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Colonies & American Revolution

What is predestination?

the belief that God has predetermined who will receive salvation

Why did the Puritans want to leave England?

religious persecution

What religious movement was focused on getting an emotional response from its audience?

Great Awakening

How did this movement help feed revolutionary fervor?

equality in the eyes of God

What group wanted to remain loyal to Great Britain?

Tories/loyalists

Why did the British begin taxing the colonists in 1763?

pay for the French & Indian (7 yrs.) War

Name 2 characteristics of the New England colonies.

education, small farms, harbor cities, Puritanically based morals and religion

Name 2 characteristics of the middle colonies.

religious tolerance, commerce, craftsmanship, heavy Dutch influence

Name 2 characteristics of the southern colonies.

loyalty, plantations & cash crops, low population density

Who did the southern colonies rely upon for their labor force?

slaves from Africa

Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

Which enlightenment thinker pushed for a three branch government?

Montesquieu

Which enlightenment thinker was an advocate for the protection of "natural rights"?

Locke

Which enlightenment thinker pushed government by the general will?

Rousseau

What patriot is famous for being willing to pay the ultimate price for his freedom?

Patrick Henry

What was the first major tax placed on the colonists after the Seven Yearsí War?

Stamp Act

Name two ways the colonists protested this tax?

boycotts, demonstrations, harassment of public officials

What piece of literature used a combination of romantic emotions and enlightened reason to call people to the Revolution?

The Crisis by Thomas Paine

What document set up our nationís first government?

Articles of Confederation

What Colonial victory brought increased support from the French?

Saratoga

Name two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.

no power to tax, no power to coin money, no executive branch, weak central government

Name two ways that women supported the Revolutionary War.

nurses, cooks, taking over farm/business, spying, fighting

Where did the British surrender to Washington?

Yorktown

What was the freezing cold low point for the Continental Army?

Valley Forge

What were the two main purposes of the Declaration of Independence?

Establish ideology behind revolution and list grievances vs. King George

Constitution, Expansion and
Civil War

What amendment protects you from unlawful search & seizure?

4th

How many houses are their in our Congress? What are their names?

2, the Senate and the House of Representatives

What group pushed hard for the inclusion of the Bill of Rights?

Anti-Federalists

Which amendment protects your right to bear arms?

2nd

Who has the power to tax?

Congress

Who appoints Justices & Ambassadors? Who approves them?

President, Senate

What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment?

Speech, religion, press, assembly, petition

What right do some people feel is violated by the Death Penalty?

No cruel or unusual punishment (8th)

What amendment protects the rights of the accused?

6th

What amendment protects you from self-incrimination?

5th

Who has the power to declares laws/acts unconstitutional?

Judicial Branch/Supreme Court

How is the membership of the Senate determined?

Each state gets two Senators.

What is the group of the Presidentís advisors called?

cabinet

What was Hamiltonís vision for America?

A country based on manufacturing and a strong central government

What was Jeffersonís vision of America?

Agricultural society, everybody owns land

Who was sent to explore the Louisiana Territory?

Lewis & Clark

Why was Napoleon in a hurry to unload Louisiana?

needed money for war

How did the rivalry between the French & British affect us in the early 1800s?

War of 1812

What was the outcome of the War of 1812?

we win (the British lose interest)

What was the Monroe Doctrine?

donít mess around in our hemisphere & weíll stay out of yours (to Europe)

How did Andrew Jackson treat the Native Americans? What action reflects this?

Badly!, Trail of Tears

What is "Manifest Destiny"?

The belief that the U.S. would someday control the land from coast to coast.

What excuse did Polk use for starting the Mexican American War?

"American blood has been shed on American soil"

Who opposed the Mexican-American War? Why did they oppose it?

Whigs and Abolitionists, opposed extension of slavery

What did Tecumseh believe about land ownership?

Land was not meant to be owned, but rather shared by all people.

What area was like an independent country before it was annexed by the U.S?

Texas

Why did Santa Anna lay siege to the Alamo?

settlers were refusing to follow Mexican Laws

What party was formed by Jacksonís supporterís to ensure his election in 1828?

Democrats

How were the industries of westward expansion in conflict with the lifestyle of the Plains NAs?

settled (mining & farming) vs. nomadic

Who were the first settlers in Oregon?

Christian Missionaries and Mountain Men

What issue was hotly debated in the new territories as our country expanded westward?

slavery

What were two of the main provisions of the Missouri Compromise?

MO is a slave state, ME is a free state, no slavery above 36-30

What were two of the main provisions of the Compromise of 1850?

CA free state, tougher fugitive slave law, UT & NM slave territories

What was the result of giving Kansas and Nebraska popular sovereignty over slavery?

Bleeding Kansas (fighting over slavery)

Why did John Brown take over the arsenal at Harperís Ferry?

attempt to arm slaves and lead a revolt

Name two advantages the South had at the start of the Civil War.

Better generals, defensive war, passion for their cause

Name 3 advantages the North had at the start of the war.

larger population, more industry, better transportation, more food production

What was Lincolnís main purpose in fighting the Civil War?

preserving the Union

What was the first actual fighting of the war?

SC firing on Ft. Sumter

What happened to the Southern industrial and agricultural production facilities during the war?

They were almost totally wiped out

What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation?

Free the slaves in rebel states

What two Union victories happened on July 4, 1863? Why were they significant?

Gettysburg and Vicksburg, turning point in the war

In what speech does Lincoln identify preserving the Union as a most sacred cause?

Gettysburg Address

Who marched through the South with the goal of forcing them to surrender?

Sherman

Why was Vicksburg so important?

controlled the Mississippi River

Reconstruction, Industrialization and Immigration

What did the 13th Amendment do?

Made slavery illegal

Why did the Radical Republicans push for the 14th Amendment?

Southern States were passing Black Codes

Which amendment guaranteed freedmen the right to vote?

Fifteenth

What President did the Radical Republicans have a major problem during Reconstruction?

Andrew Johnson

Name 2 things that kept freedmen from gaining true equality.

sharecropping, KKK, black codes, racist attitudes

Name 2 ways Southern states kept freedmen from voting.

poll taxes, literacy tests, threats & violence

Give two examples of conflicts between Plains NAs and the settlers/army.

Wounded Knee, Sand Creek, Fetterman Fight, Little Big Horn, Chief Joseph

Who led his people on a 3,000 mile journey in an attempt to avoid being placed on a reservation?

Chief Joseph

What was the first strike where one union supported another?

Pullman Strike

What law basically forced Native Americans to accept "white culture"?

Dawes Act

How many families was the floor of a tenement designed for? How many actually lived there?

2, 6-10

Give 2 examples of poor working conditions.

heat/cold, unsafe machines, long hours, low wages

What inventions helped fuel the growth of cities?

telephone, electric light, use of steel in construction, electric street car

What event was wrongfully blamed on "bomb-throwing anarchists"?

Haymarket Square Riot

What was the first national labor organization?

Knights of Labor

Who was the first leader of the AFL?

Samuel Gompers

Why could businesses maintain such poor working conditions in the late 1800ís?

surplus of workers

How did workers eventually respond to these poor conditions?

formed unions

What is laissez faire economics?

a system with no govít control or interference

Why would the govít always side with the owners against the unions?

the owners had put them into the offices they held

What is xenophobia?

fear of foreigners

Why were new immigrants subjected to so much xenophobia?

different languages, religions, complexions, illiteracy

What do you call a group of corporations controlled by the same board for common interest?

trust

What photographer wrote "How the Other Half Lives" to expose the horrors of life in the inner city?

Jacob Riis

What is a pool?

companies in competition divide up market

How do corporations raise capital?

sell stock or take loans

How much did an unskilled worker make in 1885?

five cents a day

Name 2 major industrialists of the late 1800ís.

Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Morgan

What kind of person was likely to be a populist? Where were they likely to live?

farmer, Midwest

Name 2 demands of the populists.

higher crop prices, a natíl bank to give fair loans, regulation of the RRs

Where were most immigrants who came to the U.S. in the late 1800s processed?

Ellis Island

What industries were the cornerstones of western settlement?

mining and ranching

What was the goal of the muckrakers?

draw attention to social problems with sensational journalism

What group had great faith in the ongoing progress of society?

the progressives

Name a law that progressives passed to help purify food.

Pure Food & Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act

Name a measure taken by progressives to take the corruption out of govít.

commission system, direct primaries, referendums & initiatives

What groups essentially stole the voting power away from the poor to use for their own benefit?

political machines

Progressivism, Imperialism & WWI

What was the goal of the muckrakers?

draw attention to social problems with sensational journalism

What group had great faith in the ongoing progress of society?

the progressives

How did Progressives view the role of government?

They saw it as an agent of social change

What organization did Carrie Chapman Catt start to try and get suffrage for women?

NAWSA

What organization was formed in the early 1900ís to try and improve conditions for African-Americans?

NAACP

In what two places did most of the fighting take place in the Spanish American War?

Cuba and the Philippines

Which president was the most famous "trust buster"?

Teddy Roosevelt

What law did he use to bust the trusts?

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Name a measure taken by progressives to take the corruption out of govít.

commission system, direct primaries, referendums & initiatives

What black leader said that blacks must work from the bottom up in order to succeed?

Booker T. Washington

Name a law that progressives passed to help purify food.

Pure Food & Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act

Who opposed him and said that blacks must have "higher aims"?

WEB DuBois

Name two reasons why the U.S. was interested in expanding itís imperial power.

ports for naval ships and markets for manufactured goods

What did the Open Door Policy give us free reign to do?

force China to trade with us

What virtually made Panama a U.S. Territory?

Construction of Panama Canal

Name the original U.S. policy designed to keep European nations from interfering in our hemisphere.

Monroe Doctrine

What was the point of the Roosevelt Corollary?

We will intervene when necessary in the Western Hemisphere

What "manufactured" event drew the U.S. into the Spanish American War?

the sinking of the Maine

Why did Wilson send troops into Mexico?

to harass Pancho Villa, who was causing problems for the Mexican govít

What group of countries did the U.S. fight alongside in WWI?

the Allies (GB, France, Russia)

What group formed their opposition?

Central Powers (Germany & Austria-Hungary)

Name two factors that led to WWI.

Alliances, military build up, tension in the Balkans

What was the purpose of the Selective Service Act?

help raise troops or the AEF

What weapon did the Germans use to attack allied ships and the British blockade?

U-Boat

What two factors led to trench warfare?

old tactics combined with new weapons

Name the two events that helped pull the U.S. into the war.

Lusitania & Zimmerman Telegram

What was Wilsonís stated reason for entering WWI?

"Make the world safe for democracy."

Why was it only a matter of time before the U.S. was drawn into WWI?

we had become an imperial power, we were shipping war materials to Europe

Why was the Pennsylvania Coal Strike of 1902 significant?

government intervenes on the side of labor

What organization was responsible for producing U.S. propaganda during WWI?

Committee on Public Information (CPI)

What was Wilsonís Plan for Peace called?

14 Points

Name two key conditions of the Treaty of Versailles.

Germany responsible for WWI, pay big reparations, League of Nations

Name 2 govít agencies designed to make efficient use of our resources during WWI.

WIB, WLB, Food Administration

What law prevented "disloyal utterances" during WWI?

Sedition Act

Name 2 kinds of people who might have opposed U.S. involvement in WWI.

pacifists, socialists, German immigrants, Irish immigrants

What cause led to Wilsonís demise at the end of his presidency?

Pushing for the U.S. to join the League of Nations

The Roaring Ď20ís

What is a "red"?

someone with communist sympathies

What Attorney General started the "Red Scare"?

Mitchell Palmer

Identify two examples of anti-immigrant sentiment from the twenties,

Sacco & Vanzetti, Al Smith, KKK, quotas & restrictions

What organization was formed in response to the Palmer Raids?

ACLU

What amendment made alcohol illegal?

18th

How successful was prohibition? Who took over distribution of alcohol during prohibition?

not very, organized crime

What were the two big auto manufacturers in the Ď20s?

Ford & GM

List three characteristics of life in rural America in the 1920s.

cultural homogeneity, religious fundamentalism, farming, traditional values, country music & ice cream socials

Identify three characteristics of urban America in the 1920ís.

cultural diversity, new immigrants, religious diversity, speakeasies & jazz, manufacturing

Name two ways women established new independent attitudes in the 20s.

Bobbing Hair, wearing shorter skirts, moving out on their own

Name 2 big athletes of the Twenties.

Babe Ruth, Red Grange, Bill Tilden, Jack Dempsey, Gertrude Elderle, Bobby Jones

What is "buying on the margin"?

taking a loan on profits to buy more stock

Why is this a problem?

market crashes and nobody can pay back their loans

What group worked to oppress everybody who was not a White Protestant?

KKK

Who took over after Harding to clean up after the scandals? Describe his business philosophy.

Coolidge, hands off, pro-ownership

List two new electronic conveniences of the Ď20s.

vacuum cleaner, washing machine, radio, refrigerator, toaster

What kept Al Smith from winning the 1928 Presidential election?

urban, new immigrant, Roman Catholic

How did the automobile change American life?

demand for roads, faster transportation, closed distances, greater contact

What was the charge in the Scopesí Monkey Trial? What did this trial demonstrate?

teaching evolution, clash between rural & urban America

Why was there a surplus in farm products during the 1920ís?

overproduction from WWI

Identify two things that helped "liberate" America in the Ď20s.

Jazz, Radio, Movies, Literature, Automobiles

What amendment gave women the right to vote?

19th

What encouraged consumption of all kinds of new goods in the twenties?

new marketing techniques

Identify 2 ways Harding was scandalous.

womanizer, seized alcohol at poker parties, embezzlement by cabinet members, Tea Pot Dome

Name two types of jobs commonly held by middle class women.

nursing, teaching, higher level clerical

Name two types of jobs commonly held by lower class women.

factory, lower clerical, janitorial

The Great Depression

Insert Review Game Here

World War II

Name two places Hitler took territory before the war started.

Czechoslovakia, Austria, Rhineland

How long did it take Germany to conquer Western Europe at the start of the war?

9 months

What was the Battle of Britain?

massive air raids over a period of months in 1940

Name one piece of evidence that suggests the government knew the Japanese were going to attack Pearl Harbor.

Tension with Japan, no carriers in port

How much did federal spending increase between 1939 and 1945?

approximately $86 billion

How did the federal government raise money for the war effort?

Selling war bonds

How did our army handle soldiers of different races?

placed them in segregated regiments

Name a military organization that women joined to support the war effort.

WACS, WAFS, WAVES

Name one problem faced by Rosie the Riveter.

wage gap, fired for flirting, sexual harassment, little day care

What law allowed us to provide supplies for Great Britain while remaining neutral?

Lend-Lease Act

What kind of things were Japanese-Americans forced to leave behind when they were interned?

homes, businesses, most of personal possessions

What event brought us into the war?

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

What battle was considered the turning point in the Pacific?

Midway

What attack by Hitler eventually led to his downfall?

invasion of the USSR

Where did Douglas MacArthur "return" in 8/44?

the Philippines

Where was the greatest amount of kamikaze activity?

Okinawa

Where did we start fighting the war in Europe? (hint: itís not actually Europe)

North Africa

Where was our next campaign after North Africa?

Sicily (Italy)

What invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe?

D-Day/Operation Overlord

What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?

naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)

Name a hazard faced by U.S. troops after they invaded Normandy and were headed into Germany.

land mines, hedgerows, sniper fire

What was the last major German counter attack?

Battle of the Bulge

Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.

rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour

Name the general in charge of U.S. forces in Europe.

Eisenhower

Where did the Big 3 meet to discuss post war plans?

Yalta

Name two things the U.S. wanted from the Soviets at Yalta.

in the U.N., out of Eastern Europe, help vs, Japan

Which president made the decision to drop the Atomic bomb on Japan? What was his alternative to dropping the Bomb?

Truman, massive land invasion

On what two cities was the A-Bomb dropped?

Hiroshima & Nagasaki

Name one thing that was controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.

used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, unknown effects

How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?

boosted production & wages, created full employment

The Cold War

What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII?

United Nations

What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?

Truman Doctrine

What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free form Comm. after WWII?

Marshall Plan

Which side did the U.S. support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?

the South, the USSR

Why did Truman fire MacArthur during the Korean War?

insisted on being more aggressive (nuke China)

What was the result of the Korean War?

NK stays Comm., SK free, DMZ in middle

How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?

Berlin Airlift of supplies

What did the Soviets test/demonstrate in 1949?

an atomic bomb

Who was put to death for supposedly giving our nuclear secrets to the Soviets?

Julius & Ethel Rosenberg

Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950ís by hunting communists?

Joseph McCarthy

Name 2 ways U.S. citizens responded to the threat of Nuclear attack?

fallout shelters, drop and cover drills, end of the world parties

Who did both parties covet as their candidate for President in 1952?

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Which party did Eisenhower choose? What young senator became his running mate?

Republican, Richard Nixon

How did the Suez Crisis of 1956 effect the Cold War?

opened the Middle East to Soviet influence

What event of 1957 caused a rush to improve math & science programs in the U.S.?

launch of Sputnik

At the peak of the arms race, how many times over could the U.S. & the USSR have blown up the world?

10

What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War?

NATO & Warsaw Pact

What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950ís?

Fidel Castro

What effort did Kennedy make to remove him from power? Why did it fail?

the Bay of Pigs, lack of local support, no air strike

What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy wonít attack you if he knows you can retaliate?

Mutually Assured Destruction

How did the U-2 incident effect relations between the superpowers?

put them in the deep freeze

What threat from the Soviets in 1962 led to some of the darkest moments of the Cold War?

Cuban Missile Crisis

What was the outcome of this crisis?

U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR took back its missiles

Civil Rights Movement

What SC decision made segregation legal?

Plessy v. Ferguson

Give an example of a Jim Crow Law.

separate facilities, curfews, separate workplaces

How did WWII serve as a catalyst for the Movement?

fight for U.S. then come home to discrimination

What decision reversed Plessy?

Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS)

What did the Emmitt Till case demonstrate about the Southern Judicial System?

no justice for blacks from all white system

Where did Rosa Parks start the Bus Boycott? Who was chosen to lead the boycott?

Montgomery, Martin Luther King Jr.

What was the key principle of MLKís strategy to end segregation?

non-violence

Who were Kingís chief influences in the use of non-violent tactics?

Gandhi & Thoreau

What kinds of groups believed blacks must rely on themselves and not on integration?

Black Separatists

Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization.

Black Panthers, Nation of Islam

What was the focus of the Mississippi Summer Project?

increase # of black voters in Mississippi

What org. fought school segregation in the courts?

NAACP

Give 2 examples of tough conditions faced by black students in Little Rock.

soldier escorts, name calling, fights, threats

What organization was founded by King & other ministers in 1957?

SCLC

What was the SNCC?

The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee

Why was it such a big deal that Jackie Robinson played baseball?

it was Americaís past time, everybody paid attention

Why is Bull Connor so infamous?

Used police dogs & fire hoses on marchers in Birmingham

What was the purpose of the March on Washington?

pressure for Civil Rights Legislation

According to Malcolm X, who would it be OK to use violence against?

someone who had "laid a hand" on you

What did Malcolm X say blacks should reject?

self hatred imposed on them by white culture

What was the goal of the freedom riders? What were their tactics?

take the movement to the deep South, use segregated facilities

Name two things that happened to the Riders as they went through the South.

bombed, attacked, jailed

Who said "Segregation Now, Segregation Tomorrow, Segregation Forever"?

George Wallace, governor of Alabama

Where was militancy more rampant?

Northern cities

Who would "patrol the police" to assure they were not mistreating blacks? Name two of their demands?

Black Panthers, full employment, self determination, blacks should not serve in Vietnam, decent housing, better education

Who fled the inner cities for the suburbs after WWII?

middle class whites

Name two places riots broke out in response to poor conditions in the cities.

Watts (1965) Newark and Detroit (1967)

Vietnam and the Cultural Revolution

Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence?

France

Who did the U.S. install as the leader of South Vietnam in the late 1950s?

Ngo Dinh Diem

Who would immolate themselves to protest Diemís policies?

buddhist monks

What gave LBJ the power to "use any means necessary"?

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.

jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy

Name one factor that made our involvement in Vietnam so controversial.

just cause?, high cost ($ & lives), impatience with lack of progress

What program was started to win over the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese?

pacification

Who was the communist leader of North Vietnam?

Ho Chi Minh

What event led to the arrest of the Chicago 7?

anti-war protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention

What was "vietnamization"?

turning the war over to the South Vietnamese

What were the southern sympathizers of the communist North called?

Viet Cong

What is the most infamous example of the paranoid fear created by the Viet Cong?

My Lai Massacre

Name two things used to defoliate the jungles in Vietnam.

napalm & agent orange

Why did the U.S. attack Cambodia and Laos?

there were bases for the VC and NVA

What impact did the Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war?

turned many against it

Name two ways you could avoid the draft during the Vietnam War.

college, family, self inflicted wound, act crazy

What was the fate of many Vietnamese families who supported the U.S.?

became refugees

What documents exposed the truth about U.S. plans for Vietnam?

Pentagon Papers

Which anti-war Presidential candidate was assassinated in 1968?

Robert F. Kennedy

What was the name of the quiet group that wanted law & order & supported the war?

silent majority

What brought an end to deferments for students and married people?

draft lottery

What were the students at Kent State protesting?

invasions of Cambodia & Laos

What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?

Blacks and Hispanics

What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?

domino theory

Name 2 artists whose music opposed the Vietnam War.

Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, Joan Baez, the Doors

What goal did Nixon claim to be pursuing in the Vietnam War?

Peace with Honor

What tactic did Nixon use to try and force the Vietnamese to the bargaining table?

increased bombing

What book by Betty Freidan helped inspire the start of a second Womenís movement?

the Feminine Mystique

What kinds of difficulties did women face in the workplace?

lower pay for same work, passed over for promotion, sexual harassment

Name 2 ways women tried to address these problems.

legislation (Title IX, Equal Pay Act, ERA) organizations (NOW), publication

What were the poor conditions that Latino farm workers faced in the 1960s?

low pay, poor working and living conditions, no job security

What organization was most critical in addressing these concerns? Who was its leader?

UFW, Cesar Chavez

What were some other issues that faced Latinos at this time?

land rights & police oppression

What were the poor conditions that Native Americans faced in the 1960ís?

poverty, lack of educational opportunity

What two areas did they occupy in protest of the government?

Alcatraz and Wounded Knee

Nixon, Ford and Carter

What was Nixonís Domestic policy called?

New Federalism

Who did this plan give power back to?

the states

Who did Nixon claim to represent?

the Silent Majority

Name two famous decisions made by the "Nixon" moderate Supreme Court.

Roe (abortion), Swann (seg. neighs not seg. schools), Milliken (no int. over dist. lines)

Who was the wheat deal supposed to improve relations with?

USSR

Why did Carter suspend it in 1980?

USSR invaded Afghanistan

Name two reasons Nixon went to China in 1972?

keep them pissed at USSR, open markets to trade

What did the SALT talks do?

limit strategic weapons, like ICBMs

Name the three groups investigating Watergate.

Cox, Ervin Committee, W & B

What revelation by Butterfield led to Nixonís downfall?

existence of tapes

What was the Saturday Night Massacre?

Richardson & aide fired for refusing to fire Cox

Who replaced Spiro T. Agnew as Nixonís VP?

Gerald Ford

What was one of Fordís first important actions that relates to Watergate?

pardons Nixon

Why did OPEC place an embargo on oil to the U.S. in 1973?

we helped Israel in October war

Name two factors that led to the Rust Belt.

overconfidence, lost touch, energy crisis, foreign competition, slacking off

What is stagflation a combination of?

unemployment & inflation

Who had to deal with it during his presidency?

Carter

What was Carterís major foreign policy victory?

Camp David Accords

What was his big foreign policy nightmare?

Iran Hostage Crisis

What major events had damaged Americans self esteem between 1969-1981?

Vietnam, Watergate, Iran Hostage Crisis

What president tried to restore prestige to the presidency in light of this?

Ronald Reagan

What was congressí position on funding the Contras in 1983?

against it

What was our govít hoping for help with from the Iranians in exchange for selling them arms?

freeing our hostages in Lebanon

Who was the scapegoat for the Iran Contra Affair?

Oliver North

What Soviet leaders reforms ultimately led to the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.

Mikhail Gorbachev

Identify two challenges George Bush faced during his presidency.

recession, end of Cold War, Gulf War, S & L Crisis, War on Drugs, Clarence Thomas

Who entered the 1992 election as a third party candidate?

Ross Perot