Text of the Unit I Review
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Identify 3 early sources of law.
Hammurabi’s Code, The 12 Tables from Rome, the 10 Commandments
Who was the Father of Greek Philosophy? What method did he use to find truth?
Socrates, question and question to find truth
Who was his prized pupil? How did this pupil want to organize society?
Plato, 3 class system: p-ks, warriors, producers
How did Aristotle believe you could find the best government?
Evaluating existing governments
Who took Greek ideas and spread them throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa?
Alexander the Great
What two things allowed for a dramatic change in population growth between 1000-1300.
more peaceful conditions (less war) and better agriculture
What was the purpose of the Crusades? Who usually went on them?
Retake the Holy Land from the "infidel", noblemen & knights looking for glory and salvation
Middle Age universities were dedicated to what school of thought?
What two things did peasants get in exchange for giving up their freedom to the lord of the manor?
Protection and the use of land
Identify at least three of the "obligations" placed on peasants.
Pay a portion of crop to lord, rent pastureland, tithes to the church, portion of catch to the lord
Identify three ways the lords exercised control over their peasants.
Permission to leave, permission to marry, lords run local courts, lords control crafts and trades for their peasants
What was the main dietary staple for peasants? Where did they get their vegetables?
Bread, gardens next to their houses
What days gave peasants an occasional break from the labor grind? What did this make the center of village social life?
Church feast days, the village church
What was the primary method of instruction at the university? What did obstacle students need to pass for each degree?
Lecture, oral examinations
What two areas did scholasticism attempt to reconcile?
Faith (xianity) and reason (Aristotle)
Who was the most well known scholastic? What was his most famous work?
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica
Name two examples of church corruption during the Middle Ages.
simony, legal exemptions, tax exemptions, clerical infidelity, misuse of church funds
Name 2 of the main ways that the Black Death impacted Europe.
decreased supply of labor, increased power of poor, decreased demand for land, decreased power of nobility
Identify the four basic levels of the church hierarchy.
Pope - Cardinal - Bishop - Priest
What was a vassal expected to give loyally in exchange for his fief?
Name two benefits the serf received in the manorial system.
protection from outside threat, food during shortages, legal protection
How did France ultimately benefit from the 100 Years War?
regained much lost territory
Who was the local legal authority in the feudal system?
the lord (vassal)
Name Michelangelo’s most famous painting & sculpture.
Sistene Chapel & David
Who wrote "The Prince" and hoped that a strong Italian ruler would come from the Medicis? What quality did he value?
How did Renaissance Art differ from art from the Middle Ages?
realism, accurate anatomy, secular patronage
What economic developments allowed for secular patronage of the arts?
increased trade & banking
Who was the father of Humanism? What kind of activity did he inspire?
Petrarch, Examination of the classics, and writing related to them
List two reasons the church feared the humanists.
Self-reliance, outside interpretations, authorities other than God
What invention caused literacy to boom and made it much easier for thinkers to spread their ideas? Roughly when was it invented?
printing press, late 1400’s
Name the work and author that describe an ideal society that will never exist.
Utopia, Thomas More
Identify the two major northern humanists.
More & Erasmus
What was Erasmus’ philosophy a combination of?
Christian and classical beliefs
Identify two classical features that were prominent in Ren. Architecture.
Domes, columns, roman arches, ornamentation, integrated supports
How was the subject matter of the Northern Ren. a departure from the High Ren?
Who was the "German master" of Northern Ren. Painting?