Text of the US History Unit I Review
What was the first English settlement in North America? Why was it founded?
Jamestown, to establish a colony well suited for growing tobacco in the Chesapeake region
Why did the Puritans want to leave England? What boat did they travel on? What was their purpose?
religious persecution, the Mayflower, to form a perfect community through their covenant with God
Name 2 characteristics of the New England colonies.
education, small farms, harbor cities, Puritanically based morals and religion
Name 2 characteristics of the middle colonies.
religious tolerance, commerce, craftsmanship, heavy Dutch influence, big cities like New York and Philadelphia
Name 2 characteristics of the southern colonies.
Loyalty to the crown, plantations & cash crops, low population density, controlled by small group of wealthy plantation owners
What religious movement was focused on getting an emotional response from its audience? What was its “non-religious” impact?
Great Awakening, caused people to start thinking more democratically and questioning authority
How did this movement help feed revolutionary fervor?
equality in the eyes of God, pushed people to think democratically
Which enlightenment thinker pushed for a three branch government and a system of checks and balances?
Which enlightenment thinker was an advocate for the protection of “natural rights” (life, liberty, property) and the idea that people should overthrow a government that does not protect these rights?
Which enlightenment thinker pushed a social contract that emphasized government by the general will?
Which Enlightenment thinker was a serious advocate for civil liberties like freedom of religion, speech, and the press?
What did Thomas Paine argue in his pamphlet Common Sense?
That the time had come to declare our independence
What is the name for the British policy of lax enforcement of colonial navigation and trade restrictions? When did they end this policy?
Salutary neglect, after the French and Indian War
Why did the British begin taxing the colonists in 1763?
pay for the debts they ran up in the French & Indian (or 7 yrs.) War
What was the first major tax placed on the colonists after the Seven Years’ War? Why did many colonists feel taxation was unfair?
Stamp Act, colonists felt they had no representation in Parliament
Name two ways the colonists protested this tax.
boycotts, demonstrations, harassment of public officials, formed groups like Sons of Liberty
What group of colonists wanted to remain loyal to Great Britain? Why?
Tories/Loyalists, strength of empire, rights as British citizens, etc.
Who led the mob to the Customs House to set off the Boston Massacre in 1770? What organization was he from?
Samuel Adams, Sons of Liberty
How did the British respond to the Boston Tea Party in 1774?
Intolerable (Coercive) Acts (in these the British closed the port of Boston, took over the MA gov’t, quartered soldiers in colonists homes)
What group called made the decision to split with Britain and called for the Declaration of Independence?
Second Continental Congress
Declaration signed on July 4, 1776
Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence? Who were his two primary Enlightenment influences?
Thomas Jefferson, Locke and Voltaire
What were the two main purposes of the Declaration of Independence?
Establish the ideology behind revolution and list grievances vs. King George and Parliament
Where was the first actual fighting of the Revolutionary war? Why did it happen?
Lexington and Concord, British sent troops to arrest colonial leaders and clashed with Minutemen
What Colonial victory brought increased support from the French? Why were the French willing to help us?
Saratoga, French were hoping to regain influence in North America they’d lost in 7 yrs war
What was the British strategy at the start of the Revolutionary War?
Take control of New York (esp. Hudson River) and cut off Massachusetts from the rest of the Colonies
What was the freezing cold low point for the Continental Army? Why was it significant?
Valley Forge, it showed the Colonial Army’s resolve in sticking with it and winning the war
Where did the British surrender to Washington? What Treaty officially gave us our independence?
Yorktown, Treaty of Paris (1783)
What document set up our nation’s first national government? What was the basic configuration of this government?
Articles of Confederation, loose Confederation of states run by a unicameral legislature
Name two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
no power to tax, no power to coin money, no executive branch, weak central government
What was the significance of Shay’s Rebellion (1786)?
Demonstrated the weaknesses of the government under the Articles of Confederation, showed gov’t couldn’t respond effectively to crisis
How did the Connecticut Compromise help create our Congress?
It established a bicameral (2 house)Congress with rep by population in the House of Reps and equal rep in the Senate
Who appoints Justices & Ambassadors? Who approves them?
What branch has the power to veto propose legislation?
Executive (the President)
How did the Constitutional Convention resolve the issue of slavery?
3/5 Compromise – which made every 5 slaves count for 3 people when counting a state’s population
41) Which part of the Constitution gives Congress to make all laws deemed “necessary and proper”?
What determines the number of representatives that a state gets in the House of Reps.? In the Senate?
its population (each state has Congressional Districts), each state gets two Senators (originally chosen by state legislatures – now by people of each state)
Who has the power to enforce laws?
President (Executive Branch)
Who has the power to declares laws/acts unconstitutional?
Judicial Branch, headed by the Supreme Court
What is the group of the President’s advisors called? Who were the two most influential advisors to President Washington?
Cabinet, Hamilton (Treasury) & Jefferson (State)
Who has the power to tax and declare war?
How many amendments are included in the Bill of Rights? What group pushed for it? Why?
10, Anti-Federalists – they were afraid the new national gov’t would be too powerful and infringe on the rights of the people
What amendment protects you from unlawful search & seizure?
Which amendment protects your right to bear arms?
What right do some people feel is violated by the Death Penalty?
No cruel or unusual punishment (8th)
What amendment protects the rights of the accused?
What amendment protects you from self-incrimination?
What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment?
Speech, religion, press, assembly, petition
What was Hamilton’s (Federalist Party) vision for America?
A country based on manufacturing and a strong central government, national bank, lots of commerce
What was Jefferson’s (Democratic-Republican Party) vision for America?
Agricultural society, everybody owns land, individual rights, weak central gov’t
What did Washington warn against in his farewell address as he left office after his second term?
The formation of political parties, which pretty much happened right away after he left (Feds and Dem-Reps)
What laws were passed by the Federalists in 1798 to limit opposition to the government and slow membership in the Dem-Reps?
Alien & Sedition Acts
Why was Jefferson’s election in 1800 significant?
Peaceful transition of power from Federalists to Democratic Republicans, tie vote decided in House of Reps
Who did Jefferson send to explore the Louisiana Territory? Why did he send them?
Lewis & Clark, promote the territory & build excitement about the West
How did we get “sucked in” to the war of 1812?
GB & France were at war & we’re caught in the middle (impressment, blockades, etc.)
What were the key outcomes of the War of 1812?
Brits give up so we win, survive first big foreign policy crisis, establish ourselves as a truly independent nation
What was the basic message that the Monroe Doctrine sent to Europe? Why was this significant?
stay out of our hemisphere & we’ll stay out of yours’ , sets the course for U.S. foreign policy in Latin America (Nationalist Diplomacy)
Who was the first President to supposedly represent the common man? What party did he help build?
Andrew Jackson, the Democrats
Identify two things Jackson was famous for.
Trail of Tears, vetoing Nat’l Bank, spoils system, “bare knuckle” politics, expanding the use of Presidential Power
What major economic transformation occurred during the Age of Jackson?
Market Revolution, our economy became a modern market based economy