Aini's People

Iraj Bashiri


Family, teachers, government officials, workers, friends, and foes who exerted influence on both the course of Aini's life and the history of the Tajiks:

Amir of Bukhara from 1885 to 1910. Composed poetry under the pen name Ojiz and considered himself a specialist in recognizing the merits of poets. Many poets accepted to join his his retinue and compose poetry on the themes they were assigned. Aini refused to join the group and, therefore, was arrested and tortured. A different point of conflict between the two was Aini's insistance that Bukhara should open itself up to change and accept the new-method schools as a reality. Abdulahad, who had accepted to go along with the reformists, changed his mind. He closed the schools and persecuted the teachers, the students, and the families in Bukhrar that had supported the movement.
Due to his many disagreements with the ulema he resided in Karmina and rarely came to Bukhara.

Abduljabbarov, Abdulrashid
One of the first organizers of Soviet education in Samarqand. Teacher of mathematics and natural sciences at the school where, in 1918-1919, Aini also taught. Subjects such as physics and chemistry were not taught in Bukhara schools. Although students of the time of Aini spent close to 19 years in school, their time was spent on learning enough Arabic to read the Qur'an, the ahadith, (words and deeds of the Prophet ), fiqh (jurisprudence), and theology.

Abdulrahim Yusefzadeh (1890-1938)
Teacher and member of the Young Bukharans. Yusefzadeh, imprisoned in April 1917, was released at the same time as Aini. He participated in the Kalisov event and the last attack on Alim khan's Bukhara. In 1921, he served as the Supervisor of Agriculture in Bukhara. In 1923, he was the Deputy Committee Chief of Eastern Bukhara. In 1924, he was the representative of the Peoples Republic of Bukhara in the Soviet government.

Was a member of the Russian disarmament group that entered Bukhara in March 1918. He was killed in the Arg in a beastly manner.

One of the students sent to Istanbul by the clandestine "Children's Education Society". He was imprisoned in April 1917 and severely tortured. He was released from prison at the same time as Aini.

An unofficial (kunjaki) teacher who helped Aini leave his village and go to Bukhara.

Abdussattor, Khoja
Abdussattor is one of the members of the clandestine "Children's Education Society" and of the Young Bukharans. He was killed in 1918 in the Arg prison.

Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973-1047)
Born in the village of Birun, near Bukhara, Biruni studied mathematics and the theory of numbers and left a copious amount of publications, including al-Tafhim. This most important work, authored in both Arabic and Persian, deals with astronomy, mathematics, geometry, and geography. But perhaps his most remarkable work is his calculation of the circumference of the earth; his calculations are twelve miles short of the present calculations.

A small child from the Kuhistan region whom Aini took under his wing.

Aini's neighbor in the Kukaltosh madrasah who turned out to be an agent of the Russian government spying on Aini.

Last Amir of Bukhara (ruled 1910-1920). Overthrown by the People's Revolution, he escaped Bukhara. Died in Afghanistan in 1945.

Ali Reza
Reza was a War adjutant of the Peoples Republic of Bukhara. In March 1922, he became a traitor to the revolution and joined the Bashmachis.

Chief guard, one of the servants of Amir Alimkhan. Aminkhan arrested and imprisoned Aini in 1917.

Aminov Muinjan
One of the leaders of the Young Bukharans and a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Bukhara (1920-21). In 1922, he was the chief of KIM of the Peoples Republic of Bukhara. Later he was the Chief of Labor and Defense of the soviets. Due to sabotage in the soviets, he was expelled from Bukhara.

Ashurov, Halim
Member of the clandestine "Children's Education Society" in whose house, in 1917, the group held its last session.

Atakh Khajayev (1894-1938)
Member of the Young Bukharans who studied in Istanbul. After his return in 1908, he taught in the new schools. He was imprisoned with Aini in April 1917 and was rescued at the same time. After the Bukharan revolution, he became the Chief of the Qarshi Revolutionary Committee. In 1921, he became the representative of the Peoples Republic of Bukhara and was sent to Eastern Bukhara. There he met with the chiefs of the Bashmachis and signed an agreement according to which the Bashmachis recognized the Soviet government and the Soviet government pulled out the Red Army from Dushanbe. From a political and military point of view, this treaty was an enormous blunder. In 1922-23, Khajayev was the deputy governor of Bukhara for the RSFSR. In 1923, he became the Deputy Chief of Soviet Supervisors of the Bukhara government. In the same year, he was taken away from that job and exiled from Bukhara.

Attar Farid al-Din (1137?-1220)
Son of a prosperous pharmacist, Attar had an excellent education in the course of which he studied medicine, Arabic, and theosophy. His major poetic works include Asrar Nameh (Book of Secrets), about Sufi ideas, Elahi Nameh (Divine Book), about asceticism, and most importantly Manteq al-Tayr (The Conference of the Birds), in which he crossed the seven valleys of love.

Auezov, Mukhtar (1897-1961?)
Classical Soviet Kazakh literary figure who devoted his career to an understanding and explaining the life and times of the father of Kazakh literature, Abai Kunanbaev.

Azimov, Khoja Zakariya
Azimov was a member of the negotiation team that met with Kalisov. After the meeting, he was killed by the order of the Amir.

Baghdadi, Majdadin
A major Sufi sheykh, poet, and Farid al-din Attar's teacher, Baghdadi exerted a great deal of influence on Central Asia and northern Iran. He was put to death in 1216 by Khwarazm Shah Muhammad on slander charges.

Baha' al-Din, Valad Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Khatib (d. 1231)
One of the great sheykhs of the Sufis, father of Jamal al-Din Rumi.

Bal'ami, Abuali Muhammad ibn Abulfazl (d. 998)
Famous minister of Mansur ibn Nuh-i Samani according to whose order al-Tabari's History was adjusted and translated into Tajiki.

Behbudi, Mahmud Khoja (1874-1919)
Writer, one of the ideologues of the Jadid movement in Turkistan. He published the Samarqand and Aina journals in Samarqand and wrote a series of textbooks. He supported both the new-method schools the National Bourgeois Autonomous Kokand. He was killed in Qarshi at the hand of the Amir's executioner.

Bedil, Mirza Abdul Qader (1644-1721)
Great Indian-Tajik-Persian poet and pantheistic thinker who influenced Tajik literature during the 18th and 19th centuries.

One of the famous doctors in Samarqand at the beginning of the 20th century.

Burhan al-Din
For a long time served as the Qozikalon (Chief Judge) of Bukhara. One of the strictest of the ulema and absolutely against any type of reform, he organized the reactionary movement.

A servants of the Amir who took it upon himself to inform the disarmament overseers about the Amir's treacherous plans to eliminate them. He was killed by the Amir, in 1918, in the Arg.

Burhanov, Mukkamel
One of the founders of the clandestine "Children's Education Society." In 1916, he became the leader of the Young Bukharan Party. In the first meeting of the Bukharan Communist Party, he became the head of the Central Committee. After the Revolution he became the leader of the Peoples Republic of Bukhara. Also served as the plenipotentiary deputy of the Peoples Republic of Bukhara in the RSFSR.

Davlatmand Bi
Leader of the Bashmachis in Eastern Bukhara in the 1920s.

Dehotti, Abdussalam Pirmuhammadzadeh (1911-1962) Tajik Soviet poet and prose writer. Student and colleague of Aini.

Diakov, A.M. (1896-1975)
Orientalist, doctor of medicine, and member of the revkom of Tajikistan. Commissar for health (1925-1932). Scientific worker for the Institute of Oriental Studies of AFSSR.

Donish, Ahmad Makhdum (1827-1897)
Bored with Bukhara schools, Donish taught himself all that was to know at his time about the natural sciences and the arts. His three trips to Russia on behalf of the Bukhara amirs added to the depth of that knowledge. His legacy includes a concise essay on Tajik history as well as a valuable book entitled Navodir al-Vaqoye' (Singular Events).

Enver Pasha (1881-1922)
A Turkish politician, general, and leader of the Young Turks. He served as one of the major commanders of the Ottoman Empire in WWI. After the Ottomans were defeated, he fled to Germany. From there he traveled to Central Asia (1921), where he joined the Bashmachi movement as a leader. He was killed by the Red Army in Baljuan, Kulab, in 1922.

Fazluddin Mahmud
One of the founders of the clandestine "Children's Education Society" and of the active Young Bukharans. He died in Tashkent of typhus in 1918.

Fikrat, T. (1867-1915)
Democratic poet of Turkey.

Firdowsi, Abu al-Qasim (935-1020)
Author of the Shahname, (Book of Kings) Firdowsi was born to a family of landed gentry in the town of Tus. He grew up in a rural culture suffused with the words and deeds of heroes long gone. At the age of forty, he set himself the task of collecting, organizing, and versifying the most cherished stories and myths about his homeland. His epic, 60,000 couplets in length, constitutes the foundation of Iranian national identity.

Fitrat, Abdulrauf (1886-1938)
Poet, writer, and one of the prominent figures of the Young Bukharans, Fitrat studied in Turkey where he published a collection of poetry called Soyaho (Shadows). He also published two books Sayyoh-i Hindi (The Indian Tourist) and the Munozarot (Dialogue). Both in Tajiki, the books were published in Istanbul. In these books he severely criticized the backward Bukhara, its prejudiced mullahs, and the drawbacks of the traditional educational system dominating the madrasahs. He was the author of the Young Bukharans program also known as the Bill of Reform for Bukhara. After the Revolution in Bukhara, he served as Foreign Affairs Supervisor (1922), Education Supervisor (1923), Budget Supervisor, and Deputy Chief of the Soviets of Labor (1923). In the latter year, due to his use of people's and government's funds for personal whims, he was dismissed and exiled from Bukhara. He spent the remainder of his life teaching and writing.

Frunze, M. B. (1885-1925)
Prominent Soviet military leader. Chief of military revolutionary Soviet and military commissar of USSR. In 1920, he was the commander of the Turkistani front. He fought the Amir of Bukhara in 1920 and overthrew him.

Gasparinski, Ismail
The publisher of the first journal published in Russia in the Turkish language. The journal, entitled Tarjumon was issued in Baqchesera, Crimea between 1883 and 1914. He was also the founder of the Jadid movement among the Muslim peoples of Russia.

Hafiz, Shams u-din Muhammad (c. 1325-1389)
Khajeh Shams al-Din Muhammad could, allegedly, recite the Qur'an in 14 different forms. Versifying some of the main themes of the holy book is, perhaps, why his poetry has a special appeal to the general Iranian public and why his divan is, at times, placed at the same level as the holy Qur'an. Indeed, some Iranians use his divan to look into the future.

Hafiz is undeniably the master of the art of ghazal (sonnet) which he developed and perfected. The interpretation of Hafiz's ghazals has been highly controversial. The controversy arises from Hafiz's allegorical use of divine love alongside profane love.

Hairat, Muhammadsiddiq (1878-1902)
One of the most talented of the Tajik poets of the 20th century. Aini's peer and friend.

Hamdi, Ahmadjan (1876-1937)
Poet, educator, and one of the close colleagues and friends of Aini. Active participant in Bukharan revolution.

Hashmet, Sidiqkhan
Amir Abdulahad's brother who spent thirty-six years of his life in prison and house arrest. He was released from captivity after the Bukharan revolution. Poet, literary expert, and lover of books, he owned a very valuable library. After the ouster of Alimkhan, for a while, he was the director of the Bukhara library. In 1922, exiled from Bukhara, he went to Afghanistan where Alimkhan had also taken refuge.

Son of Aini's father's uncle. A master wood carver also known as Usta Amak.

Revolutionary, Young Bukharan, killed in 1917.

Ibadullah, Makhdum
One of the reactionary muftis of Bukhara. He was well-known for accepting bribes and for warmongering. In 1918, many innocent people were imprisoned and tortured by him. The order for arrest and torture of Aini carries his signature.

Ibn al-Hajeb
Arab learned man of the 13th century. Author of Kafi-ya fi Nahv (Advanced Syntax), an Arabic textbook used in the madrasah.

Ibn-i Sina (980-1037)
Usually cited alongside Hippocrates and Galenus, Ibn-i Sina is known in the East as "Shaykh al-Ra'is" and "Hujat al-Haqq" and in the West as the "Prince of the Physicians." He has left between 276 and 456 manuscripts and has contributed to many branches of the sciences and the arts including medicine, phenomenology, philosophy, alchemy, mineralogy, mathematics, literature, astronomy, and music. Of these contributions, between 44 to 59 books and articles are devoted to medicine. The contents of nine of these books, written in Arabic and Perso-Tajik languages, are in poetry; the rest are in prose.

Ibrahimov, Alimjan (1887-1928)
Tatar writer, publicist, and Soviet Peoples Worker.

Ikram(cha), Domullah (1848-1928)
One of the progressive teachers of Bukhara. Teacher and supporter of Aini. In October 1920, he participated in the first Peoples Conference and congratulated them on the establishment of the Peoples Republic of Bukhara.

Ikrami, Jalal (1909-1993)
Ikromi came to prominence after the publication of his Dukhtar-i Otash (The Daughter of Fire), a vivid portrayal of the situation of women in pre-revolutionary Bukhara (1969) as well as his Davozdah Darvoza-yi Bokhara (The Twelve Gates of Bukhara), which deals with the important social, political, and historical events during the first days of the Revolution.

Iliyava, S. Z. (1883-1937)
Prominent representative of the Party and the Soviet government. In 1919-1920, Chief Commissar for Turkistan KEM and Sovernacom RSFSR and member of the Revolutionary Soviet media of Turk-front.

Jami, Abdulrahman (1414-1492)
Great Perso-Tajik poet. Author of many books of poetry and prose.

Kalisov, F. I. (1891-1940)
Chief of the Sovnarkom of Turkistan; led an army against the Amir of Bukhara, Amir Alimkhan in 1918.

Kallinin, M. I. (1875-1946)
Prominent Soviet governmental representative and the Communist Party. First leader of the KEM SSSR.

Sadriddin Aini's and administrator of his legacy.

Kamol-i Khojandi (d. 1400)
Great poet and one of the prominent representatives of Tajik poetry. A contemporary of Hafiz, he communicated with the poet of Shiraz.

Kerimi, Fateh (1871-1941)
Famous Tatar writer and journalist. Writer of the newspaper Vaqt which, published between 1906 and 1918. His paper, widely read in Central Asia, contained many articles on Bukhara and about Bukharan politics and social life.

Khojai, Sadpiri
One of the famous sheykhs of 18th century Saktari. Grandfather of Aini.

Khojaev, Faizullah (1896-1938)
Prominent leader in Soviet government and Communist Party. Born in Bukhara in the family of a rich merchant, he studied in Moscow, became a leader of the Young Bukharans and, after the 1918 event in Tashkent, founded the Young Bukharans Party. After the defeat of the Amir, he became the Chief of the Committee assigned to Oversee Bukharan Affairs. After the division of the nationality rights, he became the head of the Soviet Commissariat for Uzbekistan. From 1925 he served as a member of the Presidium and the Chief of the KEM SSSR.

Aini's eldest daughter.

Leader of one of the branches of the foreign ministry of the temporary royal Russian government which oversaw the affairs of Bukhara.

Kubra, Najm al-Din
Founder of the Kubraviyya Order, Kubra is a poet and a great sheykh of the Sufis. He has written many works about Sufism and composed a number of famous quatrains. He was killed during the attack of the Mongols on Khwarazm in 1221.

Kuibishev, V. B. (1888-1935)
One of the major leaders of the Communist Party and the Soviet government. He was the Deputy Chief of the Central Executive Committee Commissariat (beginning October 1919), a member of the revolutionary military Soviet of the Turkistan front, and a member of the political bureau Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik).

Lahuti, Abu al-Qasim (1887-1957)
Revolutionary poet of Iran and one of the founders of Tajik-Soviet poetry. Lahuti served as a governmental leader and an educator of the Tajiks. In the first meeting of the SSR Soviets, he was selected as a government member and the Secretary of the Writer's Union of the SSSR. "Kremlin," "Victory," and "Revolution" are examples of the type of themes he developed.

Administrative Chief, Court Minister, and Treasurer of Amir Alimkhan.

Lemenovsky, A. G. (b. 1897)
He was the head of the school in Samarqand where Aini taught. In the 1940s he became the head of the Russian school #40 in Samarqand in which Aini's children studied.

He was the owner of a publishing house in Kagan. He had the publishing right and was the chief of the newspapers Bokhara-i Sharif and Turan, both published in Kagan.

Lucine (1881-1936)
Publicist, literary man, and editor of literature in China.

Lutfi, Mirza Nazrullah
Bukharan poet and calligrapher of the time of Aini.

Aini's youngest daughter.

Mansurov, Mirza Muheddin
Famous Bukharan merchant and factory owner. In 1917, he became the head of the Executive Committee of the Young Bukharans' organization. He participated in the Bukharan Revolution and donated all his property to the Republic of Bukhara. He served as the supervisor of commerce and agriculture in 1920-21. In March 1921, he became the leader of a commission from the Republic of Bukhara to the RSFSR; signed a protocol of cooperation that laid the foundation for Bukharan-Russian friendship.

Marqinani, Ali (d. 1197)
One of the famous Muslim learned men and faqirs. His Hidaye-i Sharif was taught in Bukharan madrasahs.

Mehri Homid Khoja
Poet, educator, and one of the colleagues of Aini who participated in the formation of the clandestine "Children's Education Society." He was executed in 1918 at the hands of the Amir's executioners.

Miller, B. V. (1877-1956)
Orientalist, deputy of the Russian government in Tabriz, Iran, and in Turkey and Morocco. He served as a diplomat during the Revolution and, thereafter, represented the Russian government in Bukhara; acted as a political agent during the transitional government.

Mirbobo, Haji Mir Muhsin
A Young Bukharan and one of the founders of the Bukhara Communist Party. In 1917, he was tortured along with Aini. He, too, was saved by the Revolutionary soldiers and set free. After the Revolution, he became one of the leaders of the profsoyouz (professional unions) of Bukhara.

Mirshakar, Mirsaid (b. 1912)
Tajik people's poet, people's and government representative. Chair of the Committee for Asia and African Union.

Mu'tasim, Sharif Makhdum
Poet and educator in the 1860s and 1870s who served in official capacities in various districts. Due to his association with Shekurbek, a thief, he was forced to return to Turkey where he took up the publication and sale of books. He composed poetry in Tajik, Turkish, and Arabic. Some of his poems carry the pen name Shirin.

Muhammad Hussein
A major Sakhtari sheykh.

Muhammad Makhdum
The last mard-i mardon. Leader of the Bukhara aluftas (toughs). One of Aini's heroes in the Yoddoshtho (Reminiscences).

Muhammadinov, Abduqadir (1892-1934)
Son of Bukhara's wealthy merchant M. Mansurov and a premier leader of the Young Bukharans. Participated in the March battle. On his return to Tashkent, he joined the Communist Party of Turkistan. After the Revolution, he was the First director of the Peoples Republic of Bukhara. From August 1921 to November 1924, he was the Supervisor of Industry and Commerce. He was the Chairman of the Soviet of People's Directorate and the Soviet of Economy. After the assignment of the national boundaries in the new government, he became the head of the Soviet of People's Commissariat; served in a number of other positions.

Muhiddin Khoja
Aini's elder brother who, in 1922, was killed by the Bashmachis in the village of Sakhtari.

Mullah Amon
One of the heroes of the Yoddoshtho who, after achieving the position of the mudarres, refused to become a mullah; instead, he walked the streets of Bukhara.

Mullah Bobo
In 1921, he was the Deputy Supervisor for the Internal Affairs of the Revolutionary Government of Bukhara. In 1922, in a treasonous move, he joined the Bashmachis.

Munzim, Mirza Abdul Vahed (1877-1934)
Educator, poet, and revolutionary. Munzim was the founder of the first new fundamentalist school in Bukhara and one of the founders of the clandestine "Children's Education Society." He participated in the Bukhara Revolution, served as supervisor of health and well-being. He was one of Aini's friends and associates.

Muqanna', Pasha ibn Hakim
Leader of the 8th-century anti-feudalist uprising known as the Safidjomigon (776-783). The uprising included the villages of Zarafshan and Qashqadariya. After the defeat of the uprising, rather than allowing himself to be taken by his enemies, Muqanna' killed himself.

Mushfiq, Abdulrahman (1538-1588)
Famous Tajik poet.

Mutallib, Muslihiddinov
Teacher at the village of Saktari, grandson of Aini's older brother, Muhiddin.

The Amir of Bukhara from 1860-1885. During his time, Bukhara became a Russian protectorate.

Na'im Palban
Brother of Mullah Qahhor; a Bashmachi leader in the Zarafshan region; killed Aini's eldest brother.

Nadi, Unas
Chairman of the unique commiserate of Bukhara in 1922.

Naficy, Said (1896-1966)
Iranian author and literary specialist.

RSFSR consul in Dushanbe, 1921-22.

Narshakhi, Abubakr Muhammad ibn Ja'afar-i Bukhari (889-959)
Author of Tarikh-i Bukhara or the Tarikh-i Narshakhi (in Arabic).

Nasafi, Najmuddin Abuhafs (1068-1142)
Author of Aqayed-i Nasafi, one of the textbooks in the madrasahs.

Nazim Hikmat (1902-1963)
Famous Communist poet of Turkey.

Samanid king. Contemporary of Rudaki.

Nasrulla Qushbegi
Alimkhan's Prime Minister; was executed in 1918 by the Amir's order.

Nizami, Abu Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yusef (c. 1141-1209)
Well-versed in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, jurisprudence, music, and the arts, Nizami incorporated the knowledge of his time into his poetry. His Khamsa (Quintet) consists of Makhzan al-Asrar (the Treasury of Mysteries) on esoteric subjects; Khusrau va Shirin (Khusrau and Shirin) on the power of love; Layla va Majnun (Leyli and Majnun) on the object of love; Haft Gunbad (Seven Princesses) on the many faces of love; and Eskandar Nama (The Romance of Alexander the Great) on knowledge and might. The beauty of the Khamsa of Nizami is unsurpassed in Persian literature.

Orivob, Abdolhamid
Leader of the Bukhara militia who defected to the Bashmachis.

Orjonikidze, G. K. (1886-1937)
Outstanding official of the Communist Party and Soviet government. Many rayons, streets, and schools in Tajikistan are dedicated to him.

Only woman doctor in Bukhara of Sadriddin Aini. Known to the populace as Doctor Shah, she was killed in the March killings.

Member of the Red Army Commission sent to Bukhara in March 1918 to oversee the disarmament of the Amir's soldiers; was killed in Bukhara in a beastly manner.

Pirmasti, Afzal
Author of Afzal ut-Tazkar (written 1904).

Employee of the Russian government's temporary administration in Bukhara.

Pulad Khojayev Osman Khoja (b. 1890)
One of the Young Bukharans who studied in Turkey. In 1918, after the Kalisov event, formed the left Young Bukharan organization in Tashkent and, in September of the same year, joined the Communist Party. On the eve of the Bukhara revolution, he was one of the leaders of the Central Bureau of the Turkistani Party of the Revolutionary Young Bukharans. After the Revolution, he served as the supervisor of the treasury and government controller. In August 1921, he became the chief of the Central Exescutive Committee of the Soviet Republics. In December of the same year, when he traveled to Dushanbe to join the Bashmachis led by Enver Pasha. He fled to Afghanistan and joined the anti-Revolutionary forces of the Amir.

Poyanda, Mavlana Mir Hussein
One of the Kobravi Sufi sheykhs of Saktari in the middle of the 17th century.

Qarabaqi, Yusef
Learned man, philosopher, and astronomer of the 17th century with a number of books on the subject of Sufism.

Aini's brother-in-law who was very kind to his sister's children.

Rahim Usta
A man who defended Aini in 1918 against the Amir's goons.

Rahimi, Muhammadjan (1901-1968)
Soviet-Tajik poet. Rudaki, Abu Adullah Ja'far ibn Muhammad

Rudaki, Abu 'Abdullah Ja'far ibn Muhammad (c. 860-941)
Rudaki was born in the district of Rudak near the city of Samarqand. He memorized the entire text of the Qur'an by the time that he was eight years old. A special ward of Nasr ibn Ahmad (r. 913-942), he became both rich and popular. Rudaki is known mostly for his Ju-yi-Muliyan (The Muliyan Brook) ode and his simple style which reflects the charm of the pre-Islamic literature of Iran.

Rudaki is also known by the title Ufari.

Rudzutak, Y. E. (1887-1938)
Representative of the Communist Party and the Soviet government. In 1919, he was a member of Turkcommisia. From May 1921, he served as the Chair of Turkcommisia and the Bureau of Turkistan Central Committee of the Communist Party (b). From 1926, a member of the political bureau. He also worked as Commissioner for the Railroads, general leader of the Union of Workers, Chairman of the Central Supervision Commissar, and the Deputy Chair of USSR Sovnarcom.

Rumi, Jalal al-Din Muhammad ibn Baho al-din Valad (1207-1273)
Jalal al-din's father left Balkh at the time of the Mongol invasion (1219-1220) and settled in Konya, Turkey. In 1244, Jalal al-Din met Shams-i Tabrizi, his mentor, whose name he chose as his pseudonym and for whom he wrote a divan or collection of poems containing 36,349 distichs and 1, 983 quatrains. Rumi's most well-known work, however, is Mathnavi-i Ma'navi (The Mathnavi Devoted to the Intrinsic Meaning of all Things).' Containing 7,000 couplets, the Mathnavi begins with The Song of the Reed, suggested to the Shaykh by Attar.

Sa'di, Mushref al-din ibn Muslehiddin-i Shirazi (c. 1219-1292)
Sa'di (b. 1213), Iran's cultural icon, traveled extensively in the West as far as Mecca and, allegedly, in the East as far as Transoxania and, maybe, even India. He is known mostly for his 1257 Bustan (The Garden) and the 1258 Gulistan (The Rose Garden). His Gulistan is the first classical Persian work to be translated into a Western tongue. The major themes of this quintessential Muslim humanist are: justice, love, humility, acceptance, contentment, and repentance.

Sabeti, Nizam
A Tatar educator who lived in Bukhara and who, in 1918, was killed along with his children.

Sahba, Mirza Hait
Served as one of the officials of the Amir. In 1918, he and his family were eliminated along with many of the other reformers.

Wife of Aini.

Sami Mirza Azim-i Bustani (d. 1907)
Poet and thinker. In his works, he criticized the irregularities in the Amir's palace. Driven out of the court, he lived his old age in poverty.

Sami, Suleiman
One of the Turkish officials captured in war in 1918-1919. Worked in the education department in Samarqand.

Samoni Marvazi
One of the historians of the 15th century. Author of the famous Kitab al-Ensab.

Shah Muhammadov, Mardonqul
One of the prominent jadids of Samarqand. After the October Revolution, he joined the SSRs. In 1919, in Qarshi, he and Behbudi were both killed.

Shahin Shamzodin (1857-1893)
One of the most talented Tajik poets of the latter part of the 19th century. He was confined to the retinue of Amir Abulahahd and passed his life in court pining to get away and be free. He never was.

Shakuri, Abdulqader (1876-1938)
Famous Samarqandi educator. The founder of the new-method schools for Tajiks of Samarqand. He wrote textbooks for these schools; was one of the close friends of Aini in Samarqand.

Sharifjon Makhdum (Sadr-i Ziyo) (1865-1931)
One of the judges of Bukhara. He was a poet, a lover of literature, a literary expert, and a supporter of reforms. He has left a number of notes and a book entitled Tazkar al-Ashar, a versified work, written in 1910.

Famous Ghejuvoni "Robinhood," who robbed the Amir and the rich and gave to the poor. One of the heroes of Aini's Yoddoshtho.

The officer responsible for the Russian government's affairs in Bukhara. Aini portrays him as a warmonger, a reactionary, and a dishonest person.

Shumskiy, S. E.
Chief of education department in Samarqand during 1918-1919.

Siraj Mirza
One of the early educators of the 20th century who used European techniques in medicine, a "hakim." He is the author of Tohfa-i Ahl-i Bokhara.

Subhi, Mustafa (1883-1921)
Founder of Turkish Communist Party. After the October Revolution in Central Asia, he established Turkish Communist groups from among the prisoners of war from Turkey. In 1921, on his way to Turkey, he was killed in Trabzon.

Tagor, Rabendorat (1861-1941)
Poet, author, thinker and leader of the People's of India.

Famous dotar player. Friend of Aini who had been forced to join the Amir's musicians.

Ex-Turkish officer, Deputy Supervisor of the War Department of the Bukharan Republic. In 1922, he became a traitor and joined the Bashmachis.

Tamhid Masiha (1894-1976)
Turkish poet. His works are cited in Aini's Namunaho.

Timurmolik served as the governor of Khujand at the time of the Mongol invasion of Central Asia (1220). He fought the enemy to the best of his ability.

Tuqai, Abdullo (1876-1913)
Tatar poet and educator whose works were liked by Aini before the Revolution.

Turaqulov, Nazir
One of the leaders of the Turkistan Communist Party. First Secretary of Central Committee of the Communist Party of Turkistan. Main editor of the journal Inqilob in Central Asia which published Aini's Jallodon-i Bukhara (1922, nos. 3-8). He also wrote an important introduction to Aini's other work entitled Materials for the History of the Revolution in Bukhara.

Tursunzoda, Mirzo (1911-1977)
People's poet of Tajikistan. Government and People's representative. From 1946, Chairman of the Writer's Union of Tajikistan. Chairman of Committee of African and Asian Friendship. Social Labor hero, governmental and Lenin laureate.

Another name for Rudaki.

Uluqzoda, Sotim (b. 1911)
Like Aini, Ulughzoda endeavored to reflect the society of his time in as realistic a manner as possible. His Subh-i Javoni-i Mo (The Morning of Our Youth), a delightful study of the formative days of Soviet life in Tajikistan, is an example. Ulughzoda's deep love for the Tajik farmer, however, is reflected in his Vosse, an account of the life of Tajikistan's exemplary revolutionary, Vosse (1845-1888).

Utkin, V. P.
The leader of the group that went to Bukhara to oversee the disarmament of the Amir's army; killed in the Arg in a beastly manner.

Validi, Zeki Toqan
Leader of the nationalist bourgeois Bashkirts. Participated in the formation of the autonomous Kokand. He fled abroad and lived in Istanbul until 1936.

Chief of the secret police of the Russian government in Bukhara.

Vvedenski, P.
He was a member of the Russian surrogate governorship of the Russian Czar in Bukhara. He was the first translator of Aini's novella, Odina, into Russian in 1929.

Ya'kubov, Azimjan
One of the workers of Kagan, a revolutionary. On September 25, 1918, in Tashkent, he was chosen as the Chief of the Central Committee of the Revolutionary Organization of Bukhara. In February 1919, he died of Typhus in Tashkent.

Yusefzadeh, Mirza Jalal
One of the educators of Azerbaijan who was invited to Bukhara in order to edit the journals Bukhara-i Sharif and Turan.

Zehney, Turaqul (1891)
Teacher of Soviet school in Samarqand in the 1920s. Senior scientific worker in the Institute of Languages and Literatures in the Name of Rudaki; author of textbooks and research materials.

Znaminsky, A. A.
Old Bolshevik. In the 1920s, he was Foreign Relations Officer of the SSSR in Uzbekistan.

Zufunun, Qori Abdulmajid (d. 1903)
Physician and poet. One of the colleagues of Ahmad Makhdum.

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Aini's Life: A Chronology

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