Identify at least two of the big trends leading to WWI.
industrial arms race, colonial rivalry, nationalism, alliances
Why was China ripe for forced trade in the 1800s?
What was the U.S. policy for trade in China?
Open Door Policy
Why was trade with China so important to the Europeans?
Chinese goods were in high demand in Europe
What was the Chinese rebellion in response to the Open Door Policy?
What was Bismarck’s primary foreign policy goal?
avoid 2 front conflict
What was the root of the tension between A-H & Russia?
territorial interests in the Balkans
In 1914, who belonged to the Triple Alliance?
Italy, Germany, A-H
In 1914, Who belonged to the Triple Entente?
GB, France & Russia
What event triggered war between these two alliances?
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Who came in to back A-H? Serbia?
Germany and Russia
What were the basics of the Schlieffen Plan?
swing through France with strong right, defeating them quickly then beating the Russians
Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail? What did this lead to?
weak right, digging trenches on Western Front
What were the two major actions on the Western Front in 1916?
German attack on Verdun, Allied offensive at Somme
How successful were these actions?
not at all
What were the Allies trying to accomplish at Gallipoli?
break through & reestablish connection with Russia
What were the two major battles on the western front in 1916?
Verdun and the Somme
Identify three weapons that were used first in WWI.
machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines, poison gas
What is a war of attrition?
you try to win by wearing down the other side
Identify at least 4 causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
reform-revolt-repress, industrialism, Nicky’s a weenie, Rev. of 1905, Crimea, R-J War, Duma-Duma-Duma
Who took control in the March Revolution?
liberals/cadets (Provisional Gov’t lead by Kerensky)
Who snuck Lenin back into Russia?
What brought the U.S. into the war?
Zimmerman Telegram & sinking of the Lusitania
What did the Germans do after the Bolsheviks surrendered?
Launched an all out attack on the Western Front
What allowed the British and French to hold off this assault?
help from the U.S.
How did the Germans try to counter the British blockade?
with the U-Boat (unterseebooten)
What was Kerensky (and the provisional gov’t)’s biggest mistake?
staying in the war vs. Germany
When did the Bolsheviks take control of Russia?
October/November of 1917
What did the treaty of Brest-Litovsk give the Germans?
lots of land & an indemnity
Why did the Bolsheviks have to sign this treaty?
needed to get out of war & focus on keeping control
Who was the political leader of the Bolsheviks? Military Leader?
Why did Ludendorff surrender before the Allies reached Germany?
wanted mild peace according to 14 Points
Identify three of Wilson’s 14 Points.
free seas, self determination, open diplomacy, League of Nations, “Peace Without Victory”
Identify 4 ways that the Treaty of Versailles was hard on Germany.
blame for war, huge reparations, Alsace-Lorraine, small army, dictated, demil-Rhineland
What did Wilson cash in his idealism for?
League of Nations
Why did trench warfare suck? (list at least three reasons)
machine guns, trench foot, boredom, shell shock, rats, barbed wire
Who ruled Japan for the 200 years leading up to 1850?
the Tokugawa shogunate
What was the shogunate’s policy towards the rest of the world?
What was the key factor that caused the Japanese to open relations with the U.S. after Perry’s visit?
the threat of military action
What did the Sat-Cho do to bring about the end of the Tokugawa shogunate?
resisted their attempts to deal with the west and ultimately attacked the shogunate’s palace and forced them to restore the emperor
How did the new Japanese emperor refer to his reign? What did this mean?
meiji, enlightened rule
Where did the Japanese emperor look for models for a new government?
the western nations
In the new Meiji government that emerged, who had the most power?
The executive authority, which was the prime minister and the other cabinet ministers
The new government of Japan was modern and democratic in appearance, but in reality, who still held most of the power?
The authoritarian Sat-Cho elite
What was the negative impact of the new Meiji land tax on the farmers?
Those who could not afford it became tenant farmers (essentially peasants again)
Name two specific things the gov’t did to support growing industry.
Subsidies, training from foreign advisors, education
Where did the Japanese find an abundant source of cheap labor?
Farmers who were fleeing from the land tax
What did the Meiji require from all Japanese men?
3 years of military service
What two Japanese groups bore the greatest burden for the transition to a modern industrial nation?
The farmers and the new industrial workers
What dynasty had ruled China for over three hundred years prior to 1912?
the Manchu dynasty
Who were the Manchu overthrown by in 1912?
supporters of Sun Yat Sen
What large group will the Chiang Kai Shek and the nationalists come into conflict with in the struggle for control of China?
Mao Tse Tung and the Communists