Mental State Examination Normative Data
05 November 2004
The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)
is a widely used method for assessing cognitive mental status. The evaluation of
cognitive functioning is important in clinical settings because of the
recognized high prevalence of cognitive impairment in medical patients. As a
clinical instrument, the MMSE has been used to detect impairment, follow the
course of an illness, and monitor response to treatment. The MMSE has also been
used as a research tool to screen for cognitive disorders in epidemiological
studies and follow cognitive changes in clinical trials.
While the MMSE has limited specificity
with respect to individual clinical syndromes, it represents a brief,
standardized method by which to grade cognitive mental status. It assesses
orientation, attention, immediate and short-term recall, language, and the
ability to follow simple verbal and written commands. Furthermore, it provides a
total score that places the individual on a scale of cognitive function.
Data on the MMSE
results in the following table (from Crum et al., 1993) can be used to compare
your patient's MMSE score with those determined from a population reference
group based on age and educational level.
Selected References on the MMSE
MF, Folstein, SE and McHugh PR (1975) Mini-Mental State: A practical method for
grading the state of patients for the clinician, Journal of Psychiatric
Research, 12: 189-198.
JC, LeResche L, Niaz U, VonKorff MR and Folstein MF (1982) Limits of the
mini-mental state as a screening test for dementia and delirium among hospital
patients. Psychological Medicine, 12: 397-408.
JR and Folstein MF (1988) Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE),
Psychopharmacology, 24: 689-692.
RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS and Folstein MF (1993) Population-based norms for the
mini-mental state examination by age and educational level, JAMA, 18: 2386-2391.