Text of the Unit II Review Game

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How did members of the Schmalkaldic League and Henry VIII benefit from the Reformation Economically?

Took over Church lands & property

Who said: "We are all equal in the eyes of God, members of the Priesthood of all Believers"?

Luther

What conclusion pushed Luther to write the 95 Theses?

That man is saved through Faith and not works or indulgences

Which theologian believed people were predestined for salvation?

Calvin

What tool did Calvin use to create his "New Jerusalem"?

Strict moral code (spread through sermons and Catechism)

List three components of Calvinís moral code.

No drinking, no dancing, no plays, religious music & psalm reading in taverns

What group believed in adult baptism and were eventually opposed by both Protestants and Catholics?

Anabaptists (esp. radicals gathered at Munster)

What was the main reason Henry VIII started the English Reformation?

Wanted an annulment from Catharine, desired control over church structure & resources

How was the Anglican Church that Henry VIII created different from Roman Catholicism?

It was different organizationally because the king was in charge, it was not different theologically

Under which monarch did England become truly Protestant (theologically)?

Edward VI

Which English monarch attempted to reinstate Roman Catholicism? Was she successful?

Mary I, no she was not

What three religious groups did Elizabeth I face when she came to the throne? What did she recognize as the official religion of England?

RCs, Anglicans, & Puritans; Anglicanism (Church of England)

Identify two key components of the Roman Catholic Counter Reformation.

Founding new orders (like the Jesuits), the Inquisition, emphasis on discipline, the Index of Forbidden Books

What type of art reflected the spirit of the Counter Reformation? What did the RC church hope it would do?

Baroque, bring people back to the faith

What is Baroque Art designed to do?

Get an emotional response/reaction

What two groups were fighting each other in the French Religious conflict?

The Huguenots and the Catholic League

How did Henry of Navarre bring a close to conflict in France?

converting to RC & issuing the Edict of Nantes which protected the Huguenots

Why did Phillip II of Spain want to keep control of the Netherlands?

He wanted to keep them Catholic and he needed the tax $$$

What tactics did the Dutch resisters use against the Spanish Army during the Dutch Revolt?

guerilla warfare, piracy

Which protestant group wanted to rid the Anglican Church of all Catholic practices and structures?

Puritans

Who wanted Mary Queen of Scots to be Queen of England? Why was she executed?

Phillip II and other RCs, Plotting to kill Elizabeth I

What was Ferdinand IIís (the HRE) chief goal at the start of the 30 Years War? Was he successful?

Re-Catholicize the empire, no

What was the impact of the Thirty Years War on Germany?

Total devastation, kills 1/3 of population

What is the main goal of mercantilism?

strengthen your nationís economy at the expense of another nation

What kinds of practices do mercantilist nations use?

tariffs, colonies, sea trade, support for industry, shipping regulations, full employment, large population

What two classical thinkers were most of the early scientific beliefs based on?

Aristotle & Ptolemy

What were the two key components of Copernicusí theory about the universe?

The sun is in the middle, the planets travel in circular orbits around it

Who was Braheís assistant that drew pro-Copernican conclusions from Braheís charts?

Johannes Kepler

How did the church respond to Galileoís use of the telescope?

They condemned it, "God would have made us able to see it"

Who was the father of modern philosophy and the deductive method?

Descartes ("I Think therefore I am")

Who was the champion of the empirical method? What does this method encourage?

Bacon, observations based on lots of data

Who was the first scientist to maintain that mathematical relationships explain everything?

Galileo

What major events were the two of the main influences on Hobbes & Locke?

English Civil War, Louis XIV & Glorious Revolution

List two of Lockeís major beliefs.

blank slate, overthrow bad govít, natural state is freedom, natural rights: life, liberty & property

Who believed that people must turn over their rights to a strong ruler his rule would prevent anarchy?

Hobbes

How did Hobbesí absolute ruler control his people?

Manipulating their fear of pain and desire for pleasure

Who are the three most prominent Enlightenment philosophes?

Montesquieu, Voltaire, & Rousseau

Why would you associate Voltaire with our First amendment?

he advocated basic freedoms (speech, press, petition, etc.)

Name the author that advocated Laissez Faire Economics. What economic system was he responding to?

Adam Smith, mercantilism

In what role did the Deists place God?

"divine watchmaker", created world and stood back, men control own actions

What did Montesquieu argue was the best form of govít?

Three branch, separation of powers

Name three major beliefs of Rousseau.

Importance of society over individual, bend to will, glorified motherhood, Men & Women in separate spheres

Why was the first encyclopedia such a major undertaking? Who edited it?

first time any group tried to compile "all" knowledge, Diderot

If you had to sum up the enlightenment in one word, what would it be?

Reason

What two sides clashed in the English Civil War?

The Anglican Monarchists and the Puritan Parliamentarians

What was the key outcome of the Glorious Revolution in England?

William III and Mary accepted the English Bill of Rights and the terms of a constitutional monarchy

Who was the absolute monarch? Identify two characteristics of his reign.

Louis XIV, army, propaganda, Versailles, bureaucracy