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Content, and is licensed for public use under the terms of the
(MOVEMENT, MODIFIERS, SPECIAL ACTIONS)
MOVEMENT, POSITION, AND DISTANCE
Miniatures are on the 30mm scaleóa miniature figure of a six-foot-tall
human is approximately 30mm tall. A square on the battle grid is 1 inch
across, representing a 5-foot-by-5-foot area.
How Far Can Your Character Move?
Your speed is determined by your race and your armor (see Table: Tactical
Speed). Your speed while unarmored is your base land speed.
Encumbrance: A character encumbered by carrying a large amount of
gear, treasure, or fallen comrades may move slower than normal.
Hampered Movement: Difficult terrain, obstacles, or poor visibility
can hamper movement.
Movement in Combat: Generally, you can move your speed in a round and
still do something (take a move action and a standard action).
If you do nothing but move (that is, if you use both of your actions in a
round to move your speed), you can move double your speed.
If you spend the entire round running, you can move quadruple your speed.
If you do something that requires a full round you can only take a 5-foot
Bonuses to Speed: A barbarian has a +10 foot bonus to his speed
(unless heís wearing heavy armor). Experienced monks also have higher speed
(unless theyíre wearing armor of any sort). In addition, many spells and
magic items can affect a characterís speed. Always apply any modifiers to a
characterís speed before adjusting the characterís speed based on armor or
encumbrance, and remember that multiple bonuses of the same type to a
characterís speed donít stack.
|Table: Tactical Speed
||No Armor or Light Armor
||Medium or Heavy Armor
|Human, elf, half-elf, half-orc
||30 ft.(6 squares)
||20 ft.(4 squares)
||20 ft.(4 squares)
||20 ft.(4 squares)
||20 ft.(4 squares)
||15 ft.(3 squares)
Diagonals: When measuring distance, the first diagonal counts as 1
square, the second counts as 2 squares, the third counts as 1, the fourth as
2, and so on.
You canít move diagonally past a corner (even by taking a 5-foot step).
You can move diagonally past a creature, even an opponent.
You can also move diagonally past other impassable obstacles, such as
Closest Creature: When itís important to determine the closest square
or creature to a location, if two squares or creatures are equally close,
randomly determine which one counts as closest by rolling a die.
Moving through a Square
Friend: You can move through a square occupied by a friendly
character, unless you are charging. When you move through a square occupied
by a friendly character, that character doesnít provide you with cover.
Opponent: You canít move through a square occupied by an opponent,
unless the opponent is helpless. You can move through a square occupied by a
helpless opponent without penalty. (Some creatures, particularly very large
ones, may present an obstacle even when helpless. In such cases, each square
you move through counts as 2 squares.)
Ending Your Movement: You canít end your movement in the same square
as another creature unless it is helpless.
Overrun: During your movement or as part of a charge, you can attempt
to move through a square occupied by an opponent.
Tumbling: A trained character can attempt to tumble through a square
occupied by an opponent (see the Tumble skill).
Very Small Creature: A Fine, Diminutive, or Tiny creature can move
into or through an occupied square. The creature provokes attacks of
opportunity when doing so.
Square Occupied by Creature Three Sizes Larger or Smaller: Any
creature can move through a square occupied by a creature three size
categories larger than it is.
A big creature can move through a square occupied by a creature three
size categories smaller than it is.
Designated Exceptions: Some creatures break the above rules. A
creature that completely fills the squares it occupies cannot be moved past,
even with the Tumble skill or similar special abilities.
Terrain and Obstacles
Difficult Terrain: Difficult terrain hampers movement. Each square of
difficult terrain counts as 2 squares of movement. (Each diagonal move into
a difficult terrain square counts as 3 squares.) You canít run or charge
across difficult terrain.
If you occupy squares with different kinds of terrain, you can move only
as fast as the most difficult terrain you occupy will allow.
Flying and incorporeal creatures are not hampered by difficult terrain.
Obstacles: Like difficult terrain, obstacles can hamper movement. If
an obstacle hampers movement but doesnít completely block it each obstructed
square or obstacle between squares counts as 2 squares of movement. You must
pay this cost to cross the barrier, in addition to the cost to move into the
square on the other side. If you donít have sufficient movement to cross the
barrier and move into the square on the other side, you canít cross the
barrier. Some obstacles may also require a skill check to cross.
On the other hand, some obstacles block movement entirely. A character
canít move through a blocking obstacle.
Flying and incorporeal creatures can avoid most obstacles
Squeezing: In some cases, you may have to squeeze into or through an
area that isnít as wide as the space you take up. You can squeeze through or
into a space that is at least half as wide as your normal space. Each move
into or through a narrow space counts as if it were 2 squares, and while
squeezed in a narrow space you take a Ė4 penalty on attack rolls and a Ė4
penalty to AC.
When a Large creature (which normally takes up four squares) squeezes
into a space thatís one square wide, the creatureís miniature figure
occupies two squares, centered on the line between the two squares. For a
bigger creature, center the creature likewise in the area it squeezes into.
A creature can squeeze past an opponent while moving but it canít end its
movement in an occupied square.
To squeeze through or into a space less than half your spaceís width, you
must use the Escape Artist skill. You canít attack while using Escape Artist
to squeeze through or into a narrow space, you take a Ė4 penalty to AC, and
you lose any Dexterity bonus to AC.
Special Movement Rules
These rules cover special movement situations.
Accidentally Ending Movement in an Illegal Space: Sometimes a
character ends its movement while moving through a space where itís not
allowed to stop. When that happens, put your miniature in the last legal
position you occupied, or the closest legal position, if thereís a legal
position thatís closer.
Double Movement Cost: When your movement is hampered in some way,
your movement usually costs double. For example, each square of movement
through difficult terrain counts as 2 squares, and each diagonal move
through such terrain counts as 3 squares (just as two diagonal moves
If movement cost is doubled twice, then each square counts as 4 squares
(or as 6 squares if moving diagonally). If movement cost is doubled three
times, then each square counts as 8 squares (12 if diagonal) and so on. This
is an exception to the general rule that two doublings are equivalent to a
Minimum Movement: Despite penalties to movement, you can take a
full-round action to move 5 feet (1 square) in any direction, even
diagonally. (This rule doesnít allow you to move through impassable terrain
or to move when all movement is prohibited.) Such movement provokes attacks
of opportunity as normal (despite the distance covered, this move isnít a
BIG AND LITTLE CREATURES IN COMBAT
Creatures smaller than Small or larger than Medium have special rules
relating to position.
Tiny, Diminutive, and Fine Creatures: Very small creatures take up
less than 1 square of space. This means that more than one such creature can
fit into a single square. A Tiny creature typically occupies a space only
2-1/2 feet across, so four can fit into a single square. Twenty-five
Diminutive creatures or 100 Fine creatures can fit into a single square.
Creatures that take up less than 1 square of space typically have a natural
reach of 0 feet, meaning they canít reach into adjacent squares. They must
enter an opponentís square to attack in melee. This provokes an attack of
opportunity from the opponent. You can attack into your own square if you
need to, so you can attack such creatures normally. Since they have no
natural reach, they do not threaten the squares around them. You can move
past them without provoking attacks of opportunity. They also canít flank an
Large, Huge, Gargantuan, and Colossal Creatures: Very large creatures
take up more than 1 square.
Creatures that take up more than 1 square typically have a natural reach
of 10 feet or more, meaning that they can reach targets even if they arenít
in adjacent squares.
Unlike when someone uses a reach weapon, a creature with greater than
normal natural reach (more than 5 feet) still threatens squares adjacent to
it. A creature with greater than normal natural reach usually gets an attack
of opportunity against you if you approach it, because you must enter and
move within the range of its reach before you can attack it. (This attack of
opportunity is not provoked if you take a 5-foot step.)
Large or larger creatures using reach weapons can strike up to double
their natural reach but canít strike at their natural reach or less.
|Table: Creature Size and
|1 These values are typical
for creatures of the indicated size. Some exceptions exist.
FAVORABLE AND UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS
|Table: Attack Roll
|Attacker is . . .
|On higher ground
|Shaken or frightened
|Squeezing through a space
|1 An entangled character
also takes a Ė4 penalty to Dexterity, which may affect his attack roll.
|2 The defender loses any
Dexterity bonus to AC. This bonus doesnít apply if the target is
|3 Most ranged weapons canít
be used while the attacker is prone, but you can use a crossbow or
shuriken while prone at no penalty.
|Table: Armor Class
|Defender is . . .
|Concealed or invisible
ó See Concealment ó
|Flat-footed (such as
surprised, balancing, climbing)
|Grappling (but attacker is
|Helpless (such as paralyzed,
sleeping, or bound)
|Kneeling or sitting
|Squeezing through a space
|1 The defender loses any
Dexterity bonus to AC.
|2 An entangled character
takes a Ė4 penalty to Dexterity.
|3 Roll randomly to see which
grappling combatant you strike. That defender loses any Dexterity bonus
|4 Treat the defenderís
Dexterity as 0 (Ė5 modifier). Rogues can sneak attack helpless or pinned
To determine whether your target has cover from your ranged attack,
choose a corner of your square. If any line from this corner to any corner
of the targetís square passes through a square or border that blocks line of
effect or provides cover, or through a square occupied by a creature, the
target has cover (+4 to AC).
When making a melee attack against an adjacent target, your target has
cover if any line from your square to the targetís square goes through a
wall (including a low wall). When making a melee attack against a target
that isnít adjacent to you (such as with a reach weapon), use the rules for
determining cover from ranged attacks.
Low Obstacles and Cover: A low obstacle (such as a wall no higher
than half your height) provides cover, but only to creatures within 30 feet
(6 squares) of it. The attacker can ignore the cover if heís closer to the
obstacle than his target.
Cover and Attacks of Opportunity: You canít execute an attack of
opportunity against an opponent with cover relative to you.
Cover and Reflex Saves: Cover grants you a +2 bonus on Reflex saves
against attacks that originate or burst out from a point on the other side
of the cover from you. Note that spread effects can extend around corners
and thus negate this cover bonus.
Cover and Hide Checks: You can use cover to make a Hide check.
Without cover, you usually need concealment (see below) to make a Hide
Soft Cover: Creatures, even your enemies, can provide you with cover
against melee attacks, giving you a +4 bonus to AC. However, such soft cover
provides no bonus on Reflex saves, nor does soft cover allow you to make a
Big Creatures and Cover: Any creature with a space larger than 5 feet
(1 square) determines cover against melee attacks slightly differently than
smaller creatures do. Such a creature can choose any square that it occupies
to determine if an opponent has cover against its melee attacks. Similarly,
when making a melee attack against such a creature, you can pick any of the
squares it occupies to determine if it has cover against you.
Total Cover: If you donít have line of effect to your target he is
considered to have total cover from you. You canít make an attack against a
target that has total cover.
Varying Degrees of Cover: In some cases, cover may provide a greater
bonus to AC and Reflex saves. In such situations the normal cover bonuses to
AC and Reflex saves can be doubled (to +8 and +4, respectively). A creature
with this improved cover effectively gains improved evasion against any
attack to which the Reflex save bonus applies. Furthermore, improved cover
provides a +10 bonus on Hide checks.
To determine whether your target has concealment from your ranged attack,
choose a corner of your square. If any line from this corner to any corner
of the targetís square passes through a square or border that provides
concealment, the target has concealment.
When making a melee attack against an adjacent target, your target has
concealment if his space is entirely within an effect that grants
concealment. When making a melee attack against a target that isnít adjacent
to you use the rules for determining concealment from ranged attacks.
In addition, some magical effects provide concealment against all
attacks, regardless of whether any intervening concealment exists.
Concealment Miss Chance: Concealment gives the subject of a
successful attack a 20% chance that the attacker missed because of the
concealment. If the attacker hits, the defender must make a miss chance
percentile roll to avoid being struck. Multiple concealment conditions do
Concealment and Hide Checks: You can use concealment to make a Hide
check. Without concealment, you usually need cover to make a Hide check.
Total Concealment: If you have line of effect to a target but not
line of sight he is considered to have total concealment from you. You canít
attack an opponent that has total concealment, though you can attack into a
square that you think he occupies. A successful attack into a square
occupied by an enemy with total concealment has a 50% miss chance (instead
of the normal 20% miss chance for an opponent with concealment).
You canít execute an attack of opportunity against an opponent with total
concealment, even if you know what square or squares the opponent occupies.
Ignoring Concealment: Concealment isnít always effective. A shadowy
area or darkness doesnít provide any concealment against an opponent with
darkvision. Characters with low-light vision can see clearly for a greater
distance with the same light source than other characters. Although
invisibility provides total concealment, sighted opponents may still make
Spot checks to notice the location of an invisible character. An invisible
character gains a +20 bonus on Hide checks if moving, or a +40 bonus on Hide
checks when not moving (even though opponents canít see you, they might be
able to figure out where you are from other visual clues).
Varying Degrees of Concealment: Certain situations may provide more
or less than typical concealment, and modify the miss chance accordingly.
When making a melee attack, you get a +2 flanking bonus if your opponent
is threatened by a character or creature friendly to you on the opponentís
opposite border or opposite corner.
When in doubt about whether two friendly characters flank an opponent in
the middle, trace an imaginary line between the two friendly charactersí
centers. If the line passes through opposite borders of the opponentís space
(including corners of those borders), then the opponent is flanked.
Exception: If a flanker takes up more than 1 square, it gets the
flanking bonus if any square it occupies counts for flanking.
Only a creature or character that threatens the defender can help an
attacker get a flanking bonus.
Creatures with a reach of 0 feet canít flank an opponent.
A helpless opponent is someone who is bound, sleeping, paralyzed,
unconscious, or otherwise at your mercy.
Regular Attack: A helpless character takes a Ė4 penalty to AC against
melee attacks, but no penalty to AC against ranged attacks.
A helpless defender canít use any Dexterity bonus to AC. In fact, his
Dexterity score is treated as if it were 0 and his Dexterity modifier to AC
as if it were Ė5 (and a rogue can sneak attack him).
Coup de Grace: As a full-round action, you can use a melee weapon to
deliver a coup de grace to a helpless opponent. You can also use a bow or
crossbow, provided you are adjacent to the target.
You automatically hit and score a critical hit. If the defender survives
the damage, he must make a Fortitude save (DC 10 + damage dealt) or die. A
rogue also gets her extra sneak attack damage against a helpless opponent
when delivering a coup de grace.
Delivering a coup de grace provokes attacks of opportunity from
You canít deliver a coup de grace against a creature that is immune to
critical hits. You can deliver a coup de grace against a creature with total
concealment, but doing this requires two consecutive full-round actions (one
to "find" the creature once youíve determined what square itís in, and one
to deliver the coup de grace).
|Table: Special Attacks
||Grant an ally a +2 bonus on
attacks or AC
||Push an opponent back 5 feet
||Move up to twice your speed
and attack with +2 bonus
||Knock a weapon from your
||Negate your opponentís Dex
bonus to AC
||Wrestle with an opponent
||Plow past or over an
opponent as you move
||Strike an opponentís weapon
|Throw splash weapon
||Throw container of dangerous
liquid at target
||Trip an opponent
|Turn (rebuke) undead
||Channel positive (or
negative) energy to turn away (or awe) undead
||Fight with a weapon in each
In melee combat, you can help a friend attack or defend by distracting or
interfering with an opponent. If youíre in position to make a melee attack
on an opponent that is engaging a friend in melee combat, you can attempt to
aid your friend as a standard action. You make an attack roll against AC 10.
If you succeed, your friend gains either a +2 bonus on his next attack roll
against that opponent or a +2 bonus to AC against that opponentís next
attack (your choice), as long as that attack comes before the beginning of
your next turn. Multiple characters can aid the same friend, and similar
You can also use this standard action to help a friend in other ways,
such as when he is affected by a spell, or to assist another characterís
You can make a bull rush as a standard action (an attack) or as part of a
charge (see Charge, below). When you make a bull rush, you attempt to push
an opponent straight back instead of damaging him. You can only bull rush an
opponent who is one size category larger than you, the same size, or
Initiating a Bull Rush: First, you move into the defenderís space.
Doing this provokes an attack of opportunity from each opponent that
threatens you, including the defender. (If you have the Improved Bull Rush
feat, you donít provoke an attack of opportunity from the defender.) Any
attack of opportunity made by anyone other than the defender against you
during a bull rush has a 25% chance of accidentally targeting the defender
instead, and any attack of opportunity by anyone other than you against the
defender likewise has a 25% chance of accidentally targeting you. (When
someone makes an attack of opportunity, make the attack roll and then roll
to see whether the attack went astray.)
Second, you and the defender make opposed Strength checks. You each add a
+4 bonus for each size category you are larger than Medium or a Ė4 penalty
for each size category you are smaller than Medium. You get a +2 bonus if
you are charging. The defender gets a +4 bonus if he has more than two legs
or is otherwise exceptionally stable.
Bull Rush Results: If you beat the defenderís Strength check result,
you push him back 5 feet. If you wish to move with the defender, you can
push him back an additional 5 feet for each 5 points by which your check
result is greater than the defenderís check result. You canít, however,
exceed your normal movement limit. (Note: The defender provokes
attacks of opportunity if he is moved. So do you, if you move with him. The
two of you do not provoke attacks of opportunity from each other, however.)
If you fail to beat the defenderís Strength check result, you move 5 feet
straight back to where you were before you moved into his space. If that
space is occupied, you fall prone in that space.
Charging is a special full-round action that allows you to move up to
twice your speed and attack during the action. However, it carries tight
restrictions on how you can move.
Movement During a Charge: You must move before your attack, not
after. You must move at least 10 feet (2 squares) and may move up to double
your speed directly toward the designated opponent.
You must have a clear path toward the opponent, and nothing can hinder
your movement (such as difficult terrain or obstacles). Hereís what it means
to have a clear path. First, you must move to the closest space from which
you can attack the opponent. (If this space is occupied or otherwise
blocked, you canít charge.) Second, if any line from your starting space to
the ending space passes through a square that blocks movement, slows
movement, or contains a creature (even an ally), you canít charge. (Helpless
creatures donít stop a charge.)
If you donít have line of sight to the opponent at the start of your
turn, you canít charge that opponent.
You canít take a 5-foot step in the same round as a charge.
If you are able to take only a standard action or a move action on your
turn, you can still charge, but you are only allowed to move up to your
speed (instead of up to double your speed). You canít use this option unless
you are restricted to taking only a standard action or move action on your
Attacking on a Charge: After moving, you may make a single melee
attack. You get a +2 bonus on the attack roll. and take a Ė2 penalty to your
AC until the start of your next turn.
A charging character gets a +2 bonus on the Strength check made to bull
rush or overrun an opponent (see Bull Rush, above, and Overrun, below).
Even if you have extra attacks, such as from having a high enough base
attack bonus or from using multiple weapons, you only get to make one attack
during a charge.
Lances and Charge Attacks: A lance deals double damage if employed by
a mounted character in a charge.
Weapons Readied against a Charge: Spears, tridents, and certain other
piercing weapons deal double damage when readied (set) and used against a
As a melee attack, you may attempt to disarm your opponent. If you do so
with a weapon, you knock the opponentís weapon out of his hands and to the
ground. If you attempt the disarm while unarmed, you end up with the weapon
in your hand.
If youíre attempting to disarm a melee weapon, follow the steps outlined
here. If the item you are attempting to disarm isnít a melee weapon the
defender may still oppose you with an attack roll, but takes a penalty and
canít attempt to disarm you in return if your attempt fails.
Step 1: Attack of Opportunity. You provoke an attack of opportunity
from the target you are trying to disarm. (If you have the Improved Disarm
feat, you donít incur an attack of opportunity for making a disarm attempt.)
If the defenderís attack of opportunity deals any damage, your disarm
Step 2: Opposed Rolls. You and the defender make opposed attack rolls
with your respective weapons. The wielder of a two-handed weapon on a disarm
attempt gets a +4 bonus on this roll, and the wielder of a light weapon
takes a Ė4 penalty. (An unarmed strike is considered a light weapon, so you
always take a penalty when trying to disarm an opponent by using an unarmed
strike.) If the combatants are of different sizes, the larger combatant gets
a bonus on the attack roll of +4 per difference in size category. If the
targeted item isnít a melee weapon, the defender takes a Ė4 penalty on the
Step Three: Consequences. If you beat the defender, the defender is
disarmed. If you attempted the disarm action unarmed, you now have the
weapon. If you were armed, the defenderís weapon is on the ground in the
If you fail on the disarm attempt, the defender may immediately react and
attempt to disarm you with the same sort of opposed melee attack roll. His
attempt does not provoke an attack of opportunity from you. If he fails his
disarm attempt, you do not subsequently get a free disarm attempt against
Note: A defender wearing spiked gauntlets canít be disarmed. A
defender using a weapon attached to a locked gauntlet gets a +10 bonus to
resist being disarmed.
You can use a disarm action to snatch an item worn by the target. If you
want to have the item in your hand, the disarm must be made as an unarmed
If the item is poorly secured or otherwise easy to snatch or cut away the
attacker gets a +4 bonus. Unlike on a normal disarm attempt, failing the
attempt doesnít allow the defender to attempt to disarm you. This otherwise
functions identically to a disarm attempt, as noted above.
You canít snatch an item that is well secured unless you have pinned the
wearer (see Grapple). Even then, the defender gains a +4 bonus on his roll
to resist the attempt.
Feinting is a standard action. To feint, make a Bluff check opposed by a
Sense Motive check by your target. The target may add his base attack bonus
to this Sense Motive check. If your Bluff check result exceeds your targetís
Sense Motive check result, the next melee attack you make against the target
does not allow him to use his Dexterity bonus to AC (if any). This attack
must be made on or before your next turn.
When feinting in this way against a nonhumanoid you take a Ė4 penalty.
Against a creature of animal Intelligence (1 or 2), you take a Ė8 penalty.
Against a nonintelligent creature, itís impossible.
Feinting in combat does not provoke attacks of opportunity.
Feinting as a Move Action: With the Improved Feint feat, you can
attempt a feint as a move action instead of as a standard action.
Repeatedly in a grapple, you need to make opposed grapple checks against
an opponent. A grapple check is like a melee attack roll. Your attack bonus
on a grapple check is: Base attack bonus + Strength modifier + special size
Special Size Modifier: The special size modifier for a grapple check
is as follows: Colossal +16, Gargantuan +12, Huge +8, Large +4, Medium +0,
Small Ė4, Tiny Ė8, Diminutive Ė12, Fine Ė16. Use this number in place of the
normal size modifier you use when making an attack roll.
Starting a Grapple
To start a grapple, you need to grab and hold your target. Starting a
grapple requires a successful melee attack roll. If you get multiple
attacks, you can attempt to start a grapple multiple times (at successively
lower base attack bonuses).
Step 1: Attack of Opportunity. You provoke an attack of opportunity
from the target you are trying to grapple. If the attack of opportunity
deals damage, the grapple attempt fails. (Certain monsters do not provoke
attacks of opportunity when they attempt to grapple, nor do characters with
the Improved Grapple feat.) If the attack of opportunity misses or fails to
deal damage, proceed to Step 2.
Step 2: Grab. You make a melee touch attack to grab the target. If
you fail to hit the target, the grapple attempt fails. If you succeed,
proceed to Step 3.
Step 3: Hold. Make an opposed grapple check as a free action.
If you succeed, you and your target are now grappling, and you deal
damage to the target as if with an unarmed strike.
If you lose, you fail to start the grapple. You automatically lose an
attempt to hold if the target is two or more size categories larger than you
In case of a tie, the combatant with the higher grapple check modifier
wins. If this is a tie, roll again to break the tie.
Step 4: Maintain Grapple. To maintain the grapple for later rounds,
you must move into the targetís space. (This movement is free and doesnít
count as part of your movement in the round.)
Moving, as normal, provokes attacks of opportunity from threatening
opponents, but not from your target.
If you canít move into your targetís space, you canít maintain the
grapple and must immediately let go of the target. To grapple again, you
must begin at Step 1.
While youíre grappling, your ability to attack others and defend yourself
No Threatened Squares: You donít threaten any squares while
No Dexterity Bonus: You lose your Dexterity bonus to AC (if you have
one) against opponents you arenít grappling. (You can still use it against
opponents you are grappling.)
No Movement: You canít move normally while grappling. You may,
however, make an opposed grapple check (see below) to move while grappling.
If Youíre Grappling
When you are grappling (regardless of who started the grapple), you can
perform any of the following actions. Some of these actions take the place
of an attack (rather than being a standard action or a move action). If your
base attack bonus allows you multiple attacks, you can attempt one of these
actions in place of each of your attacks, but at successively lower base
Activate a Magic Item: You can activate a magic item, as long as the
item doesnít require a spell completion trigger. You donít need to make a
grapple check to activate the item.
Attack Your Opponent: You can make an attack with an unarmed strike,
natural weapon, or light weapon against another character you are grappling.
You take a Ė4 penalty on such attacks.
You canít attack with two weapons while grappling, even if both are light
Cast a Spell: You can attempt to cast a spell while grappling or even
while pinned (see below), provided its casting time is no more than 1
standard action, it has no somatic component, and you have in hand any
material components or focuses you might need. Any spell that requires
precise and careful action is impossible to cast while grappling or
being pinned. If the spell is one that you can cast while grappling, you
must make a Concentration check (DC 20 + spell level) or lose the spell. You
donít have to make a successful grapple check to cast the spell.
Damage Your Opponent: While grappling, you can deal damage to your
opponent equivalent to an unarmed strike. Make an opposed grapple check in
place of an attack. If you win, you deal nonlethal damage as normal for your
unarmed strike (1d3 points for Medium attackers or 1d2 points for Small
attackers, plus Strength modifiers). If you want to deal lethal damage, you
take a Ė4 penalty on your grapple check.
Exception: Monks deal more damage on an unarmed strike than other
characters, and the damage is lethal. However, they can choose to deal their
damage as nonlethal damage when grappling without taking the usual Ė4
penalty for changing lethal damage to nonlethal damage.
Draw a Light Weapon: You can draw a light weapon as a move action
with a successful grapple check.
Escape from Grapple: You can escape a grapple by winning an opposed
grapple check in place of making an attack. You can make an Escape Artist
check in place of your grapple check if you so desire, but this requires a
standard action. If more than one opponent is grappling you, your grapple
check result has to beat all their individual check results to escape.
(Opponents donít have to try to hold you if they donít want to.) If you
escape, you finish the action by moving into any space adjacent to your
Move: You can move half your speed (bringing all others engaged in
the grapple with you) by winning an opposed grapple check. This requires a
standard action, and you must beat all the other individual check results to
move the grapple.
Note: You get a +4 bonus on your grapple check to move a pinned
opponent, but only if no one else is involved in the grapple.
Retrieve a Spell Component: You can produce a spell component from
your pouch while grappling by using a full-round action. Doing so does not
require a successful grapple check.
Pin Your Opponent: You can hold your opponent immobile for 1 round by
winning an opposed grapple check (made in place of an attack). Once you have
an opponent pinned, you have a few options available to you (see below).
Break Anotherís Pin: If you are grappling an opponent who has another
character pinned, you can make an opposed grapple check in place of an
attack. If you win, you break the hold that the opponent has over the other
character. The character is still grappling, but is no longer pinned.
Use Opponentís Weapon: If your opponent is holding a light weapon,
you can use it to attack him. Make an opposed grapple check (in place of an
attack). If you win, make an attack roll with the weapon with a Ė4 penalty
(doing this doesnít require another action).
You donít gain possession of the weapon by performing this action.
If Youíre Pinning an Opponent
You can attempt to damage your opponent with an opposed grapple check,
you can attempt to use your opponentís weapon against him, or you can
attempt to move the grapple (all described above). At your option, you can
prevent a pinned opponent from speaking.
You can use a disarm action to remove or grab away a well secured object
worn by a pinned opponent, but he gets a +4 bonus on his roll to resist your
attempt (see Disarm).
You may voluntarily release a pinned character as a free action; if you
do so, you are no longer considered to be grappling that character (and vice
You canít draw or use a weapon (against the pinned character or any other
character), escape anotherís grapple, retrieve a spell component, pin
another character, or break anotherís pin while you are pinning an opponent.
If Youíre Pinned by an Opponent
When an opponent has pinned you, you are held immobile (but not helpless)
for 1 round. While youíre pinned, you take a Ė4 penalty to your AC against
opponents other than the one pinning you. At your opponentís option, you may
also be unable to speak. On your turn, you can try to escape the pin by
making an opposed grapple check in place of an attack. You can make an
Escape Artist check in place of your grapple check if you want, but this
requires a standard action. If you win, you escape the pin, but youíre still
Joining a Grapple
If your target is already grappling someone else, you can use an attack
to start a grapple, as above, except that the target doesnít get an attack
of opportunity against you, and your grab automatically succeeds. You still
have to make a successful opposed grapple check to become part of the
If there are multiple opponents involved in the grapple, you pick one to
make the opposed grapple check against.
Several combatants can be in a single grapple. Up to four combatants can
grapple a single opponent in a given round. Creatures that are one or more
size categories smaller than you count for half, creatures that are one size
category larger than you count double, and creatures two or more size
categories larger count quadruple.
When you are grappling with multiple opponents, you choose one opponent
to make an opposed check against. The exception is an attempt to escape from
the grapple; to successfully escape, your grapple check must beat the check
results of each opponent.
Horses in Combat: Warhorses and warponies can serve readily as combat
steeds. Light horses, ponies, and heavy horses, however, are frightened by
combat. If you donít dismount, you must make a DC 20 Ride check each round
as a move action to control such a horse. If you succeed, you can perform a
standard action after the move action. If you fail, the move action becomes
a full round action and you canít do anything else until your next turn.
Your mount acts on your initiative count as you direct it. You move at
its speed, but the mount uses its action to move.
A horse (not a pony) is a Large creature and thus takes up a space 10
feet (2 squares) across. For simplicity, assume that you share your mountís
space during combat.
Combat while Mounted: With a DC 5 Ride check, you can guide your
mount with your knees so as to use both hands to attack or defend yourself.
This is a free action.
When you attack a creature smaller than your mount that is on foot, you
get the +1 bonus on melee attacks for being on higher ground. If your mount
moves more than 5 feet, you can only make a single melee attack.
Essentially, you have to wait until the mount gets to your enemy before
attacking, so you canít make a full attack. Even at your mountís full speed,
you donít take any penalty on melee attacks while mounted.
If your mount charges, you also take the AC penalty associated with a
charge. If you make an attack at the end of the charge, you receive the
bonus gained from the charge. When charging on horseback, you deal double
damage with a lance (see Charge).
You can use ranged weapons while your mount is taking a double move, but
at a Ė4 penalty on the attack roll. You can use ranged weapons while your
mount is running (quadruple speed), at a Ė8 penalty. In either case, you
make the attack roll when your mount has completed half its movement. You
can make a full attack with a ranged weapon while your mount is moving.
Likewise, you can take move actions normally
Casting Spells while Mounted: You can cast a spell normally if your
mount moves up to a normal move (its speed) either before or after you cast.
If you have your mount move both before and after you cast a spell, then
youíre casting the spell while the mount is moving, and you have to make a
Concentration check due to the vigorous motion (DC 10 + spell level) or lose
the spell. If the mount is running (quadruple speed), you can cast a spell
when your mount has moved up to twice its speed, but your Concentration
check is more difficult due to the violent motion (DC 15 + spell level).
If Your Mount Falls in Battle: If your mount falls, you have to
succeed on a DC 15 Ride check to make a soft fall and take no damage. If the
check fails, you take 1d6 points of damage.
If You Are Dropped: If you are knocked unconscious, you have a 50%
chance to stay in the saddle (or 75% if youíre in a military saddle).
Otherwise you fall and take 1d6 points of damage.
Without you to guide it, your mount avoids combat.
You can attempt an overrun as a standard action taken during your move,
or as part of a charge. (In general, you cannot take a standard action
during a move; this is an exception.) With an overrun, you attempt to plow
past or over your opponent (and move through his square) as you move. You
can only overrun an opponent who is one size category larger than you, the
same size, or smaller. You can make only one overrun attempt per round.
If youíre attempting to overrun an opponent, follow these steps.
Step 1: Attack of Opportunity. Since you begin the overrun by moving
into the defenderís space, you provoke an attack of opportunity from the
Step 2: Opponent Avoids? The defender has the option to simply avoid
you. If he avoids you, he doesnít suffer any ill effect.
If you were attempting the overrun as part of a charge, you may keep
moving. (You can always move through a square occupied by someone who lets
you by.) In either case, the overrun attempt doesnít count against your
actions this round (except for any movement required to enter the opponentís
square). If your opponent doesnít avoid you, move to Step 3.
Step 3: Opponent Blocks? If your opponent blocks you, make a Strength
check opposed by the defenderís Dexterity or Strength check (whichever
ability score has the higher modifier). A combatant gets a +4 bonus on the
check for every size category he is larger than Medium or a Ė4 penalty for
every size category he is smaller than Medium. You gain a +2 bonus on your
Strength check if you made the overrun as part of a charge. The defender
gets a +4 bonus on his check if he has more than two legs or is otherwise
more stable than a normal humanoid. If you win, you knock the defender
prone. If you lose, the defender may immediately react and make a Strength
check opposed by your Dexterity or Strength check (including the size
modifiers noted above, but no other modifiers) to try to knock you prone.
Step 4: Consequences. If you succeed in knocking your opponent prone,
you can continue your movement as normal. If you fail and are knocked prone
in turn, you have to move 5 feet back the way you came and fall prone,
ending your movement there. If you fail but are not knocked prone, you have
to move 5 feet back the way you came, ending your movement there. If that
square is occupied, you fall prone in that square.
Improved Overrun: If you have the Improved Overrun feat, your target
may not choose to avoid you.
Mounted Overrun (Trample): If you attempt an overrun while mounted,
your mount makes the Strength check to determine the success or failure of
the overrun attack (and applies its size modifier, rather than yours). If
you have the Trample feat and attempt an overrun while mounted, your target
may not choose to avoid you, and if you knock your opponent prone with the
overrun, your mount may make one hoof attack against your opponent.
You can use a melee attack with a slashing or bludgeoning weapon to
strike a weapon or shield that your opponent is holding. If youíre
attempting to sunder a weapon or shield, follow the steps outlined here.
(Attacking held objects other than weapons or shields is covered below.)
|Table: Common Armor,
Weapon, and Shield Hardness and Hit Points
|Weapon or Shield
|Light metal-hafted weapon
|Light hafted weapon
|One-handed hafted weapon
|Two-handed hafted weapon
armor bonus x5
|Light wooden shield
|Heavy wooden shield
|Light steel shield
|Heavy steel shield
|1 The hp value given is for
Medium armor, weapons, and shields. Divide by 2 for each size category
of the item smaller than Medium, or multiply it by 2 for each size
category larger than Medium.
|2 Varies by material.
Step 1: Attack of Opportunity. You provoke an attack of opportunity
from the target whose weapon or shield you are trying to sunder. (If you
have the Improved Sunder feat, you donít incur an attack of opportunity for
making the attempt.)
Step 2: Opposed Rolls. You and the defender make opposed attack rolls
with your respective weapons. The wielder of a two-handed weapon on a sunder
attempt gets a +4 bonus on this roll, and the wielder of a light weapon
takes a Ė4 penalty. If the combatants are of different sizes, the larger
combatant gets a bonus on the attack roll of +4 per difference in size
Step 3: Consequences. If you beat the defender, roll damage and deal
it to the weapon or shield. See Table: Common Armor, Weapon, and Shield
Hardness and Hit Points to determine how much damage you must deal to
destroy the weapon or shield.
If you fail the sunder attempt, you donít deal any damage.
Sundering a Carried or Worn Object: You donít use an opposed attack
roll to damage a carried or worn object. Instead, just make an attack roll
against the objectís AC. A carried or worn objectís AC is equal to 10 + its
size modifier + the Dexterity modifier of the carrying or wearing character.
Attacking a carried or worn object provokes an attack of opportunity just as
attacking a held object does. To attempt to snatch away an item worn by a
defender rather than damage it, see Disarm. You canít sunder armor worn by
THROW SPLASH WEAPON
A splash weapon is a ranged weapon that breaks on impact, splashing or
scattering its contents over its target and nearby creatures or objects. To
attack with a splash weapon, make a ranged touch attack against the target.
Thrown weapons require no weapon proficiency, so you donít take the Ė4
nonproficiency penalty. A hit deals direct hit damage to the target, and
splash damage to all creatures within 5 feet of the target.
You can instead target a specific grid intersection. Treat this as a
ranged attack against AC 5. However, if you target a grid intersection,
creatures in all adjacent squares are dealt the splash damage, and the
direct hit damage is not dealt to any creature. (You canít target a grid
intersection occupied by a creature, such as a Large or larger creature; in
this case, youíre aiming at the creature.)
If you miss the target (whether aiming at a creature or a grid
intersection), roll 1d8. This determines the misdirection of the throw, with
1 being straight back at you and 2 through 8 counting clockwise around the
grid intersection or target creature. Then, count a number of squares in the
indicated direction equal to the range increment of the throw.
After you determine where the weapon landed, it deals splash damage to
all creatures in adjacent squares.
You can try to trip an opponent as an unarmed melee attack. You can only
trip an opponent who is one size category larger than you, the same size, or
Making a Trip Attack: Make an unarmed melee touch attack against your
target. This provokes an attack of opportunity from your target as normal
for unarmed attacks.
If your attack succeeds, make a Strength check opposed by the defenderís
Dexterity or Strength check (whichever ability score has the higher
modifier). A combatant gets a +4 bonus for every size category he is larger
than Medium or a Ė4 penalty for every size category he is smaller than
Medium. The defender gets a +4 bonus on his check if he has more than two
legs or is otherwise more stable than a normal humanoid. If you win, you
trip the defender. If you lose, the defender may immediately react and make
a Strength check opposed by your Dexterity or Strength check to try to trip
Avoiding Attacks of Opportunity: If you have the Improved Trip feat,
or if you are tripping with a weapon (see below), you donít provoke an
attack of opportunity for making a trip attack.
Being Tripped (Prone): A tripped character is prone. Standing up is a
Tripping a Mounted Opponent: You may make a trip attack against a
mounted opponent. The defender may make a Ride check in place of his
Dexterity or Strength check. If you succeed, you pull the rider from his
Tripping with a Weapon: Some weapons can be used to make trip
attacks. In this case, you make a melee touch attack with the weapon instead
of an unarmed melee touch attack, and you donít provoke an attack of
If you are tripped during your own trip attempt, you can drop the weapon
to avoid being tripped.
TURN OR REBUKE UNDEAD
Good clerics and paladins and some neutral clerics can channel positive
energy, which can halt, drive off (rout), or destroy undead.
Evil clerics and some neutral clerics can channel negative energy, which
can halt, awe (rebuke), control (command), or bolster undead.
Regardless of the effect, the general term for the activity is "turning."
When attempting to exercise their divine control over these creatures,
characters make turning checks.
Turning undead is a supernatural ability that a character can perform as
a standard action. It does not provoke attacks of opportunity.
You must present your holy symbol to turn undead. Turning is considered
Times per Day: You may attempt to turn undead a number of times per
day equal to 3 + your Charisma modifier. You can increase this number by
taking the Extra Turning feat.
Range: You turn the closest turnable undead first, and you canít turn
undead that are more than 60 feet away or that have total cover relative to
you. You donít need line of sight to a target, but you do need line of
Turning Check: The first thing you do is roll a turning check to see
how powerful an undead creature you can turn. This is a Charisma check (1d20
+ your Charisma modifier). Table: Turning Undead gives you the Hit Dice of
the most powerful undead you can affect, relative to your level. On a given
turning attempt, you can turn no undead creature whose Hit Dice exceed the
result on this table.
Turning Damage: If your roll on Table: Turning Undead is high enough
to let you turn at least some of the undead within 60 feet, roll 2d6 + your
cleric level + your Charisma modifier for turning damage. Thatís how many
total Hit Dice of undead you can turn.
If your Charisma score is average or low, itís possible to roll fewer Hit
Dice of undead turned than indicated on Table: Turning Undead.
You may skip over already turned undead that are still within range, so
that you do not waste your turning capacity on them.
Effect and Duration of Turning: Turned undead flee from you by the
best and fastest means available to them. They flee for 10 rounds (1
minute). If they cannot flee, they cower (giving any attack rolls against
them a +2 bonus). If you approach within 10 feet of them, however, they
overcome being turned and act normally. (You can stand within 10 feet
without breaking the turning effectóyou just canít approach them.) You can
attack them with ranged attacks (from at least 10 feet away), and others can
attack them in any fashion, without breaking the turning effect.
Destroying Undead: If you have twice as many levels (or more) as the
undead have Hit Dice, you destroy any that you would normally turn.
|Table: Turning Undead
Turning Check Result
Most Powerful Undead Affected (Maximum Hit Dice)
0 or lower
Clericís level Ė 4
Clericís level Ė 3
Clericís level Ė 2
Clericís level Ė 1
Clericís level + 1
Clericís level + 2
Clericís level + 3
22 or higher
Clericís level + 4
Evil Clerics and Undead
Evil clerics channel negative energy to rebuke (awe) or command (control)
undead rather than channeling positive energy to turn or destroy them. An
evil cleric makes the equivalent of a turning check. Undead that would be
turned are rebuked instead, and those that would be destroyed are commanded.
Rebuked: A rebuked undead creature cowers as if in awe (attack rolls
against the creature get a +2 bonus). The effect lasts 10 rounds.
Commanded: A commanded undead creature is under the mental control of
the evil cleric. The cleric must take a standard action to give mental
orders to a commanded undead. At any one time, the cleric may command any
number of undead whose total Hit Dice do not exceed his level. He may
voluntarily relinquish command on any commanded undead creature or creatures
in order to command new ones.
Dispelling Turning: An evil cleric may channel negative energy to
dispel a good clericís turning effect. The evil cleric makes a turning check
as if attempting to rebuke the undead. If the turning check result is equal
to or greater than the turning check result that the good cleric scored when
turning the undead, then the undead are no longer turned. The evil cleric
rolls turning damage of 2d6 + cleric level + Charisma modifier to see how
many Hit Dice worth of undead he can affect in this way (as if he were
Bolstering Undead: An evil cleric may also bolster undead creatures
against turning in advance. He makes a turning check as if attempting to
rebuke the undead, but the Hit Dice result on Table: Turning Undead becomes
the undead creaturesí effective Hit Dice as far as turning is concerned
(provided the result is higher than the creaturesí actual Hit Dice). The
bolstering lasts 10 rounds. An evil undead cleric can bolster himself in
Neutral Clerics and Undead
A cleric of neutral alignment can either turn undead but not rebuke them,
or rebuke undead but not turn them. See Turn or Rebuke Undead for more
Even if a cleric is neutral, channeling positive energy is a good act and
channeling negative energy is evil.
Paladins and Undead
Beginning at 4th level, paladins can turn undead as if they were clerics
of three levels lower than they actually are.
Turning Other Creatures
Some clerics have the ability to turn creatures other than undead.
The turning check result is determined as normal.
If you wield a second weapon in your off hand, you can get one extra
attack per round with that weapon. You suffer a Ė6 penalty with your regular
attack or attacks with your primary hand and a Ė10 penalty to the attack
with your off hand when you fight this way. You can reduce these penalties
in two ways:
ēIf your off-hand weapon is light, the penalties are reduced by 2 each.
(An unarmed strike is always considered light.)
ēThe Two-Weapon Fighting feat lessens the primary hand penalty by 2, and
the off-hand penalty by 6.
Table: Two-Weapon Fighting Penalties summarizes the interaction of all
|Off-hand weapon is light
|Two-Weapon Fighting feat
|Off-hand weapon is light and
Two-Weapon Fighting feat
Double Weapons: You can use a double weapon to make an extra attack
with the off-hand end of the weapon as if you were fighting with two
weapons. The penalties apply as if the off-hand end of the weapon were a
Thrown Weapons: The same rules apply when you throw a weapon from
each hand. Treat a dart or shuriken as a light weapon when used in this
manner, and treat a bolas, javelin, net, or sling as a one-handed weapon.
SPECIAL INITIATIVE ACTIONS
Here are ways to change when you act during combat by altering your place
in the initiative order.
By choosing to delay, you take no action and then act normally on
whatever initiative count you decide to act. When you delay, you voluntarily
reduce your own initiative result for the rest of the combat. When your new,
lower initiative count comes up later in the same round, you can act
normally. You can specify this new initiative result or just wait until some
time later in the round and act then, thus fixing your new initiative count
at that point.
You never get back the time you spend waiting to see whatís going to
happen. You canít, however, interrupt anyone elseís action (as you can with
a readied action).
Initiative Consequences of Delaying: Your initiative result becomes
the count on which you took the delayed action. If you come to your next
action and have not yet performed an action, you donít get to take a delayed
action (though you can delay again).
If you take a delayed action in the next round, before your regular turn
comes up, your initiative count rises to that new point in the order of
battle, and you do not get your regular action that round.
The ready action lets you prepare to take an action later, after your
turn is over but before your next one has begun. Readying is a standard
action. It does not provoke an attack of opportunity (though the action that
you ready might do so).
Readying an Action: You can ready a standard action, a move action,
or a free action. To do so, specify the action you will take and the
conditions under which you will take it. Then, any time before your next
action, you may take the readied action in response to that condition. The
action occurs just before the action that triggers it. If the triggered
action is part of another characterís activities, you interrupt the other
character. Assuming he is still capable of doing so, he continues his
actions once you complete your readied action. Your initiative result
changes. For the rest of the encounter, your initiative result is the count
on which you took the readied action, and you act immediately ahead of the
character whose action triggered your readied action.
You can take a 5-foot step as part of your readied action, but only if
you donít otherwise move any distance during the round.
Initiative Consequences of Readying: Your initiative result becomes
the count on which you took the readied action. If you come to your next
action and have not yet performed your readied action, you donít get to take
the readied action (though you can ready the same action again). If you take
your readied action in the next round, before your regular turn comes up,
your initiative count rises to that new point in the order of battle, and
you do not get your regular action that round.
Distracting Spellcasters: You can ready an attack against a
spellcaster with the trigger "if she starts casting a spell." If you damage
the spellcaster, she may lose the spell she was trying to cast (as
determined by her Concentration check result).
Readying to Counterspell: You may ready a counterspell against a
spellcaster (often with the trigger "if she starts casting a spell"). In
this case, when the spellcaster starts a spell, you get a chance to identify
it with a Spellcraft check (DC 15 + spell level). If you do, and if you can
cast that same spell (are able to cast it and have it prepared, if you
prepare spells), you can cast the spell as a counterspell and automatically
ruin the other spellcasterís spell. Counterspelling works even if one spell
is divine and the other arcane.
A spellcaster can use dispel magic to counterspell another
spellcaster, but it doesnít always work.
Readying a Weapon against a Charge: You can ready certain piercing
weapons, setting them to receive charges. A readied weapon of this type
deals double damage if you score a hit with it against a charging character.