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A spell is a one-time magical effect. Spells come in two types: arcane
(cast by bards, sorcerers, and wizards) and divine (cast by clerics, druids,
and experienced paladins and rangers). Some spellcasters select their spells
from a limited list of spells known, while others have access to a wide
variety of options.
Most spellcasters prepare their spells in advanceówhether from a spellbook
or through devout prayers and meditationó while some cast spells
spontaneously without preparation.
Despite these different ways that characters use to learn or prepare their
spells, when it comes to casting them, the spells are very much alike.
Cutting across the categories of arcane and divine spells are the eight
schools of magic. These schools represent the different ways that spells
Whether a spell is arcane or divine, and whether a character prepares
spells in advance or chooses them on the spot, casting a spell works the
CHOOSING A SPELL
First you must choose which spell to cast. If youíre a cleric, druid,
experienced paladin, experienced ranger, or wizard, you select from among
spells prepared earlier in the day and not yet cast (see Preparing Wizard
Spells and Preparing Divine Spells).
If youíre a bard or sorcerer, you can select any spell you know, provided
you are capable of casting spells of that level or higher.
To cast a spell, you must be able to speak (if the spell has a verbal
component), gesture (if it has a somatic component), and manipulate the
material components or focus (if any). Additionally, you must concentrate to
cast a spell.
If a spell has multiple versions, you choose which version to use when you
cast it. You donít have to prepare (or learn, in the case of a bard or
sorcerer) a specific version of the spell.
Once youíve cast a prepared spell, you canít cast it again until you prepare
it again. (If youíve prepared multiple copies of a single spell, you can
cast each copy once.) If youíre a bard or sorcerer, casting a spell counts
against your daily limit for spells of that spell level, but you can cast
the same spell again if you havenít reached your limit.
To cast a spell, you must concentrate. If something interrupts your
concentration while youíre casting, you must make a Concentration check or
lose the spell. The more distracting the interruption and the higher the
level of the spell you are trying to cast, the higher the DC is. If you fail
the check, you lose the spell just as if you had cast it to no effect.
Injury: If while trying to cast a spell you take damage, you must
make a Concentration check (DC 10 + points of damage taken + the level of
the spell youíre casting). If you fail the check, you lose the spell without
effect. The interrupting event strikes during spellcasting if it comes
between when you start and when you complete a spell (for a spell with a
casting time of 1 full round or more) or if it comes in response to your
casting the spell (such as an attack of opportunity provoked by the spell or
a contingent attack, such as a readied action).
If you are taking continuous damage half the damage is considered to take
place while you are casting a spell. You must make a Concentration check (DC
10 + 1/2 the damage that the continuous source last dealt + the level of the
spell youíre casting). If the last damage dealt was the last damage that the
effect could deal then the damage is over, and it does not distract you.
Repeated damage does not count as continuous damage.
Spell: If you are affected by a spell while attempting to cast a
spell of your own, you must make a Concentration check or lose the spell you
are casting. If the spell affecting you deals damage, the DC is 10 + points
of damage + the level of the spell youíre casting.
If the spell interferes with you or distracts you in some other way, the DC
is the spellís saving throw DC + the level of the spell youíre casting. For
a spell with no saving throw, itís the DC that the spellís saving throw
would have if a save were allowed.
Grappling or Pinned: The only spells you can cast while grappling or
pinned are those without somatic components and whose material components
(if any) you have in hand. Even so, you must make a Concentration check (DC
20 + the level of the spell youíre casting) or lose the spell.
Vigorous Motion: If you are riding on a moving mount, taking a bouncy
ride in a wagon, on a small boat in rough water, below-decks in a
storm-tossed ship, or simply being jostled in a similar fashion, you must
make a Concentration check (DC 10 + the level of the spell youíre casting)
or lose the spell.
Violent Motion: If you are on a galloping horse, taking a very rough
ride in a wagon, on a small boat in rapids or in a storm, on deck in a
storm-tossed ship, or being tossed roughly about in a similar fashion, you
must make a Concentration check (DC 15 + the level of the spell youíre
casting) or lose the spell.
Violent Weather: You must make a Concentration check if you try to
cast a spell in violent weather. If you are in a high wind carrying blinding
rain or sleet, the DC is 5 + the level of the spell youíre casting. If you
are in wind-driven hail, dust, or debris, the DC is 10 + the level of the
spell youíre casting. In either case, you lose the spell if you fail the
Concentration check. If the weather is caused by a spell, use the rules in
the Spell subsection above.
Casting Defensively: If you want to cast a spell without provoking
any attacks of opportunity, you must make a Concentration check (DC 15 + the
level of the spell youíre casting) to succeed. You lose the spell if you
Entangled: If you want to cast a spell while entangled in a net or by
a tanglefoot bag or while youíre affected by a spell with similar effects,
you must make a DC 15 Concentration check to cast the spell. You lose the
spell if you fail.
It is possible to cast any spell as a counterspell. By doing so, you are
using the spellís energy to disrupt the casting of the same spell by another
character. Counterspelling works even if one spell is divine and the other
How Counterspells Work: To use a counterspell, you must select an
opponent as the target of the counterspell. You do this by choosing the
ready action. In doing so, you elect to wait to complete your action until
your opponent tries to cast a spell. (You may still move your speed, since
ready is a standard action.)
If the target of your counterspell tries to cast a spell, make a Spellcraft
check (DC 15 + the spellís level). This check is a free action. If the check
succeeds, you correctly identify the opponentís spell and can attempt to
counter it. If the check fails, you canít do either of these things.
To complete the action, you must then cast the correct spell. As a general
rule, a spell can only counter itself. If you are able to cast the same
spell and you have it prepared (if you prepare spells), you cast it,
altering it slightly to create a counterspell effect. If the target is
within range, both spells automatically negate each other with no other
Counterspelling Metamagic Spells: Metamagic feats are not taken into
account when determining whether a spell can be countered
Specific Exceptions: Some spells specifically counter each other,
especially when they have diametrically opposed effects.
Dispel Magic as a Counterspell: You can use dispel magic
to counterspell another spellcaster, and you donít need to identify the
spell he or she is casting. However, dispel magic doesnít always work
as a counterspell (see the spell description).
A spellís power often depends on its caster level, which for most
spellcasting characters is equal to your class level in the class youíre
using to cast the spell.
You can cast a spell at a lower caster level than normal, but the caster
level you choose must be high enough for you to cast the spell in question,
and all level-dependent features must be based on the same caster level.
In the event that a class feature, domain granted power, or other special
ability provides an adjustment to your caster level, that adjustment applies
not only to effects based on caster level (such as range, duration, and
damage dealt) but also to your caster level check to overcome your targetís
spell resistance and to the caster level used in dispel checks (both the
dispel check and the DC of the check).
If you ever try to cast a spell in conditions where the characteristics
of the spell cannot be made to conform, the casting fails and the spell is
Spells also fail if your concentration is broken and might fail if youíre
wearing armor while casting a spell with somatic components.
THE SPELLíS RESULT
Once you know which creatures (or objects or areas) are affected, and
whether those creatures have made successful saving throws (if any were
allowed), you can apply whatever results a spell entails.
SPECIAL SPELL EFFECTS
Many special spell effects are handled according to the school of the
spells in question Certain other special spell features are found across
Attacks: Some spell descriptions refer to attacking. All offensive
combat actions, even those that donít damage opponents are considered
attacks. Attempts to turn or rebuke undead count as attacks. All spells that
opponents resist with saving throws, that deal damage, or that otherwise
harm or hamper subjects are attacks. Spells that summon monsters or other
allies are not attacks because the spells themselves donít harm anyone.
Bonus Types: Usually, a bonus has a type that indicates how the spell
grants the bonus. The important aspect of bonus types is that two bonuses of
the same type donít generally stack. With the exception of dodge bonuses,
most circumstance bonuses, and racial bonuses, only the better bonus works
(see Combining Magical Effects, below). The same principle applies to
penaltiesóa character taking two or more penalties of the same type applies
only the worst one.
Bringing Back the Dead: Several spells have the power to restore
slain characters to life.
When a living creature dies, its soul departs its body, leaves the Material
Plane, travels through the Astral Plane, and goes to abide on the plane
where the creatureís deity resides. If the creature did not worship a deity,
its soul departs to the plane corresponding to its alignment. Bringing
someone back from the dead means retrieving his or her soul and returning it
to his or her body.
Level Loss: Any creature brought back to life usually loses one level
of experience. The characterís new XP total is midway between the minimum
needed for his or her new (reduced) level and the minimum needed for the
next one. If the character was 1st level at the time of death, he or she
loses 2 points of Constitution instead of losing a level.
This level loss or Constitution loss cannot be repaired by any mortal means,
even wish or miracle. A revived character can regain a lost
level by earning XP through further adventuring. A revived character who was
1st level at the time of death can regain lost points of Constitution by
improving his or her Constitution score when he or she attains a level that
allows an ability score increase.
Preventing Revivification: Enemies can take steps to make it more
difficult for a character to be returned from the dead. Keeping the body
prevents others from using raise dead or resurrection to
restore the slain character to life. Casting trap the soul prevents
any sort of revivification unless the soul is first released.
Revivification against Oneís Will: A soul cannot be returned to life
if it does not wish to be. A soul knows the name, alignment, and patron
deity (if any) of the character attempting to revive it and may refuse to
return on that basis.
COMBINING MAGICAL EFFECTS
Spells or magical effects usually work as described, no matter how many
other spells or magical effects happen to be operating in the same area or
on the same recipient. Except in special cases, a spell does not affect the
way another spell operates. Whenever a spell has a specific effect on other
spells, the spell description explains that effect. Several other general
rules apply when spells or magical effects operate in the same place:
Stacking Effects: Spells that provide bonuses or penalties on attack
rolls, damage rolls, saving throws, and other attributes usually do not
stack with themselves. More generally, two bonuses of the same type donít
stack even if they come from different spells (or from effects other than
spells; see Bonus Types, above).
Different Bonus Names: The bonuses or penalties from two different
spells stack if the modifiers are of different types. A bonus that isnít
named stacks with any bonus.
Same Effect More than Once in Different Strengths: In cases when two
or more identical spells are operating in the same area or on the same
target, but at different strengths, only the best one applies.
Same Effect with Differing Results: The same spell can sometimes
produce varying effects if applied to the same recipient more than once.
Usually the last spell in the series trumps the others. None of the previous
spells are actually removed or dispelled, but their effects become
irrelevant while the final spell in the series lasts.
One Effect Makes Another Irrelevant: Sometimes, one spell can render
a later spell irrelevant. Both spells are still active, but one has rendered
the other useless in some fashion.
Multiple Mental Control Effects: Sometimes magical effects that
establish mental control render each other irrelevant, such as a spell that
removes the subjects ability to act. Mental controls that donít remove the
recipientís ability to act usually do not interfere with each other. If a
creature is under the mental control of two or more creatures, it tends to
obey each to the best of its ability, and to the extent of the control each
effect allows. If the controlled creature receives conflicting orders
simultaneously, the competing controllers must make opposed Charisma checks
to determine which one the creature obeys.
Spells with Opposite Effects: Spells with opposite effects apply
normally, with all bonuses, penalties, or changes accruing in the order that
they apply. Some spells negate or counter each other. This is a special
effect that is noted in a spellís description.
Instantaneous Effects: Two or more spells with instantaneous
durations work cumulatively when they affect the same target.
The description of each spell is presented in a standard format. Each
category of information is explained and defined below.
The first line of every spell description gives the name by which the spell
is generally known.
Beneath the spell name is a line giving the school of magic (and the
subschool, if appropriate) that the spell belongs to.
Almost every spell belongs to one of eight schools of magic. A school of
magic is a group of related spells that work in similar ways. A small number
of spells (arcane mark, limited wish, permanency, prestidigitation,
and wish) are universal, belonging to no school.
Abjurations are protective spells. They create physical or magical
barriers, negate magical or physical abilities, harm trespassers, or even
banish the subject of the spell to another plane of existence.
If one abjuration spell is active within 10 feet of another for 24 hours or
more, the magical fields interfere with each other and create barely visible
energy fluctuations. The DC to find such spells with the Search skill drops
If an abjuration creates a barrier that keeps certain types of creatures at
bay, that barrier cannot be used to push away those creatures. If you force
the barrier against such a creature, you feel a discernible pressure against
the barrier. If you continue to apply pressure, you end the spell.
Each conjuration spell belongs to one of five subschools. Conjurations
bring manifestations of objects, creatures, or some form of energy to you
(the summoning subschool), actually transport creatures from another plane
of existence to your plane (calling), heal (healing), transport creatures or
objects over great distances (teleportation), or create objects or effects
on the spot (creation). Creatures you conjure usually, but not always, obey
A creature or object brought into being or transported to your location by a
conjuration spell cannot appear inside another creature or object, nor can
it appear floating in an empty space. It must arrive in an open location on
a surface capable of supporting it.
The creature or object must appear within the spellís range, but it does not
have to remain within the range.
Calling: A calling spell transports a creature from another
plane to the plane you are on. The spell grants the creature the one-time
ability to return to its plane of origin, although the spell may limit the
circumstances under which this is possible. Creatures who are called
actually die when they are killed; they do not disappear and reform, as do
those brought by a summoning spell (see below). The duration of a calling
spell is instantaneous, which means that the called creature canít be
Creation: A creation spell manipulates matter to create an object
or creature in the place the spellcaster designates (subject to the limits
noted above). If the spell has a duration other than instantaneous, magic
holds the creation together, and when the spell ends, the conjured
creature or object vanishes without a trace. If the spell has an
instantaneous duration, the created object or creature is merely assembled
through magic. It lasts indefinitely and does not depend on magic for its
Healing: Certain divine conjurations heal creatures or even bring
them back to life.
Summoning: A summoning spell instantly brings a creature or object
to a place you designate. When the spell ends or is dispelled, a summoned
creature is instantly sent back to where it came from, but a summoned
object is not sent back unless the spell description specifically
indicates this. A summoned creature also goes away if it is killed or if
its hit points drop to 0 or lower. It is not really dead. It takes 24
hours for the creature to reform, during which time it canít be summoned
When the spell that summoned a creature ends and the creature disappears,
all the spells it has cast expire. A summoned creature cannot use any
innate summoning abilities it may have, and it refuses to cast any spells
that would cost it XP, or to use any spell-like abilities that would cost
XP if they were spells.
Teleportation: A teleportation spell transports one or more
creatures or objects a great distance. The most powerful of these spells can
cross planar boundaries. Unlike summoning spells, the transportation is
(unless otherwise noted) one-way and not dispellable.
Teleportation is instantaneous travel through the Astral Plane. Anything
that blocks astral travel also blocks teleportation.
Divination spells enable you to learn secrets long forgotten, to predict
the future, to find hidden things, and to foil deceptive spells.
Many divination spells have cone-shaped areas. These move with you and
extend in the direction you look. The cone defines the area that you can
sweep each round. If you study the same area for multiple rounds, you can
often gain additional information, as noted in the descriptive text for the
Scrying: A scrying spell creates an invisible magical sensor
that sends you information. Unless noted otherwise, the sensor has the
same powers of sensory acuity that you possess. This level of acuity
includes any spells or effects that target you, but not spells or effects
that emanate from you. However, the sensor is treated as a separate,
independent sensory organ of yours, and thus it functions normally even if
you have been blinded, deafened, or otherwise suffered sensory impairment.
Any creature with an Intelligence score of 12 or higher can notice the
sensor by making a DC 20 Intelligence check. The sensor can be dispelled
as if it were an active spell.
Lead sheeting or magical protection blocks a scrying spell, and you sense
that the spell is so blocked.
Enchantment spells affect the minds of others, influencing or
controlling their behavior.
All enchantments are mind-affecting spells. Two types of enchantment spells
grant you influence over a subject creature.
Charm: A charm spell changes how the subject views you,
typically making it see you as a good friend.
Compulsion: A compulsion spell forces the subject to act in some
manner or changes the way her mind works. Some compulsion spells determine
the subjectís actions or the effects on the subject, some compulsion
spells allow you to determine the subjectís actions when you cast the
spell, and others give you ongoing control over the subject.
Evocation spells manipulate energy or tap an unseen source of power to
produce a desired end. In effect, they create something out of nothing. Many
of these spells produce spectacular effects, and evocation spells can deal
large amounts of damage.
Illusion spells deceive the senses or minds of others. They cause people
to see things that are not there, not see things that are there, hear
phantom noises, or remember things that never happened.
Figment: A figment spell creates a false sensation. Those who
perceive the figment perceive the same thing, not their own slightly
different versions of the figment. (It is not a personalized mental
impression.) Figments cannot make something seem to be something else. A
figment that includes audible effects cannot duplicate intelligible speech
unless the spell description specifically says it can. If intelligible
speech is possible, it must be in a language you can speak. If you try to
duplicate a language you cannot speak, the image produces gibberish.
Likewise, you cannot make a visual copy of something unless you know what
it looks like.
Because figments and glamers (see below) are unreal, they cannot produce
real effects the way that other types of illusions can. They cannot cause
damage to objects or creatures, support weight, provide nutrition, or
provide protection from the elements. Consequently, these spells are
useful for confounding or delaying foes, but useless for attacking them
A figmentís AC is equal to 10 + its size modifier.
Glamer: A glamer spell changes a subjectís sensory qualities,
making it look, feel, taste, smell, or sound like something else, or even
seem to disappear.
Pattern: Like a figment, a pattern spell creates an image that
others can see, but a pattern also affects the minds of those who see it
or are caught in it. All patterns are mind-affecting spells.
Phantasm: A phantasm spell creates a mental image that usually only
the caster and the subject (or subjects) of the spell can perceive. This
impression is totally in the minds of the subjects. It is a personalized
mental impression. (Itís all in their heads and not a fake picture or
something that they actually see.) Third parties viewing or studying the
scene donít notice the phantasm. All phantasms are mind-affecting spells.
Shadow: A shadow spell creates something that is partially real
from extradimensional energy. Such illusions can have real effects. Damage
dealt by a shadow illusion is real.
Saving Throws and Illusions (Disbelief ): Creatures encountering an
illusion usually do not receive saving throws to recognize it as illusory
until they study it carefully or interact with it in some fashion.
A successful saving throw against an illusion reveals it to be false, but
a figment or phantasm remains as a translucent outline.
A failed saving throw indicates that a character fails to notice something
is amiss. A character faced with proof that an illusion isnít real needs
no saving throw. If any viewer successfully disbelieves an illusion and
communicates this fact to others, each such viewer gains a saving throw
with a +4 bonus.
Necromancy spells manipulate the power of death, unlife, and the life
force. Spells involving undead creatures make up a large part of this
Transmutation spells change the properties of some creature, thing, or
Appearing on the same line as the school and subschool, when applicable, is
a descriptor that further categorizes the spell in some way. Some spells
have more than one descriptor.
The descriptors are acid, air, chaotic, cold, darkness, death, earth,
electricity, evil, fear, fire, force, good, language-dependent, lawful,
light, mind-affecting, sonic, and water.
Most of these descriptors have no game effect by themselves, but they govern
how the spell interacts with other spells, with special abilities, with
unusual creatures, with alignment, and so on.
A language-dependent spell uses intelligible language as a medium for
communication. If the target cannot understand or cannot hear what the
caster of a language-dependant spell says the spell fails.
A mind-affecting spell works only against creatures with an Intelligence
score of 1 or higher.
The next line of a spell description gives the spellís level, a number
between 0 and 9 that defines the spellís relative power. This number is
preceded by an abbreviation for the class whose members can cast the spell.
The Level entry also indicates whether a spell is a domain spell and, if so,
what its domain and its level as a domain spell are. A spellís level affects
the DC for any save allowed against the effect.
Names of spellcasting classes are abbreviated as follows: bard Brd; cleric
Clr; druid Drd; paladin Pal; ranger Rgr; sorcerer Sor; wizard Wiz.
The domains a spell can be associated with include Air, Animal, Chaos,
Death, Destruction, Earth, Evil, Fire, Good, Healing, Knowledge, Law, Luck,
Magic, Plant, Protection, Strength, Sun, Travel, Trickery, War, and Water.
A spellís components are what you must do or possess to cast it. The
Components entry in a spell description includes abbreviations that tell you
what type of components it has. Specifics for material, focus, and XP
components are given at the end of the descriptive text. Usually you donít
worry about components, but when you canít use a component for some reason
or when a material or focus component is expensive, then the components are
Verbal (V): A verbal component is a spoken incantation. To provide a
verbal component, you must be able to speak in a strong voice. A silence
spell or a gag spoils the incantation (and thus the spell). A
spellcaster who has been deafened has a 20% chance to spoil any spell with a
verbal component that he or she tries to cast.
Somatic (S): A somatic component is a measured and precise movement
of the hand. You must have at least one hand free to provide a somatic
Material (M): A material component is one or more physical substances
or objects that are annihilated by the spell energies in the casting
process. Unless a cost is given for a material component, the cost is
negligible. Donít bother to keep track of material components with
negligible cost. Assume you have all you need as long as you have your spell
Focus (F): A focus component is a prop of some sort. Unlike a
material component, a focus is not consumed when the spell is cast and can
be reused. As with material components, the cost for a focus is negligible
unless a price is given. Assume that focus components of negligible cost are
in your spell component pouch.
Divine Focus (DF): A divine focus component is an item of spiritual
significance. The divine focus for a cleric or a paladin is a holy symbol
appropriate to the characterís faith.
If the Components line includes F/DF or M/DF, the arcane version of the
spell has a focus component or a material component (the abbreviation before
the slash) and the divine version has a divine focus component (the
abbreviation after the slash).
XP Cost (XP): Some powerful spells entail an experience point cost to
you. No spell can restore the XP lost in this manner. You cannot spend so
much XP that you lose a level, so you cannot cast the spell unless you have
enough XP to spare. However, you may, on gaining enough XP to attain a new
level, use those XP for casting a spell rather than keeping them and
advancing a level. The XP are treated just like a material
componentóexpended when you cast the spell, whether or not the casting
Most spells have a casting time of 1 standard action. Others take 1 round or
more, while a few require only a free action.
A spell that takes 1 round to cast is a full-round action. It comes into
effect just before the beginning of your turn in the round after you began
casting the spell. You then act normally after the spell is completed.
A spell that takes 1 minute to cast comes into effect just before your turn
1 minute later (and for each of those 10 rounds, you are casting a spell as
a full-round action, just as noted above for 1- round casting times). These
actions must be consecutive and uninterrupted, or the spell automatically
When you begin a spell that takes 1 round or longer to cast, you must
continue the concentration from the current round to just before your turn
in the next round (at least). If you lose concentration before the casting
is complete, you lose the spell.
A spell with a casting time of 1 free action doesnít count against your
normal limit of one spell per round. However, you may cast such a spell only
once per round. Casting a spell with a casting time of 1 free action doesnít
provoke attacks of opportunity.
You make all pertinent decisions about a spell (range, target, area, effect,
version, and so forth) when the spell comes into effect.
A spellís range indicates how far from you it can reach, as defined in the
Range entry of the spell description. A spellís range is the maximum
distance from you that the spellís effect can occur, as well as the maximum
distance at which you can designate the spellís point of origin. If any
portion of the spellís area would extend beyond this range, that area is
wasted. Standard ranges include the following.
Personal: The spell affects only you.
Touch: You must touch a creature or object to affect it. A touch
spell that deals damage can score a critical hit just as a weapon can. A
touch spell threatens a critical hit on a natural roll of 20 and deals
double damage on a successful critical hit. Some touch spells allow you to
touch multiple targets. You can touch as many willing targets as you can
reach as part of the casting, but all targets of the spell must be touched
in the same round that you finish casting the spell.
Close: The spell reaches as far as 25 feet away from you. The maximum
range increases by 5 feet for every two full caster levels.
Medium: The spell reaches as far as 100 feet + 10 feet per caster
Long: The spell reaches as far as 400 feet + 40 feet per caster
Unlimited: The spell reaches anywhere on the same plane of existence.
Range Expressed in Feet: Some spells have no standard range category,
just a range expressed in feet.
AIMING A SPELL
You must make some choice about whom the spell is to affect or where the
effect is to originate, depending on the type of spell. The next entry in a
spell description defines the spellís target (or targets), its effect, or
its area, as appropriate.
Target or Targets: Some spells have a target or targets. You
cast these spells on creatures or objects, as defined by the spell itself.
You must be able to see or touch the target, and you must specifically
choose that target. You do not have to select your target until you finish
casting the spell.
If the target of a spell is yourself (the spell description has a line that
reads Target: You), you do not receive a saving throw, and spell resistance
does not apply. The Saving Throw and Spell Resistance lines are omitted from
Some spells restrict you to willing targets only. Declaring yourself as a
willing target is something that can be done at any time (even if youíre
flat-footed or it isnít your turn). Unconscious creatures are automatically
considered willing, but a character who is conscious but immobile or
helpless (such as one who is bound, cowering, grappling, paralyzed, pinned,
or stunned) is not automatically willing.
Some spells allow you to redirect the effect to new targets or areas after
you cast the spell. Redirecting a spell is a move action that does not
provoke attacks of opportunity.
Effect: Some spells create or summon things rather than affecting
things that are already present.
You must designate the location where these things are to appear, either by
seeing it or defining it. Range determines how far away an effect can
appear, but if the effect is mobile it can move regardless of the spellís
Ray: Some effects are rays. You aim a ray as if using a ranged
weapon, though typically you make a ranged touch attack rather than a normal
ranged attack. As with a ranged weapon, you can fire into the dark or at an
invisible creature and hope you hit something. You donít have to see the
creature youíre trying to hit, as you do with a targeted spell. Intervening
creatures and obstacles, however, can block your line of sight or provide
cover for the creature youíre aiming at.
If a ray spell has a duration, itís the duration of the effect that the ray
causes, not the length of time the ray itself persists.
If a ray spell deals damage, you can score a critical hit just as if it were
a weapon. A ray spell threatens a critical hit on a natural roll of 20 and
deals double damage on a successful critical hit.
Spread: Some effects, notably clouds and fogs, spread out from a
point of origin, which must be a grid intersection. The effect can extend
around corners and into areas that you canít see. Figure distance by actual
distance traveled, taking into account turns the spell effect takes. When
determining distance for spread effects, count around walls, not through
them. As with movement, do not trace diagonals across corners. You must
designate the point of origin for such an effect, but you need not have line
of effect (see below) to all portions of the effect.
Area: Some spells affect an area. Sometimes a spell description
specifies a specially defined area, but usually an area falls into one of
the categories defined below.
Regardless of the shape of the area, you select the point where the spell
originates, but otherwise you donít control which creatures or objects the
spell affects. The point of origin of a spell is always a grid intersection.
When determining whether a given creature is within the area of a spell,
count out the distance from the point of origin in squares just as you do
when moving a character or when determining the range for a ranged attack.
The only difference is that instead of counting from the center of one
square to the center of the next, you count from intersection to
You can count diagonally across a square, but remember that every second
diagonal counts as 2 squares of distance. If the far edge of a square is
within the spellís area, anything within that square is within the spellís
area. If the spellís area only touches the near edge of a square, however,
anything within that square is unaffected by the spell.
Burst, Emanation, or Spread: Most spells that affect an area function
as a burst, an emanation, or a spread. In each case, you select the spellís
point of origin and measure its effect from that point.
A burst spell affects whatever it catches in its area, even including
creatures that you canít see. It canít affect creatures with total cover
from its point of origin (in other words, its effects donít extend around
corners). The default shape for a burst effect is a sphere, but some burst
spells are specifically described as cone-shaped. A burstís area defines how
far from the point of origin the spellís effect extends.
An emanation spell functions like a burst spell, except that the effect
continues to radiate from the point of origin for the duration of the spell.
Most emanations are cones or spheres.
A spread spell spreads out like a burst but can turn corners. You select the
point of origin, and the spell spreads out a given distance in all
directions. Figure the area the spell effect fills by taking into account
any turns the spell effect takes.
Cone, Cylinder, Line, or Sphere: Most spells that affect an area have
a particular shape, such as a cone, cylinder, line, or sphere.
A cone-shaped spell shoots away from you in a quarter-circle in the
direction you designate. It starts from any corner of your square and widens
out as it goes. Most cones are either bursts or emanations (see above), and
thus wonít go around corners.
When casting a cylinder-shaped spell, you select the spellís point of
origin. This point is the center of a horizontal circle, and the spell
shoots down from the circle, filling a cylinder. A cylinder-shaped spell
ignores any obstructions within its area.
A line-shaped spell shoots away from you in a line in the direction you
designate. It starts from any corner of your square and extends to the limit
of its range or until it strikes a barrier that blocks line of effect. A
line-shaped spell affects all creatures in squares that the line passes
A sphere-shaped spell expands from its point of origin to fill a spherical
area. Spheres may be bursts, emanations, or spreads.
Creatures: A spell with this kind of area affects creatures directly
(like a targeted spell), but it affects all creatures in an area of some
kind rather than individual creatures you select. The area might be a
spherical burst , a cone-shaped burst, or some other shape.
Many spells affect "living creatures," which means all creatures other than
constructs and undead. Creatures in the spellís area that are not of the
appropriate type do not count against the creatures affected.
Objects: A spell with this kind of area affects objects within an
area you select (as Creatures, but affecting objects instead).
Other: A spell can have a unique area, as defined in its description.
(S) Shapeable: If an Area or Effect entry ends with "(S)," you can
shape the spell. A shaped effect or area can have no dimension smaller than
10 feet. Many effects or areas are given as cubes to make it easy to model
irregular shapes. Three-dimensional volumes are most often needed to define
aerial or underwater effects and areas.
Line of Effect: A line of effect is a straight, unblocked path that
indicates what a spell can affect. A line of effect is canceled by a solid
barrier. Itís like line of sight for ranged weapons, except that itís not
blocked by fog, darkness, and other factors that limit normal sight.
You must have a clear line of effect to any target that you cast a spell on
or to any space in which you wish to create an effect. You must have a clear
line of effect to the point of origin of any spell you cast.
A burst, cone, cylinder, or emanation spell affects only an area,
creatures, or objects to which it has line of effect from its origin (a
spherical burstís center point, a cone-shaped burstís starting point, a
cylinderís circle, or an emanationís point of origin).
An otherwise solid barrier with a hole of at least 1 square foot through it
does not block a spellís line of effect. Such an opening means that the
5-foot length of wall containing the hole is no longer considered a barrier
for purposes of a spellís line of effect.
A spellís Duration entry tells you how long the magical energy of the spell
Timed Durations: Many durations are measured in rounds, minutes,
hours, or some other increment. When the time is up, the magic goes away and
the spell ends. If a spellís duration is variable the duration is rolled
secretly (the caster doesnít know how long the spell will last).
Instantaneous: The spell energy comes and goes the instant the spell
is cast, though the consequences might be long-lasting.
Permanent: The energy remains as long as the effect does. This means
the spell is vulnerable to dispel magic.
Concentration: The spell lasts as long as you concentrate on it.
Concentrating to maintain a spell is a standard action that does not provoke
attacks of opportunity. Anything that could break your concentration when
casting a spell can also break your concentration while youíre maintaining
one, causing the spell to end.
You canít cast a spell while concentrating on another one. Sometimes a spell
lasts for a short time after you cease concentrating.
Subjects, Effects, and Areas: If the spell affects creatures directly
the result travels with the subjects for the spellís duration. If the spell
creates an effect, the effect lasts for the duration. The effect might move
or remain still. Such an effect can be destroyed prior to when its duration
ends. If the spell affects an area then the spell stays with that area for
Creatures become subject to the spell when they enter the area and are no
longer subject to it when they leave.
Touch Spells and Holding the Charge: In most cases, if you donít
discharge a touch spell on the round you cast it, you can hold the charge
(postpone the discharge of the spell) indefinitely. You can make touch
attacks round after round. If you cast another spell, the touch spell
Some touch spells allow you to touch multiple targets as part of the
spell. You canít hold the charge of such a spell; you must touch all targets
of the spell in the same round that you finish casting the spell.
Discharge: Occasionally a spells lasts for a set duration or until
triggered or discharged.
(D) Dismissible: If the Duration line ends with "(D)," you can
dismiss the spell at will. You must be within range of the spellís effect
and must speak words of dismissal, which are usually a modified form of the
spellís verbal component. If the spell has no verbal component, you can
dismiss the effect with a gesture. Dismissing a spell is a standard action
that does not provoke attacks of opportunity.
A spell that depends on concentration is dismissible by its very nature, and
dismissing it does not take an action, since all you have to do to end the
spell is to stop concentrating on your turn.
Usually a harmful spell allows a target to make a saving throw to avoid some
or all of the effect. The Saving Throw entry in a spell description defines
which type of saving throw the spell allows and describes how saving throws
against the spell work.
Negates: The spell has no effect on a subject that makes a successful
Partial: The spell causes an effect on its subject. A successful
saving throw means that some lesser effect occurs.
Half: The spell deals damage, and a successful saving throw halves
the damage taken (round down).
None: No saving throw is allowed.
Disbelief: A successful save lets the subject ignore the effect.
(object): The spell can be cast on objects, which receive saving
throws only if they are magical or if they are attended (held, worn,
grasped, or the like) by a creature resisting the spell, in which case the
object uses the creatureís saving throw bonus unless its own bonus is
greater. (This notation does not mean that a spell can be cast only on
objects. Some spells of this sort can be cast on creatures or objects.) A
magic itemís saving throw bonuses are each equal to 2 + one-half the itemís
(harmless): The spell is usually beneficial, not harmful, but a
targeted creature can attempt a saving throw if it desires.
Saving Throw Difficulty Class: A saving throw against your spell has
a DC of 10 + the level of the spell + your bonus for the relevant ability
(Intelligence for a wizard, Charisma for a sorcerer or bard, or Wisdom for a
cleric, druid, paladin, or ranger). A spellís level can vary depending on
your class. Always use the spell level applicable to your class.
Succeeding on a Saving Throw: A creature that successfully saves
against a spell that has no obvious physical effects feels a hostile force
or a tingle, but cannot deduce the exact nature of the attack. Likewise, if
a creatureís saving throw succeeds against a targeted spell you sense that
the spell has failed. You do not sense when creatures succeed on saves
against effect and area spells.
Automatic Failures and Successes: A natural 1 (the d20 comes up 1) on
a saving throw is always a failure, and the spell may cause damage to
exposed items (see Items Surviving after a Saving Throw, below). A natural
20 (the d20 comes up 20) is always a success.
Voluntarily Giving up a Saving Throw: A creature can voluntarily
forego a saving throw and willingly accept a spellís result. Even a
character with a special resistance to magic can suppress this quality.
Items Surviving after a Saving Throw: Unless the descriptive text for
the spell specifies otherwise, all items carried or worn by a creature are
assumed to survive a magical attack. If a creature rolls a natural 1 on its
saving throw against the effect, however, an exposed item is harmed (if the
attack can harm objects). Refer to Table: Items Affected by Magical Attacks.
Determine which four objects carried or worn by the creature are most likely
to be affected and roll randomly among them. The randomly determined item
must make a saving throw against the attack form and take whatever damage
the attack deal.
If an item is not carried or worn and is not magical, it does not get a
saving throw. It simply is dealt the appropriate damage.
|Table: Items Affected by Magical Attacks
||Magic helmet, hat, or headband
||Item in hand (including weapon, wand, or
||Stowed or sheathed weapon
||Magic jewelry (including rings)
|1 In order of most likely to least likely
to be affected.
Spell resistance is a special defensive ability. If your spell is being
resisted by a creature with spell resistance, you must make a caster level
check (1d20 + caster level) at least equal to the creatureís spell
resistance for the spell to affect that creature. The defenderís spell
resistance is like an Armor Class against magical attacks. Include any
adjustments to your caster level to this caster level check.
The Spell Resistance entry and the descriptive text of a spell description
tell you whether spell resistance protects creatures from the spell. In many
cases, spell resistance applies only when a resistant creature is targeted
by the spell, not when a resistant creature encounters a spell that is
already in place.
The terms "object" and "harmless" mean the same thing for spell resistance
as they do for saving throws. A creature with spell resistance must
voluntarily lower the resistance (a standard action) in order to be affected
by a spell noted as harmless. In such a case, you do not need to make the
caster level check described above.
This portion of a spell description details what the spell does and how it
works. If one of the previous entries in the description included "see
text," this is where the explanation is found.
Wizards, sorcerers, and bards cast arcane spells. Compared to divine
spells, arcane spells are more likely to produce dramatic results.
PREPARING WIZARD SPELLS
A wizardís level limits the number of spells she can prepare and cast. Her
high Intelligence score might allow her to prepare a few extra spells. She
can prepare the same spell more than once, but each preparation counts as
one spell toward her daily limit. To prepare a spell the wizard must have an
Intelligence score of at least 10 + the spellís level.
Rest: To prepare her daily spells, a wizard must first sleep for 8
hours. The wizard does not have to slumber for every minute of the time, but
she must refrain from movement, combat, spellcasting, skill use,
conversation, or any other fairly demanding physical or mental task during
the rest period. If her rest is interrupted, each interruption adds 1 hour
to the total amount of time she has to rest in order to clear her mind, and
she must have at least 1 hour of uninterrupted rest immediately prior to
preparing her spells. If the character does not need to sleep for some
reason, she still must have 8 hours of restful calm before preparing any
Recent Casting Limit/Rest Interruptions: If a wizard has cast spells
recently, the drain on her resources reduces her capacity to prepare new
spells. When she prepares spells for the coming day, all the spells she has
cast within the last 8 hours count against her daily limit.
Preparation Environment: To prepare any spell, a wizard must have
enough peace, quiet, and comfort to allow for proper concentration. The
wizardís surroundings need not be luxurious, but they must be free from
overt distractions. Exposure to inclement weather prevents the necessary
concentration, as does any injury or failed saving throw the character might
experience while studying. Wizards also must have access to their spellbooks
to study from and sufficient light to read them by. There is one major
exception: A wizard can prepare a read magic spell even without a
Spell Preparation Time: After resting, a wizard must study her
spellbook to prepare any spells that day. If she wants to prepare all her
spells, the process takes 1 hour. Preparing some smaller portion of her
daily capacity takes a proportionally smaller amount of time, but always at
least 15 minutes, the minimum time required to achieve the proper mental
Spell Selection and Preparation: Until she prepares spells from her
spellbook, the only spells a wizard has available to cast are the ones that
she already had prepared from the previous day and has not yet used. During
the study period, she chooses which spells to prepare. If a wizard already
has spells prepared (from the previous day) that she has not cast, she can
abandon some or all of them to make room for new spells.
When preparing spells for the day, a wizard can leave some of these spell
slots open. Later during that day, she can repeat the preparation process as
often as she likes, time and circumstances permitting. During these extra
sessions of preparation, the wizard can fill these unused spell slots. She
cannot, however, abandon a previously prepared spell to replace it with
another one or fill a slot that is empty because she has cast a spell in the
meantime. That sort of preparation requires a mind fresh from rest. Like the
first session of the day, this preparation takes at least 15 minutes, and it
takes longer if the wizard prepares more than one-quarter of her spells.
Spell Slots: The various character class tables show how many spells
of each level a character can cast per day. These openings for daily spells
are called spell slots. A spellcaster always has the option to fill a
higher-level spell slot with a lower-level spell. A spellcaster who lacks a
high enough ability score to cast spells that would otherwise be his or her
due still gets the slots but must fill them with spells of lower level.
Prepared Spell Retention: Once a wizard prepares a spell, it remains
in her mind as a nearly cast spell until she uses the prescribed components
to complete and trigger it or until she abandons it. Certain other events,
such as the effects of magic items or special attacks from monsters, can
wipe a prepared spell from a characterís mind.
Death and Prepared Spell Retention: If a spellcaster dies, all
prepared spells stored in his or her mind are wiped away. Potent magic (such
as raise dead, resurrection, or true resurrection) can recover
the lost energy when it recovers the character.
ARCANE MAGICAL WRITINGS
To record an arcane spell in written form, a character uses complex
notation that describes the magical forces involved in the spell. The writer
uses the same system no matter what her native language or culture. However,
each character uses the system in her own way. Another personís magical
writing remains incomprehensible to even the most powerful wizard until she
takes time to study and decipher it.
To decipher an arcane magical writing (such as a single spell in written
form in anotherís spellbook or on a scroll), a character must make a
Spellcraft check (DC 20 + the spellís level). If the skill check fails, the
character cannot attempt to read that particular spell again until the next
day. A read magic spell automatically deciphers a magical writing
without a skill check. If the person who created the magical writing is on
hand to help the reader, success is also automatic.
Once a character deciphers a particular magical writing, she does not need
to decipher it again. Deciphering a magical writing allows the reader to
identify the spell and gives some idea of its effects (as explained in the
spell description). If the magical writing was a scroll and the reader can
cast arcane spells, she can attempt to use the scroll.
Wizard Spells and Borrowed
A wizard can use a borrowed spellbook to prepare a spell she already
knows and has recorded in her own spellbook, but preparation success is not
assured. First, the wizard must decipher the writing in the book (see Arcane
Magical Writings, above). Once a spell from another spellcasterís book is
deciphered, the reader must make a Spellcraft check (DC 15 + spellís level)
to prepare the spell. If the check succeeds, the wizard can prepare the
spell. She must repeat the check to prepare the spell again, no matter how
many times she has prepared it before. If the check fails, she cannot try to
prepare the spell from the same source again until the next day. (However,
as explained above, she does not need to repeat a check to decipher the
Adding Spells to a Wizardís
Wizards can add new spells to their spellbooks through several methods.
If a wizard has chosen to specialize in a school of magic, she can learn
spells only from schools whose spells she can cast.
Spells Gained at a New Level: Wizards perform a certain amount of
spell research between adventures. Each time a character attains a new
wizard level, she gains two spells of her choice to add to her spellbook.
The two free spells must be of spell levels she can cast. If she has chosen
to specialize in a school of magic, one of the two free spells must be from
her specialty school.
Spells Copied from Anotherís Spellbook or a Scroll: A wizard can also
add a spell to her book whenever she encounters one on a magic scroll or in
another wizardís spellbook. No matter what the spellís source, the wizard
must first decipher the magical writing (see Arcane Magical Writings,
above). Next, she must spend a day studying the spell. At the end of the
day, she must make a Spellcraft check (DC 15 + spellís level). A wizard who
has specialized in a school of spells gains a +2 bonus on the Spellcraft
check if the new spell is from her specialty school. She cannot, however,
learn any spells from her prohibited schools. If the check succeeds, the
wizard understands the spell and can copy it into her spellbook (see Writing
a New Spell into a Spellbook, below). The process leaves a spellbook that
was copied from unharmed, but a spell successfully copied from a magic
scroll disappears from the parchment.
If the check fails, the wizard cannot understand or copy the spell. She
cannot attempt to learn or copy that spell again until she gains another
rank in Spellcraft. A spell that was being copied from a scroll does not
vanish from the scroll.
In most cases, wizards charge a fee for the privilege of copying spells from
their spellbooks. This fee is usually equal to the spellís level x50 gp.
Independent Research: A wizard also can research a spell
independently, duplicating an existing spell or creating an entirely new
Writing a New Spell into a Spellbook
Once a wizard understands a new spell, she can record it into her
Time: The process takes 24 hours, regardless of the spellís level.
Space in the Spellbook: A spell takes up one page of the spellbook
per spell level. Even a 0-level spell (cantrip) takes one page. A spellbook
has one hundred pages.
Materials and Costs: Materials for writing the spell cost 100 gp per
Note that a wizard does not have to pay these costs in time or gold for the
spells she gains for free at each new level.
Replacing and Copying Spellbooks
A wizard can use the procedure for learning a spell to reconstruct a
lost spellbook. If she already has a particular spell prepared, she can
write it directly into a new book at a cost of 100 gp per page (as noted in
Writing a New Spell into a Spellbook, above). The process wipes the prepared
spell from her mind, just as casting it would. If she does not have the
spell prepared, she can prepare it from a borrowed spellbook and then write
it into a new book.
Duplicating an existing spellbook uses the same procedure as replacing it,
but the task is much easier. The time requirement and cost per page are
Selling a Spellbook
Captured spellbooks can be sold for a gp amount equal to one-half the
cost of purchasing and inscribing the spells within (that is, one-half of
100 gp per page of spells). A spellbook entirely filled with spells (that
is, with one hundred pages of spells inscribed in it) is worth 5,000 gp.
SORCERERS AND BARDS
Sorcerers and bards cast arcane spells, but they do not have spellbooks and
do not prepare their spells. A sorcererís or bardís class level limits the
number of spells he can cast (see these class descriptions). His high
Charisma score might allow him to cast a few extra spells. A member of
either class must have a Charisma score of at least 10 + a spellís level to
cast the spell.
Daily Readying of Spells: Each day, sorcerers and bards must focus
their minds on the task of casting their spells. A sorcerer or bard needs 8
hours of rest (just like a wizard), after which he spends 15 minutes
concentrating. (A bard must sing, recite, or play an instrument of some kind
while concentrating.) During this period, the sorcerer or bard readies his
mind to cast his daily allotment of spells. Without such a period to refresh
himself, the character does not regain the spell slots he used up the day
Recent Casting Limit: As with wizards, any spells cast within the
last 8 hours count against the sorcererís or bardís daily limit.
Adding Spells to a Sorcererís or Bardís Repertoire: A sorcerer or
bard gains spells each time he attains a new level in his class and never
gains spells any other way. When your sorcerer or bard gains a new level,
consult Table: Bard Spells Known or Table: Sorcerer Spells Known to learn
how many spells from the appropriate spell list he now knows. With
permission, sorcerers and bards can also select the spells they gain from
new and unusual spells that they have gained some understanding of.
Clerics, druids, experienced paladins, and experienced rangers can cast
divine spells. Unlike arcane spells, divine spells draw power from a divine
source. Clerics gain spell power from deities or from divine forces. The
divine force of nature powers druid and ranger spells. The divine forces of
law and good power paladin spells. Divine spells tend to focus on healing
and protection and are less flashy, destructive, and disruptive than arcane
PREPARING DIVINE SPELLS
Divine spellcasters prepare their spells in largely the same manner as
wizards do, but with a few differences. The relevant ability for divine
spells is Wisdom. To prepare a divine spell, a character must have a Wisdom
score of 10 + the spellís level. Likewise, bonus spells are based on Wisdom.
Time of Day: A divine spellcaster chooses and prepares spells ahead
of time, just as a wizard does. However, a divine spellcaster does not
require a period of rest to prepare spells. Instead, the character chooses a
particular part of the day to pray and receive spells. The time is usually
associated with some daily event. If some event prevents a character from
praying at the proper time, he must do so as soon as possible. If the
character does not stop to pray for spells at the first opportunity, he must
wait until the next day to prepare spells.
Spell Selection and Preparation: A divine spellcaster selects and
prepares spells ahead of time through prayer and meditation at a particular
time of day. The time required to prepare spells is the same as it is for a
wizard (1 hour), as is the requirement for a relatively peaceful
environment. A divine spellcaster does not have to prepare all his spells at
once. However, the characterís mind is considered fresh only during his or
her first daily spell preparation, so a divine spellcaster cannot fill a
slot that is empty because he or she has cast a spell or abandoned a
previously prepared spell.
Divine spellcasters do not require spellbooks. However, such a characterís
spell selection is limited to the spells on the list for his or her class.
Clerics, druids, paladins, and rangers have separate spell lists. A cleric
also has access to two domains determined during his character creation.
Each domain gives him access to a domain spell at each spell level from 1st
to 9th, as well as a special granted power. With access to two domain spells
at each spell levelóone from each of his two domainsóa cleric must prepare,
as an extra domain spell, one or the other each day for each level of spell
he can cast. If a domain spell is not on the cleric spell list, it can be
prepared only in a domain spell slot.
Spell Slots: The character class tables show how many spells of each
level a character can cast per day.
These openings for daily spells are called spell slots. A spellcaster always
has the option to fill a higher-level spell slot with a lower level spell. A
spellcaster who lacks a high enough ability score to cast spells that would
otherwise be his or her due still gets the slots but must fill them with
spells of lower level.
Recent Casting Limit: As with arcane spells, at the time of
preparation any spells cast within the previous 8 hours count against the
number of spells that can be prepared.
Spontaneous Casting of Cure and Inflict Spells: A good
cleric (or a cleric of a good deity) can spontaneously cast a cure
spell in place of a prepared spell of the same level or higher, but not in
place of a domain spell. An evil cleric (or a cleric of an evil deity) can
spontaneously cast an inflict spell in place of a prepared spell (one
that is not a domain spell) of the same level or higher. Each neutral cleric
of a neutral deity either spontaneously casts cure spells like a good
cleric or inflict spells like an evil one, depending on which option
the player chooses when creating the character. The divine energy of the
spell that the cure or inflict spell substitutes for is
converted into the cure or inflict spell as if that spell had
been prepared all along.
Spontaneous Casting of Summon Natureís Ally Spells: A druid
can spontaneously cast a summon natureís ally spell in place of a
prepared spell of the same level or higher. The divine energy of the spell
that the summon natureís ally spell substitutes for is converted into
the summon spell as if that spell had been prepared all along.
DIVINE MAGICAL WRITINGS
Divine spells can be written down and deciphered just as arcane spells
can (see Arcane Magical Writings, above). Any character with the Spellcraft
skill can attempt to decipher the divine magical writing and identify it.
However, only characters who have the spell in question (in its divine form)
on their class spell list can cast a divine spell from a scroll.
NEW DIVINE SPELLS
Divine spellcasters most frequently gain new spells in one of the following
Spells Gained at a New Level: Characters who can cast divine spells
undertake a certain amount of study between adventures. Each time such a
character receives a new level of divine spells, he or she learns new spells
from that level automatically.
Independent Research: A divine spellcaster also can research a spell
independently, much as an arcane spellcaster can. Only the creator of such a
spell can prepare and cast it, unless he decides to share it with others.
Spell-Like Abilities: Usually, a spell-like ability works just
like the spell of that name. A few spell-like abilities are unique; these
are explained in the text where they are described.
A spell-like ability has no verbal, somatic, or material component, nor does
it require a focus or have an XP cost. The user activates it mentally. Armor
never affects a spell-like abilityís use, even if the ability resembles an
arcane spell with a somatic component.
A spell-like ability has a casting time of 1 standard action unless noted
otherwise in the ability or spell description. In all other ways, a
spell-like ability functions just like a spell.
Spell-like abilities are subject to spell resistance and to being dispelled
by dispel magic. They do not function in areas where magic is
suppressed or negated. Spell-like abilities cannot be used to counterspell,
nor can they be counterspelled.
Some creatures are actually sorcerers of a sort. They cast arcane spells as
sorcerers do, using components when required. In fact, an individual
creature could have some spell-like abilities and also cast other spells as
Supernatural Abilities: These abilities cannot be disrupted in
combat, as spells can, and they generally do not provoke attacks of
opportunity. Supernatural abilities are not subject to spell resistance,
counterspells, or to being dispelled by dispel magic, and do not
function in areas where magic is suppressed or negated.
Extraordinary Abilities: These abilities cannot be disrupted in
combat, as spells can, and they generally do not provoke attacks of
opportunity. Effects or areas that negate or disrupt magic have no effect on
extraordinary abilities. They are not subject to dispelling, and they
function normally in an antimagic field. Indeed, extraordinary
abilities do not qualify as magical, though they may break the laws of
Natural Abilities: This category includes abilities a creature has
because of its physical nature. Natural abilities are those not otherwise
designated as extraordinary, supernatural, or spell-like.