1/2 rank per skill point.
Your maximum rank in a class skill is your character level + 3.
Your maximum rank in a cross-class skill is one-half of this number (do
not round up or down).
Using Skills: To make a skill check, roll: 1d20 + skill modifier
(Skill modifier = skill rank + ability modifier + miscellaneous modifiers)
This roll works just like an attack roll or a saving throwó the higher
the roll, the better. Either youíre trying to match or exceed a certain
Difficulty Class (DC), or youíre trying to beat another characterís check
Skill Ranks: A characterís number of ranks in a skill is based on how
many skill points a character has invested in a skill. Many skills can be
used even if the character has no ranks in them; doing this is called making
an untrained skill check.
Ability Modifier: The ability modifier used in a skill check is the
modifier for the skillís key ability (the ability associated with the
skillís use). The key ability of each skill is noted in its description.
Miscellaneous Modifiers: Miscellaneous modifiers include racial
bonuses, armor check penalties, and bonuses provided by feats, among others.
Each skill point you spend on a class skill gets you 1 rank in that
skill. Class skills are the skills found on your characterís class skill
list. Each skill point you spend on a cross-class skill gets your character
1/2 rank in that skill. Cross-class skills are skills not found on your
characterís class skill list. (Half ranks do not improve your skill check,
but two 1/2 ranks make 1 rank.) You canít save skill points to spend later.
The maximum rank in a class skill is the characterís level + 3. If itís a
cross-class skill, the maximum rank is half of that number (do not round up
Regardless of whether a skill is purchased as a class skill or a
cross-class skill, if it is a class skill for any of your classes, your
maximum rank equals your total character level + 3.
When your character uses a skill, you make a skill check to see how well
he or she does. The higher the result of the skill check, the better. Based
on the circumstances, your result must match or beat a particular number (a
DC or the result of an opposed skill check) for the check to be successful.
The harder the task, the higher the number you need to roll.
Circumstances can affect your check. A character who is free to work
without distractions can make a careful attempt and avoid simple mistakes. A
character who has lots of time can try over and over again, thereby assuring
the best outcome. If others help, the character may succeed where otherwise
he or she would fail.
A skill check takes into account a characterís training (skill rank),
natural talent (ability modifier), and luck (the die roll). It may also take
into account his or her raceís knack for doing certain things (racial bonus)
or what armor he or she is wearing (armor check penalty), or a certain feat
the character possesses, among other things.
To make a skill check, roll 1d20 and add your characterís skill modifier
for that skill. The skill modifier incorporates the characterís ranks in
that skill and the ability modifier for that skillís key ability, plus any
other miscellaneous modifiers that may apply, including racial bonuses and
armor check penalties. The higher the result, the better. Unlike with attack
rolls and saving throws, a natural roll of 20 on the d20 is not an automatic
success, and a natural roll of 1 is not an automatic failure.
Some checks are made against a Difficulty Class (DC). The DC is a number
(set using the skill rules as a guideline) that you must score as a result
on your skill check in order to succeed.
|Table: Difficulty Class Examples
||Example (Skill Used)
|Very easy (0)
||Notice something large in plain sight
||Climb a knotted rope (Climb)
||Hear an approaching guard (Listen)
||Rig a wagon wheel to fall off (Disable
||Swim in stormy water (Swim)
||Open an average lock (Open Lock)
||Leap across a 30-foot chasm (Jump)
|Nearly impossible (40)
||Track a squad of orcs across hard ground
after 24 hours of rainfall (Survival)
An opposed check is a check whose success or failure is determined by
comparing the check result to another characterís check result. In an
opposed check, the higher result succeeds, while the lower result fails. In
case of a tie, the higher skill modifier wins. If these scores are the same,
roll again to break the tie.
|Table: Example Opposed Checks
||Skill (Key Ability)
||Opposing Skill (Key Ability)
||Sense Motive (Wis)
|Pretend to be someone else
|Create a false map
|Hide from someone
|Make a bully back down
|Sneak up on someone
||Move Silently (Dex)
|Steal a coin pouch
||Sleight of Hand (Dex)
|Tie a prisoner securely
||Use Rope (Dex)
||Escape Artist (Dex)
|1 An Intimidate check is opposed
by the targetís level check, not a skill check. See the Intimidate skill
description for more information.
In general, you can try a skill check again if you fail, and you can keep
trying indefinitely. Some skills, however, have consequences of failure that
must be taken into account. A few skills are virtually useless once a check
has failed on an attempt to accomplish a particular task. For most skills,
when a character has succeeded once at a given task, additional successes
Untrained Skill Checks
Generally, if your character attempts to use a skill he or she does not
possess, you make a skill check as normal. The skill modifier doesnít have a
skill rank added in because the character has no ranks in the skill. Any
other applicable modifiers, such as the modifier for the skillís key
ability, are applied to the check.
Many skills can be used only by someone who is trained in them.
Favorable and Unfavorable Conditions
Some situations may make a skill easier or harder to use, resulting in a
bonus or penalty to the skill modifier for a skill check or a change to the
DC of the skill check.
The chance of success can be altered in four ways to take into account
1. Give the skill user a +2 circumstance bonus to represent conditions
that improve performance, such as having the perfect tool for the job,
getting help from another character (see Combining Skill Attempts), or
possessing unusually accurate information.
2. Give the skill user a Ė2 circumstance penalty to represent conditions
that hamper performance, such as being forced to use improvised tools or
having misleading information.
3. Reduce the DC by 2 to represent circumstances that make the task
easier, such as having a friendly audience or doing work that can be subpar.
4. Increase the DC by 2 to represent circumstances that make the task
harder, such as having an uncooperative audience or doing work that must be
Conditions that affect your characterís ability to perform the skill
change the skill modifier. Conditions that modify how well the character has
to perform the skill to succeed change the DC. A bonus to the skill modifier
and a reduction in the checkís DC have the same result: They create a better
chance of success. But they represent different circumstances, and sometimes
that difference is important.
Time and Skill Checks
Using a skill might take a round, take no time, or take several rounds or
even longer. Most skill uses are standard actions, move actions, or
full-round actions. Types of actions define how long activities take to
perform within the framework of a combat round (6 seconds) and how movement
is treated with respect to the activity. Some skill checks are instant and
represent reactions to an event, or are included as part of an action.
These skill checks are not actions. Other skill checks represent part of
Checks without Rolls
A skill check represents an attempt to accomplish some goal, usually
while under some sort of time pressure or distraction. Sometimes, though, a
character can use a skill under more favorable conditions and eliminate the
Taking 10: When your character is not being threatened or distracted,
you may choose to take 10. Instead of rolling 1d20 for the skill check,
calculate your result as if you had rolled a 10. For many routine tasks,
taking 10 makes them automatically successful. Distractions or threats (such
as combat) make it impossible for a character to take 10. In most cases,
taking 10 is purely a safety measure óyou know (or expect) that an average
roll will succeed but fear that a poor roll might fail, so you elect to
settle for the average roll (a 10). Taking 10 is especially useful in
situations where a particularly high roll wouldnít help.
Taking 20:When you have plenty of time (generally 2 minutes for a
skill that can normally be checked in 1 round, one full-round action, or one
standard action), you are faced with no threats or distractions, and the
skill being attempted carries no penalties for failure, you can take 20. In
other words, eventually you will get a 20 on 1d20 if you roll enough times.
Instead of rolling 1d20 for the skill check, just calculate your result as
if you had rolled a 20.
Taking 20 means you are trying until you get it right, and it assumes
that you fail many times before succeeding. Taking 20 takes twenty times as
long as making a single check would take.
Since taking 20 assumes that the character will fail many times before
succeeding, if you did attempt to take 20 on a skill that carries penalties
for failure, your character would automatically incur those penalties before
he or she could complete the task. Common "take 20" skills include Escape
Artist, Open Lock, and Search.
Ability Checks and Caster Level Checks: The normal take 10 and take
20 rules apply for ability checks. Neither rule applies to caster level
COMBINING SKILL ATTEMPTS
When more than one character tries the same skill at the same time and
for the same purpose, their efforts may overlap.
Often, several characters attempt some action and each succeeds or fails
independently. The result of one characterís Climb check does not influence
the results of other characters Climb check.
You can help another character achieve success on his or her skill check
by making the same kind of skill check in a cooperative effort. If you roll
a 10 or higher on your check, the character you are helping gets a +2 bonus
to his or her check, as per the rule for favorable conditions. (You canít
take 10 on a skill check to aid another.) In many cases, a characterís help
wonít be beneficial, or only a limited number of characters can help at
In cases where the skill restricts who can achieve certain results you
canít aid another to grant a bonus to a task that your character couldnít
Itís possible for a character to have two skills that work well together.
In general, having 5 or more ranks in one skill gives the character a +2
bonus on skill checks with each of its synergistic skills, as noted in the
skill description. In some cases, this bonus applies only to specific uses
of the skill in question, and not to all checks. Some skills provide
benefits on other checks made by a character, such as those checks required
to use certain class features.
Sometimes a character tries to do something to which no specific skill
really applies. In these cases, you make an ability check. An ability check
is a roll of 1d20 plus the appropriate ability modifier. Essentially, youíre
making an untrained skill check.
In some cases, an action is a straight test of oneís ability with no luck
involved. Just as you wouldnít make a height check to see who is taller, you
donít make a Strength check to see who is stronger.
This section describes each skill, including common uses and typical
modifiers. Characters can sometimes use skills for purposes other than those
Here is the format for skill descriptions.
The skill name line includes (in addition to the name of the skill) the
Key Ability: The abbreviation of the ability whose modifier applies
to the skill check. Exception: Speak Language has "None" as its key
ability because the use of this skill does not require a check.
Trained Only: If this notation is included in the skill name line,
you must have at least 1 rank in the skill to use it. If it is omitted, the
skill can be used untrained (with a rank of 0). If any special notes apply
to trained or untrained use, they are covered in the Untrained section (see
Armor Check Penalty: If this notation is included in the skill name
line, an armor check penalty applies (when appropriate) to checks using this
skill. If this entry is absent, an armor check penalty does not apply.
The skill name line is followed by a general description of what using
the skill represents. After the description are a few other types of
Check: What a character ("you" in the skill description) can do with
a successful skill check and the checkís DC.
Action: The type of action using the skill requires, or the amount of
time required for a check.
Try Again: Any conditions that apply to successive attempts to use
the skill successfully. If the skill doesnít allow you to attempt the same
task more than once, or if failure carries an inherent penalty (such as with
the Climb skill), you canít take 20. If this paragraph is omitted, the skill
can be retried without any inherent penalty, other than the additional time
Special: Any extra facts that apply to the skill, such as special
effects deriving from its use or bonuses that certain characters receive
because of class, feat choices, or race.
Synergy: Some skills grant a bonus to the use of one or more other
skills because of a synergistic effect. This entry, when present, indicates
what bonuses this skill may grant or receive because of such synergies. See
Table 4Ė5 for a complete list of bonuses granted by synergy between skills
(or between a skill and a class feature).
Restriction: The full utility of certain skills is restricted to
characters of certain classes or characters who possess certain feats. This
entry indicates whether any such restrictions exist for the skill.
Untrained: This entry indicates what a character without at least 1
rank in the skill can do with it. If this entry doesnít appear, it means
that the skill functions normally for untrained characters (if it can be
used untrained) or that an untrained character canít attempt checks with
this skill (for skills that are designated as "Trained Only").
Check: You can appraise common or well-known objects with a DC 12
Appraise check. Failure means that you estimate the value at 50% to 150%
(2d6+3 times 10%,) of its actual value.
Appraising a rare or exotic item requires a successful check against DC
15, 20, or higher. If the check is successful, you estimate the value
correctly; failure means you cannot estimate the itemís value.
A magnifying glass gives you a +2 circumstance bonus on Appraise checks
involving any item that is small or highly detailed, such as a gem. A
merchantís scale gives you a +2 circumstance bonus on Appraise checks
involving any items that are valued by weight, including anything made of
These bonuses stack.
Action: Appraising an item takes 1 minute (ten consecutive full-round
Try Again: No. You cannot try again on the same object, regardless of
Special: A dwarf gets a +2 racial bonus on Appraise checks that are
related to stone or metal items because dwarves are familiar with valuable
items of all kinds (especially those made of stone or metal).
The master of a raven familiar gains a +3 bonus on Appraise checks.
A character with the Diligent feat gets a +2 bonus on Appraise checks.
Synergy: If you have 5 ranks in any Craft skill, you gain a +2 bonus
on Appraise checks related to items made with that Craft skill.
Untrained: For common items, failure on an untrained check means no
estimate. For rare items, success means an estimate of 50% to 150% (2d6+3
BALANCE (DEX; ARMOR CHECK PENALTY)
Check: You can walk on a precarious surface. A successful check lets
you move at half your speed along the surface for 1 round. A failure by 4 or
less means you canít move for 1 round. A failure by 5 or more means you
fall. The difficulty varies with the surface, as follows:
|7Ė12 inches wide
|2Ė6 inches wide
||Hewn stone floor
|Less than 2 inches wide
||Sloped or angled floor
|1 Add modifiers from Narrow Surface
Modifiers, below, as appropriate.
|2 Only if running or charging. Failure by 4
or less means the character canít run or charge, but may otherwise act
|Narrow Surface Modifiers
|Sloped or angled
|1 Add the appropriate modifier to the
Balance DC of a narrow surface.
|These modifiers stack.
Being Attacked while Balancing: You are considered flat-footed while
balancing, since you canít move to avoid a blow, and thus you lose your
Dexterity bonus to AC (if any). If you have 5 or more ranks in Balance, you
arenít considered flat-footed while balancing. If you take damage while
balancing, you must make another Balance check against the same DC to remain
Accelerated Movement: You can try to walk across a precarious surface
more quickly than normal. If you accept a Ė5 penalty, you can move your full
speed as a move action. (Moving twice your speed in a round requires two
Balance checks, one for each move action used.) You may also accept this
penalty in order to charge across a precarious surface; charging requires
one Balance check for each multiple of your speed (or fraction thereof )
that you charge.
Action: None. A Balance check doesnít require an action; it is made
as part of another action or as a reaction to a situation.
Special: If you have the Agile feat, you get a +2 bonus on Balance
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Tumble, you get a +2 bonus on
Check: A Bluff check is opposed by the targetís Sense Motive check.
See the accompanying table for examples of different kinds of bluffs and the
modifier to the targetís Sense Motive check for each one.
Favorable and unfavorable circumstances weigh heavily on the outcome of a
bluff. Two circumstances can weigh against you: The bluff is hard to
believe, or the action that the target is asked to take goes against its
self-interest, nature, personality, orders, or the like. If itís important,
you can distinguish between a bluff that fails because the target doesnít
believe it and one that fails because it just asks too much of the target.
For instance, if the target gets a +10 bonus on its Sense Motive check
because the bluff demands something risky, and the Sense Motive check
succeeds by 10 or less, then the target didnít so much see through the bluff
as prove reluctant to go along with it. A target that succeeds by 11 or more
has seen through the bluff.
A successful Bluff check indicates that the target reacts as you wish, at
least for a short time (usually 1 round or less) or believes something that
you want it to believe. Bluff, however, is not a suggestion spell.
A bluff requires interaction between you and the target. Creatures
unaware of you cannot be bluffed.
Feinting in Combat: You can also use Bluff to mislead an opponent in
melee combat (so that it canít dodge your next attack effectively). To
feint, make a Bluff check opposed by your targetís Sense Motive check, but
in this case, the target may add its base attack bonus to the roll along
with any other applicable modifiers.
If your Bluff check result exceeds this special Sense Motive check
result, your target is denied its Dexterity bonus to AC (if any) for the
next melee attack you make against it. This attack must be made on or before
your next turn.
Feinting in this way against a nonhumanoid is difficult because itís
harder to read a strange creatureís body language; you take a Ė4 penalty on
your Bluff check. Against a creature of animal Intelligence (1 or 2) itís
even harder; you take a Ė8 penalty. Against a nonintelligent creature, itís
Feinting in combat does not provoke an attack of opportunity.
Creating a Diversion to Hide: You can use the Bluff skill to help you
hide. A successful Bluff check gives you the momentary diversion you need to
attempt a Hide check while people are aware of you. This usage does not
provoke an attack of opportunity.
Delivering a Secret Message: You can use Bluff to get a message
across to another character without others understanding it. The DC is 15
for simple messages, or 20 for complex messages, especially those that rely
on getting across new information. Failure by 4 or less means you canít get
the message across. Failure by 5 or more means that some false information
has been implied or inferred. Anyone listening to the exchange can make a
Sense Motive check opposed by the Bluff check you made to transmit in order
to intercept your message (see Sense Motive).
Action: Varies. A Bluff check made as part of general interaction
always takes at least 1 round (and is at least a full-round action), but it
can take much longer if you try something elaborate. A Bluff check made to
feint in combat or create a diversion to hide is a standard action. A Bluff
check made to deliver a secret message doesnít take an action; it is part of
Try Again: Varies. Generally, a failed Bluff check in social
interaction makes the target too suspicious for you to try again in the same
circumstances, but you may retry freely on Bluff checks made to feint in
combat. Retries are also allowed when you are trying to send a message, but
you may attempt such a retry only once per round.
Each retry carries the same chance of miscommunication.
Special: A ranger gains a bonus on Bluff checks when using this skill
against a favored enemy.
The master of a snake familiar gains a +3 bonus on Bluff checks.
If you have the Persuasive feat, you get a +2 bonus on Bluff checks.
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Bluff, you get a +2 bonus on
Diplomacy, Intimidate, and Sleight of Hand checks, as well as on Disguise
checks made when you know youíre being observed and you try to act in
Sense Motive Modifier
|The target wants to believe you.
|The bluff is believable and doesnít affect
the target much.
|The bluff is a little hard to believe or
puts the target at some risk.
|The bluff is hard to believe or puts the
target at significant risk.
|The bluff is way out there, almost too
incredible to consider.
CLIMB (STR; ARMOR CHECK PENALTY)
Check: With a successful Climb check, you can advance up, down, or
across a slope, a wall, or some other steep incline (or even a ceiling with
handholds) at one-quarter your normal speed. A slope is considered to be any
incline at an angle measuring less than 60 degrees; a wall is any incline at
an angle measuring 60 degrees or more.
A Climb check that fails by 4 or less means that you make no progress,
and one that fails by 5 or more means that you fall from whatever height you
have already attained.
A climberís kit gives you a +2 circumstance bonus on Climb checks.
The DC of the check depends on the conditions of the climb. Compare the
task with those on the following table to determine an appropriate DC.
||Example Surface or Activity
||A slope too steep to walk up, or a knotted
rope with a wall to brace against.
||A rope with a wall to brace against, or a
knotted rope, or a rope affected by the rope trick spell.
||A surface with ledges to hold on to and
stand on, such as a very rough wall or a shipís rigging.
||Any surface with adequate handholds and
footholds (natural or artificial), such as a very rough natural rock
surface or a tree, or an unknotted rope, or pulling yourself up when
dangling by your hands.
||An uneven surface with some narrow
handholds and footholds, such as a typical wall in a dungeon or ruins.
||A rough surface, such as a natural rock
wall or a brick wall.
||An overhang or ceiling with handholds but
||A perfectly smooth, flat, vertical surface
cannot be climbed.
|Climb DC Modifier1
||Example Surface or Activity
||Climbing a chimney (artificial or
natural) or other location where you can brace against two opposite
walls (reduces DC by 10).
||Climbing a corner where you can brace
against perpendicular walls (reduces DC by 5).
||Surface is slippery (increases DC by 5).
|1These modifiers are cumulative; use any
You need both hands free to climb, but you may cling to a wall with one
hand while you cast a spell or take some other action that requires only one
hand. While climbing, you canít move to avoid a blow, so you lose your
Dexterity bonus to AC (if any). You also canít use a shield while climbing.
Any time you take damage while climbing, make a Climb check against the
DC of the slope or wall. Failure means you fall from your current height and
sustain the appropriate falling damage.
Accelerated Climbing: You try to climb more quickly than normal. By
accepting a Ė5 penalty, you can move half your speed (instead of one-quarter
Making Your Own Handholds and Footholds: You can make your own
handholds and footholds by pounding pitons into a wall. Doing so takes 1
minute per piton, and one piton is needed per 3 feet of distance. As with
any surface that offers handholds and footholds, a wall with pitons in it
has a DC of 15. In the same way, a climber with a handaxe or similar
implement can cut handholds in an ice wall.
Catching Yourself When Falling: Itís practically impossible to catch
yourself on a wall while falling. Make a Climb check (DC = wallís DC + 20)
to do so. Itís much easier to catch yourself on a slope (DC = slopeís DC +
Catching a Falling Character While Climbing: If someone climbing
above you or adjacent to you falls, you can attempt to catch the falling
character if he or she is within your reach. Doing so requires a successful
melee touch attack against the falling character (though he or she can
voluntarily forego any Dexterity bonus to AC if desired). If you hit, you
must immediately attempt a Climb check (DC = wallís DC + 10). Success
indicates that you catch the falling character, but his or her total weight,
including equipment, cannot exceed your heavy load limit or you
automatically fall. If you fail your Climb check by 4 or less, you fail to
stop the characterís fall but donít lose your grip on the wall. If you fail
by 5 or more, you fail to stop the characterís fall and begin falling as
Action: Climbing is part of movement, so itís generally part of a
move action (and may be combined with other types of movement in a move
action). Each move action that includes any climbing requires a separate
Climb check. Catching yourself or another falling character doesnít take an
Special: You can use a rope to haul a character upward (or lower a
character) through sheer strength. You can lift double your maximum load in
A halfling has a +2 racial bonus on Climb checks because halflings are
agile and surefooted.
The master of a lizard familiar gains a +3 bonus on Climb checks.
If you have the Athletic feat, you get a +2 bonus on Climb checks.
A creature with a climb speed has a +8 racial bonus on all Climb checks.
The creature must make a Climb check to climb any wall or slope with a DC
higher than 0, but it always can choose to take 10, even if rushed or
threatened while climbing. If a creature with a climb speed chooses an
accelerated climb (see above), it moves at double its climb speed (or at its
land speed, whichever is slower) and makes a single Climb check at a Ė5
penalty. Such a creature retains its Dexterity bonus to Armor Class (if any)
while climbing, and opponents get no special bonus to their attacks against
it. It cannot, however, use the run action while climbing.
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Use Rope, you get a +2 bonus
on Climb checks made to climb a rope, a knotted rope, or a rope-and-wall
Check: You must make a Concentration check whenever you might
potentially be distracted (by taking damage, by harsh weather, and so on)
while engaged in some action that requires your full attention. Such actions
include casting a spell, concentrating on an active spell, directing a
spell, using a spell-like ability, or using a skill that would provoke an
attack of opportunity. In general, if an action wouldnít normally provoke an
attack of opportunity, you need not make a Concentration check to avoid
If the Concentration check succeeds, you may continue with the action as
normal. If the check fails, the action automatically fails and is wasted. If
you were in the process of casting a spell, the spell is lost. If you were
concentrating on an active spell, the spell ends as if you had ceased
concentrating on it. If you were directing a spell, the direction fails but
the spell remains active. If you were using a spell-like ability, that use
of the ability is lost. A skill use also fails, and in some cases a failed
skill check may have other ramifications as well.
The table below summarizes various types of distractions that cause you
to make a Concentration check. If the distraction occurs while you are
trying to cast a spell, you must add the level of the spell you are trying
to cast to the appropriate Concentration DC. If more than one type of
distraction is present, make a check for each one; any failed Concentration
check indicates that the task is not completed.
|10 + damage dealt
||Damaged during the action.2
|10 + half of continuous
||Taking continuous damage during the damage
last dealt action.3
|Distracting spellís save DC
||Distracted by nondamaging spell.4
||Vigorous motion (on a moving mount, taking
a bouncy wagon ride, in a small boat in rough water, belowdecks in a
||Violent motion (on a galloping horse,
taking a very rough wagon ride, in a small boat in rapids, on the deck
of a storm-tossed ship).
||Extraordinarily violent motion (earthquake).
||Grappling or pinned. (You can cast only
spells without somatic components for which you have any required
material component in hand.)
||Weather is a high wind carrying blinding
rain or sleet.
||Weather is wind-driven hail, dust, or
|Distracting spellís save DC
||Weather caused by a spell, such as storm
|1 If you are trying to cast, concentrate
on, or direct a spell when the distraction occurs, add the level of the
spell to the indicated DC.
|2 Such as during the casting of a spell
with a casting time of 1 round or more, or the execution of an activity
that takes more than a single full-round action (such as Disable
Device). Also, damage stemming from an attack of opportunity or readied
attack made in response to the spell being cast (for spells with a
casting time of 1 action) or the action being taken (for activities
requiring no more than a full-round action). (See also Distracting
Spellcasters, page 160.)
|3 Such as from acid arrow.
|4 If the spell allows no save, use the save
DC it would have if it did allow a save.
Action: None. Making a Concentration check doesnít take an action; it
is either a free action (when attempted reactively) or part of another
action (when attempted actively).
Try Again: Yes, though a success doesnít cancel the effect of a
previous failure, such as the loss of a spell you were casting or the
disruption of a spell you were concentrating on.
Special: You can use Concentration to cast a spell, use a spell-like
ability, or use a skill defensively, so as to avoid attacks of opportunity
altogether. This doesnít apply to other actions that might provoke attacks
The DC of the check is 15 (plus the spellís level, if casting a spell or
using a spell-like ability defensively). If the Concentration check
succeeds, you may attempt the action normally without provoking any attacks
of opportunity. A successful Concentration check still doesnít allow you to
take 10 on another check if you are in a stressful situation; you must make
the check normally. If the Concentration check fails, the related action
also automatically fails (with any appropriate ramifications), and the
action is wasted, just as if your concentration had been disrupted by a
A character with the Combat Casting feat gets a +4 bonus on Concentration
checks made to cast a spell or use a spell-like ability while on the
defensive or while grappling or pinned.
Like Knowledge, Perform, and Profession, Craft is actually a number of
separate skills. You could have several Craft skills, each with its own
ranks, each purchased as a separate skill.
A Craft skill is specifically focused on creating something. If nothing
is created by the endeavor, it probably falls under the heading of a
Check: You can practice your trade and make a decent living, earning
about half your check result in gold pieces per week of dedicated work. You
know how to use the tools of your trade, how to perform the craftís daily
tasks, how to supervise untrained helpers, and how to handle common
problems. (Untrained laborers and assistants earn an average of 1 silver
piece per day.)
The basic function of the Craft skill, however, is to allow you to make
an item of the appropriate type. The DC depends on the complexity of the
item to be created. The DC, your check results, and the price of the item
determine how long it takes to make a particular item. The itemís finished
price also determines the cost of raw materials.
In some cases, the fabricate spell can be used to achieve the
results of a Craft check with no actual check involved. However, you must
make an appropriate Craft check when using the spell to make articles
requiring a high degree of craftsmanship.
A successful Craft check related to woodworking in conjunction with the
casting of the ironwood spell enables you to make wooden items that
have the strength of steel.
When casting the spell minor creation, you must succeed on an
appropriate Craft check to make a complex item.
All crafts require artisanís tools to give the best chance of success. If
improvised tools are used, the check is made with a Ė2 circumstance penalty.
On the other hand, masterwork artisanís tools provide a +2 circumstance
bonus on the check.
To determine how much time and money it takes to make an item, follow
1. Find the itemís price. Put the price in silver pieces (1 gp = 10 sp).
2. Find the DC from the table below.
3. Pay one-third of the itemís price for the cost of raw materials.
4. Make an appropriate Craft check representing one weekís work. If the
check succeeds, multiply your check result by the DC. If the result ◊ the DC
equals the price of the item in sp, then you have completed the item. (If
the result ◊ the DC equals double or triple the price of the item in silver
pieces, then youíve completed the task in one-half or one-third of the time.
Other multiples of the DC reduce the time in the same manner.) If the result
◊ the DC doesnít equal the price, then it represents the progress youíve
made this week. Record the result and make a new Craft check for the next
week. Each week, you make more progress until your total reaches the price
of the item in silver pieces.
If you fail a check by 4 or less, you make no progress this week.
If you fail by 5 or more, you ruin half the raw materials and have to pay
half the original raw material cost again.
Progress by the Day: You can make checks by the day instead of by the
week. In this case your progress (check result ◊ DC) is in copper pieces
instead of silver pieces.
Creating Masterwork Items: You can make a masterwork itemóa weapon,
suit of armor, shield, or tool that conveys a bonus on its use through its
exceptional craftsmanship, not through being magical. To create a masterwork
item, you create the masterwork component as if it were a separate item in
addition to the standard item. The masterwork component has its own price
(300 gp for a weapon or 150 gp for a suit of armor or a shield) and a Craft
DC of 20. Once both the standard component and the masterwork component are
completed, the masterwork item is finished. Note: The cost you pay
for the masterwork component is one-third of the given amount, just as it is
for the cost in raw materials.
Repairing Items: Generally, you can repair an item by making checks
against the same DC that it took to make the item in the first place. The
cost of repairing an item is one-fifth of the itemís price.
When you use the Craft skill to make a particular sort of item, the DC
for checks involving the creation of that item are typically as given on the
|Alchemistís fire, smokestick, or tindertwig
|Antitoxin, sunrod, tanglefoot bag, or
|Armor or shield
||10 + AC bonus
|Longbow or shortbow
|Composite longbow or composite shortbow
|Composite longbow or composite shortbow
with high strength rating
||15 + (2 ◊ rating)
|Simple melee or thrown weapon
|Martial melee or thrown weapon
|Exotic melee or thrown weapon
|Very simple item (wooden spoon)
|Typical item (iron pot)
|High-quality item (bell)
|Complex or superior item (lock)
|1 You must be a spellcaster to craft any of
|2 Traps have their own rules for
Action: Does not apply. Craft checks are made by the day or week (see
Try Again: Yes, but each time you miss by 5 or more, you ruin half
the raw materials and have to pay half the original raw material cost again.
Special: A dwarf has a +2 racial bonus on Craft checks that are
related to stone or metal, because dwarves are especially capable with
stonework and metalwork.
A gnome has a +2 racial bonus on Craft (alchemy) checks because gnomes
have sensitive noses.
You may voluntarily add +10 to the indicated DC to craft an item. This
allows you to create the item more quickly (since youíll be multiplying this
higher DC by your Craft check result to determine progress). You must decide
whether to increase the DC before you make each weekly or daily check.
To make an item using Craft (alchemy), you must have alchemical equipment
and be a spellcaster. If you are working in a city, you can buy what you
need as part of the raw materials cost to make the item, but alchemical
equipment is difficult or impossible to come by in some places. Purchasing
and maintaining an alchemistís lab grants a +2 circumstance bonus on Craft
(alchemy) checks because you have the perfect tools for the job, but it does
not affect the cost of any items made using the skill.
Synergy: If you have 5 ranks in a Craft skill, you get a +2 bonus on
Appraise checks related to items made with that Craft skill.
DECIPHER SCRIPT (INT; TRAINED ONLY)
Check: You can decipher writing in an unfamiliar language or a
message written in an incomplete or archaic form. The base DC is 20 for the
simplest messages, 25 for standard texts, and 30 or higher for intricate,
exotic, or very old writing.
If the check succeeds, you understand the general content of a piece of
writing about one page long (or the equivalent). If the check fails, make a
DC 5 Wisdom check to see if you avoid drawing a false conclusion about the
text. (Success means that you do not draw a false conclusion; failure means
that you do.)
Both the Decipher Script check and (if necessary) the Wisdom check are
made secretly, so that you canít tell whether the conclusion you draw is
true or false.
Action: Deciphering the equivalent of a single page of script takes 1
minute (ten consecutive full-round actions).
Try Again: No.
Special: A character with the Diligent feat gets a +2 bonus on
Decipher Script checks.
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Decipher Script, you get a +2
bonus on Use Magic Device checks involving scrolls.
Check: You can change the attitudes of others (nonplayer characters)
with a successful Diplomacy check; see the Influencing NPC Attitudes
sidebar, below, for basic DCs. In negotiations, participants roll opposed
Diplomacy checks, and the winner gains the advantage. Opposed checks also
resolve situations when two advocates or diplomats plead opposite cases in a
hearing before a third party.
Action: Changing othersí attitudes with Diplomacy generally takes at
least 1 full minute (10 consecutive full-round actions). In some situations,
this time requirement may greatly increase. A rushed Diplomacy check can be
made as a full-round action, but you take a Ė10 penalty on the check.
Try Again: Optional, but not recommended because retries usually do
not work. Even if the initial Diplomacy check succeeds, the other character
can be persuaded only so far, and a retry may do more harm than good. If the
initial check fails, the other character has probably become more firmly
committed to his position, and a retry is futile.
Special: A half-elf has a +2 racial bonus on Diplomacy checks.
If you have the Negotiator feat, you get a +2 bonus on Diplomacy checks.
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Bluff, Knowledge (nobility
and royalty), or Sense Motive, you get a +2 bonus on Diplomacy checks.
INFLUENCING NPC ATTITUDES
Use the table below to determine the effectiveness of Diplomacy checks
(or Charisma checks) made to influence the attitude of a nonplayer
character, or wild empathy checks made to influence the attitude of an
animal or magical beast.
||óóóóó New Attitude (DC to
Less than 20
Less than 5
Less than 1
Less than 1
Less than 1
||Will take risks to hurt you
||Attack, interfere, berate, flee
||Wishes you ill
||Mislead, gossip, avoid, watch suspiciously,
||Doesnít much care
||Socially expected interaction
||Wishes you well
||Chat, advise, offer limited help, advocate
||Will take risks to help you
||Protect, back up, heal, aid
DISABLE DEVICE (INT; TRAINED ONLY)
Check: The Disable Device check is made secretly, so that you donít
necessarily know whether youíve succeeded.
The DC depends on how tricky the device is. Disabling (or rigging or
jamming) a fairly simple device has a DC of 10; more intricate and complex
devices have higher DCs.
If the check succeeds, you disable the device. If it fails by 4 or less,
you have failed but can try again. If you fail by 5 or more, something goes
wrong. If the device is a trap, you spring it. If youíre attempting some
sort of sabotage, you think the device is disabled, but it still works
You also can rig simple devices such as saddles or wagon wheels to work
normally for a while and then fail or fall off some time later (usually
after 1d4 rounds or minutes of use).
Disable Device DC1
|Jam a lock
|Sabotage a wagon wheel
|Disarm a trap, reset a trap
|Disarm a complex trap, cleverly sabotage a
|1If you attempt to leave behind no trace of
your tampering, add 5 to the DC.
Action: The amount of time needed to make a Disable Device check
depends on the task, as noted above. Disabling a simple device takes 1 round
and is a full-round action. An intricate or complex device requires 1d4 or
Try Again: Varies. You can retry if you have missed the check by 4 or
less, though you must be aware that you have failed in order to try again.
Special: If you have the Nimble Fingers feat, you get a +2 bonus on
Disable Device checks.
A rogue who beats a trapís DC by 10 or more can study the trap, figure
out how it works, and bypass it (along with her companions) without
Restriction: Rogues (and other characters with the trapfinding class
feature) can disarm magic traps. A magic trap generally has a DC of 25 + the
spell level of the magic used to create it.
The spells fire trap, glyph of warding, symbol, and
teleportation circle also create traps that a rogue can disarm with a
successful Disable Device check. Spike growth and spike stones,
however, create magic traps against which Disable Device checks do not
succeed. See the individual spell descriptions for details.
OTHER WAYS TO BEAT A TRAP
Itís possible to ruin many traps without making a Disable Device check.
Ranged Attack Traps: Once a trapís location is known, the obvious way
to ruin it is to smash the mechanismóassuming the mechanism can be accessed.
Failing that, itís possible to plug up the holes from which the projectiles
emerge. Doing this prevents the trap from firing unless its ammunition does
enough damage to break through the plugs.
Melee Attack Traps: These devices can be thwarted by smashing the
mechanism or blocking the weapons, as noted above. Alternatively, if a
character studies the trap as it triggers, he might be able to time his
dodges just right to avoid damage. A character who is doing nothing but
studying a trap when it first goes off gains a +4 dodge bonus against its
attacks if it is triggered again within the next minute.
Pits: Disabling a pit trap generally ruins only the trapdoor, making
it an uncovered pit. Filling in the pit or building a makeshift bridge
across it is an application of manual labor, not the Disable Device skill.
Characters could neutralize any spikes at the bottom of a pit by attacking
themóthey break just as daggers do.
Magic Traps: Dispel magic helps here. Someone who succeeds on
a caster level check against the level of the trapís creator suppresses the
trap for 1d4 rounds. This works only with a targeted dispel magic,
not the area version (see the spell description).
Check: Your Disguise check result determines how good the disguise
is, and it is opposed by othersí Spot check results. If you donít draw any
attention to yourself, others do not get to make Spot checks. If you come to
the attention of people who are suspicious (such as a guard who is watching
commoners walking through a city gate), it can be assumed that such
observers are taking 10 on their Spot checks.
You get only one Disguise check per use of the skill, even if several
people are making Spot checks against it. The Disguise check is made
secretly, so that you canít be sure how good the result is.
The effectiveness of your disguise depends in part on how much youíre
attempting to change your appearance.
Disguise Check Modifier
|Minor details only
|Disguised as different gender1
|Disguised as different race1
|Disguised as different age category1
|1These modifiers are cumulative;
use any that apply.
|2Per step of difference between
your actual age category and your disguised age category. The steps are:
young (younger than adulthood), adulthood, middle age, old, and
If you are impersonating a particular individual, those who know what
that person looks like get a bonus on their Spot checks according to the
table below. Furthermore, they are automatically considered to be suspicious
of you, so opposed checks are always called for.
||Viewerís Spot Check Bonus
|Recognizes on sight
|Friends or associates
Usually, an individual makes a Spot check to see through your disguise
immediately upon meeting you and each hour thereafter. If you casually meet
many different creatures, each for a short time, check once per day or hour,
using an average Spot modifier for the group.
Action: Creating a disguise requires 1d3◊10 minutes of work.
Try Again: Yes. You may try to redo a failed disguise, but once
others know that a disguise was attempted, theyíll be more suspicious.
Special: Magic that alters your form, such as alter self, disguise
self, polymorph, or shapechange, grants you a +10 bonus on
Disguise checks (see the individual spell descriptions). You must succeed on
a Disguise check with a +10 bonus to duplicate the appearance of a specific
individual using the veil spell. Divination magic that allows people
to see through illusions (such as true seeing) does not penetrate a
mundane disguise, but it can negate the magical component of a magically
You must make a Disguise check when you cast a simulacrum spell to
determine how good the likeness is.
If you have the Deceptive feat, you get a +2 bonus on Disguise checks.
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Bluff, you get a +2 bonus on
Disguise checks when you know that youíre being observed and you try to act
ESCAPE ARTIST (DEX; ARMOR CHECK PENALTY)
Check: The table below gives the DCs to escape various forms of
Ropes: Your Escape Artist check is opposed by the binderís Use Rope
check. Since itís easier to tie someone up than to escape from being tied
up, the binder gets a +10 bonus on his or her check.
Manacles and Masterwork Manacles: The DC for manacles is set by their
Tight Space: The DC noted on the table is for getting through a space
where your head fits but your shoulders donít. If the space is long you may
need to make multiple checks. You canít get through a space that your head
does not fit through.
Grappler: You can make an Escape Artist check opposed by your enemyís
grapple check to get out of a grapple or out of a pinned condition (so that
youíre only grappling).
Escape Artist DC
Use Rope check at +10
|Net, animate rope spell, command
plants spell, control plants spell, or entangle spell
Grapplerís grapple check result
Action: Making an Escape Artist check to escape from rope bindings,
manacles, or other restraints (except a grappler) requires 1 minute of work.
Escaping from a net or an animate rope, command plants, control plants,
or entangle spell is a full-round action. Escaping from a grapple
or pin is a standard action. Squeezing through a tight space takes at least
1 minute, maybe longer, depending on how long the space is.
Try Again: Varies. You can make another check after a failed check if
youíre squeezing your way through a tight space, making multiple checks. If
the situation permits, you can make additional checks, or even take 20, as
long as youíre not being actively opposed.
Special: If you have the Agile feat, you get a +2 bonus on Escape
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Escape Artist, you get a +2
bonus on Use Rope checks to bind someone.
If you have 5 or more ranks in Use Rope, you get a +2 bonus on Escape
Artist checks when escaping from rope bonds.
Check: Forgery requires writing materials appropriate to the document
being forged, enough light or sufficient visual acuity to see the details of
what youíre writing, wax for seals (if appropriate), and some time. To forge
a document on which the handwriting is not specific to a person (military
orders, a government decree, a business ledger, or the like), you need only
to have seen a similar document before, and you gain a +8 bonus on your
check. To forge a signature, you need an autograph of that person to copy,
and you gain a +4 bonus on the check. To forge a longer document written in
the hand of some particular person, a large sample of that personís
handwriting is needed.
The Forgery check is made secretly, so that youíre not sure how good your
forgery is. As with Disguise, you donít even need to make a check until
someone examines the work. Your Forgery check is opposed by the Forgery
check of the person who examines the document to check its authenticity. The
examiner gains modifiers on his or her check if any of the conditions on the
table below exist.
Readerís Forgery Check Modifier
|Type of document unknown to reader
|Type of document somewhat known to reader
|Type of document well known to reader
|Handwriting not known to reader
|Handwriting somewhat known to reader
|Handwriting intimately known to reader
|Reader only casually reviews the document
A document that contradicts procedure, orders, or previous knowledge, or
one that requires sacrifice on the part of the person checking the document
can increase that characterís suspicion (and thus create favorable
circumstances for the checkerís opposing Forgery check).
Action: Forging a very short and simple document takes about 1
minute. A longer or more complex document takes 1d4 minutes per page.
Try Again: Usually, no. A retry is never possible after a particular
reader detects a particular forgery. But the document created by the forger
might still fool someone else. The result of a Forgery check for a
particular document must be used for every instance of a different reader
examining the document. No reader can attempt to detect a particular forgery
more than once; if that one opposed check goes in favor of the forger, then
the reader canít try using his own skill again, even if heís suspicious
about the document.
Special: If you have the Deceitful feat, you get a +2 bonus on
Restriction: Forgery is language-dependent; thus, to forge documents
and detect forgeries, you must be able to read and write the language in
question. A barbarian canít learn the Forgery skill unless he has learned to
read and write.
GATHER INFORMATION (CHA)
Check: An eveningís time, a few gold pieces for buying drinks and
making friends, and a DC 10 Gather Information check get you a general idea
of a cityís major news items, assuming there are no obvious reasons why the
information would be withheld. The higher your check result, the better the
If you want to find out about a specific rumor, or a specific item, or
obtain a map, or do something else along those lines, the DC for the check
is 15 to 25, or even higher.
Action: A typical Gather Information check takes 1d4+1 hours.
Try Again: Yes, but it takes time for each check. Furthermore, you
may draw attention to yourself if you repeatedly pursue a certain type of
Special: A half-elf has a +2 racial bonus on Gather Information
If you have the Investigator feat, you get a +2 bonus on Gather
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Knowledge (local), you get a
+2 bonus on Gather Information checks.
HANDLE ANIMAL (CHA; TRAINED ONLY)
Check: The DC depends on what you are trying to do.
||Handle Animal DC
|Handle an animal
|"Push" an animal
|Teach an animal a trick
||15 or 201
|Train an animal for a general purpose
||15 or 201
|Rear a wild animal
||15 + HD of animal
|1See the specific trick or
Handle an Animal: This task involves commanding an animal to perform
a task or trick that it knows. If the animal is wounded or has taken any
nonlethal damage or ability score damage, the DC increases by 2. If your
check succeeds, the animal performs the task or trick on its next action.
"Push" an Animal: To push an animal means to get it to perform a
task or trick that it doesnít know but is physically capable of performing.
This category also covers making an animal perform a forced march or forcing
it to hustle for more than 1 hour between sleep cycles. If the animal is
wounded or has taken any nonlethal damage or ability score damage, the DC
increases by 2. If your check succeeds, the animal performs the task or
trick on its next action.
Teach an Animal a Trick: You can teach an animal a specific trick
with one week of work and a successful Handle Animal check against the
indicated DC. An animal with an Intelligence score of 1 can learn a maximum
of three tricks, while an animal with an Intelligence score of 2 can learn a
maximum of six tricks. Possible tricks (and their associated DCs) include,
but are not necessarily limited to, the following.
Attack (DC 20): The animal attacks apparent enemies. You may point to a
particular creature that you wish the animal to attack, and it will comply
if able. Normally, an animal will attack only humanoids, monstrous
humanoids, giants, or other animals. Teaching an animal to attack all
creatures (including such unnatural creatures as undead and aberrations)
counts as two tricks.
Come (DC 15): The animal comes to you, even if it normally would not do
Defend (DC 20): The animal defends you (or is ready to defend you if no
threat is present), even without any command being given. Alternatively, you
can command the animal to defend a specific other character.
Down (DC 15): The animal breaks off from combat or otherwise backs down.
An animal that doesnít know this trick continues to fight until it must flee
(due to injury, a fear effect, or the like) or its opponent is defeated.
Fetch (DC 15): The animal goes and gets something. If you do not point
out a specific item, the animal fetches some random object.
Guard (DC 20): The animal stays in place and prevents others from
Heel (DC 15): The animal follows you closely, even to places where it
normally wouldnít go.
Perform (DC 15): The animal performs a variety of simple tricks, such as
sitting up, rolling over, roaring or barking, and so on.
Seek (DC 15): The animal moves into an area and looks around for anything
that is obviously alive or animate.
Stay (DC 15): The animal stays in place, waiting for you to return. It
does not challenge other creatures that come by,
though it still defends itself if it needs to.
Track (DC 20): The animal tracks the scent presented to it. (This
requires the animal to have the scent ability)
Work (DC 15): The animal pulls or pushes a medium or heavy load.
Train an Animal for a Purpose: Rather than teaching an animal
individual tricks, you can simply train it for a general purpose.
Essentially, an animalís purpose represents a preselected set of known
tricks that fit into a common scheme, such as guarding or heavy labor. The
animal must meet all the normal prerequisites for all tricks included in the
training package. If the package includes more than three tricks, the animal
must have an Intelligence score of 2.
An animal can be trained for only one general purpose, though if the
creature is capable of learning additional tricks (above and beyond those
included in its general purpose), it may do so. Training an animal for a
purpose requires fewer checks than teaching individual tricks does, but no
Combat Riding (DC 20): An animal trained to bear a rider into combat
knows the tricks attack, come, defend, down, guard, and heel. Training an
animal for combat riding takes six weeks. You may also "upgrade" an animal
trained for riding to one trained for combat riding by spending three weeks
and making a successful DC 20 Handle Animal check. The new general purpose
and tricks completely replace the animalís previous purpose and any tricks
it once knew. Warhorses and riding dogs are already trained to bear riders
into combat, and they donít require any additional training for this
Fighting (DC 20): An animal trained to engage in combat knows the tricks
attack, down, and stay. Training an animal for fighting takes three weeks.
Guarding (DC 20): An animal trained to guard knows the tricks attack,
defend, down, and guard. Training an animal for guarding takes four weeks.
Heavy Labor (DC 15): An animal trained for heavy labor knows the tricks
come and work. Training an animal for heavy labor takes two weeks.
Hunting (DC 20): An animal trained for hunting knows the tricks attack,
down, fetch, heel, seek, and track. Training an animal for hunting takes six
Performance (DC 15): An animal trained for performance knows the tricks
come, fetch, heel, perform, and stay. Training an animal for performance
takes five weeks.
Riding (DC 15): An animal trained to bear a rider knows the tricks come,
heel, and stay. Training an animal for riding takes three weeks.
Rear a Wild Animal: To rear an animal means to raise a wild creature
from infancy so that it becomes domesticated. A handler can rear as many as
three creatures of the same kind at once.
A successfully domesticated animal can be taught tricks at the same time
itís being raised, or it can be taught as a domesticated animal later.
Action: Varies. Handling an animal is a move action, while pushing an
animal is a full-round action. (A druid or ranger can handle her animal
companion as a free action or push it as a move action.) For tasks with
specific time frames noted above, you must spend half this time (at the rate
of 3 hours per day per animal being handled) working toward completion of
the task before you attempt the Handle Animal check. If the check fails,
your attempt to teach, rear, or train the animal fails and you need not
complete the teaching, rearing, or training time. If the check succeeds, you
must invest the remainder of the time to complete the teaching, rearing, or
training. If the time is interrupted or the task is not followed through to
completion, the attempt to teach, rear, or train the animal automatically
Try Again: Yes, except for rearing an animal.
Special: You can use this skill on a creature with an Intelligence
score of 1 or 2 that is not an animal, but the DC of any such check
increases by 5. Such creatures have the same limit on tricks known as
A druid or ranger gains a +4 circumstance bonus on Handle Animal checks
involving her animal companion.
In addition, a druidís or rangerís animal companion knows one or more
bonus tricks, which donít count against the normal limit on tricks known and
donít require any training time or Handle Animal checks to teach.
If you have the Animal Affinity feat, you get a +2 bonus on Handle Animal
Synergy: If you have 5 or more ranks in Handle Animal, you get a +2
bonus on Ride checks and wild empathy checks.
Untrained: If you have no ranks in Handle Animal, you can use a
Charisma check to handle and push domestic animals, but you canít teach,
rear, or train animals. A druid or ranger with no ranks in Handle Animal can
use a Charisma check to handle and push her animal companion, but she canít
teach, rear, or train other nondomestic animals.