Text of the Spring Final Review

Which president made the decision to drop the Atomic bomb on Japan? What was his alternative to dropping the Bomb?
Truman, massive land invasion
How long did it take Germany to conquer Western Europe at the start of the war?
9 months (9/39-6/40)
What was the Atlantic Charter?
An agreement on war goals between Churchill and Roosevelt signed in 8/41 (before we entered the war
Why were more than 100,000 Japanese Americans placed in internment camps during WWII?
Considered a threat to security (especially if Japan invaded)
Name one problem faced by Rosie the Riveter (women who worked in defense industries).
wage gap, fired for flirting, sexual harassment, little day care
How did our army handle soldiers of different races?
placed them in segregated units
How did the federal government raise money for the war effort?
Selling war bonds
What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?
naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)
Where did Douglas MacArthur successfully “return” in 8/44?
the Philippines
Where did the Japanese resort to the greatest amount of kamikaze activity?  Why was this island geographically significant?
Okinawa, less than 500 miles from Japan
Identify two things that were controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.
used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, unknown effects
What invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe?  Why?
D-Day/Operation Overlord, true second front was more than Germany could handle
Name two things the U.S. wanted from the Soviets at Yalta.
in the U.N., out of Eastern Europe, help vs, Japan
Name one thing that was controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.
used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, technology hidden from Soviets
How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?
boosted production & wages, created full employment
What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII?
United Nations
Name two new organizations that were created after the war to help extend economic aid to developing countries.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF), The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Bank
Why did President Truman veto  the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947? What happened to the Act?
It cut back on the power and protection of unions .. Congress overrode his veto and it became law.
What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?
Truman Doctrine
In what aspect of American society did President Truman promise to end segregation in 1948?
the United States Military
What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free form Comm. after WWII?
Marshall Plan
Which side did the U.S. support in the Korean War?  Who supported the other side?
the South, the USSR
Why did Truman fire MacArthur during the Korean War?
insisted on being more aggressive (nuke China)
What was the result of the Korean War?
NK stayed Comm., SK free, DMZ in middle
How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?
Berlin Airlift of supplies
What did the Soviets test/demonstrate in 1949? What key country had a communist revolution that same year?
an atomic bomb; China
Who was put to death for supposedly giving our nuclear secrets to the Soviets?
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950’s by hunting communists?
Joseph McCarthy
Which party did Eisenhower choose?  What young senator became his running mate?
Republican, Richard Nixon
How did the Suez Crisis of 1956 effect the Cold War?
opened the Middle East to Soviet influence
What event of 1957 caused a rush to improve math & science programs in the U.S.?
launch of Sputnik
What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War? What anti-communist treaty organization did the USA help to form in Asia?
NATO & Warsaw Pact;
SEATO
What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950’s?
Fidel Castro
What effort did Kennedy make to remove Castro from power? Why did it fail?
the Bay of Pigs, lack of local support, no air strike
What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy won’t attack you if he knows you can retaliate?
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
What 1962 Soviet threat in the Caribbean led to some of the darkest moments of the Cold War? What was the outcome of this crisis?
Cuban Missile Crisis, U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR took back its missiles
What 1896 Supreme Court decision made segregation legal (separate but equal)?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What 1954 Supreme Court decision reversed Plessy?  What was the immediate result?
Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS), desegregation of the schools
Where did Rosa Parks start the Bus Boycott? Who was chosen to lead the boycott?
Montgomery, Martin Luther King Jr.
What was the key principle of Martin Luther King’s strategy to end segregation?
non-violent passive resistance
Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization.
Black Panthers, Nation of Islam
Give 2 examples of tough conditions faced by black students at Central High in Little Rock in 1957.
soldier escorts, name calling, fights, threats
Who organized the Freedom Rides? What was their goal?
James Farmer and CORE, take the movement to the deep South via bus lines
What did the SCLC do to expose Bull Connor?  What happened to MLK there?
Marches in Birmingham, he was put in jail
What was MLK’s chief purpose in his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”?
He will be an extremist in the cause of morality, it is not the fault of the movement that their actions result in violence
What was the purpose of the March on Washington?  What famous speech did MLK deliver there?
pressure for Civil Rights Legislation, “I Have a Dream Speech”
What legislation came out of this pressure?
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965
What roadblock to voting did the 24th Amendment eliminate?
the Poll Tax
What organization did Malcolm X represent (at first)?  What did he say blacks should reject?
Nation of Islam, self hatred imposed on them by white culture
Where was militancy more rampant?
Northern cities
Who would “patrol the police” to assure they were not mistreating blacks? Name two of their demands.
Black Panthers,  full employment, self determination, blacks should not serve in Vietnam, decent housing, better education
What was AIM?  What were two of their demands?
American Indian Movement; treaties upheld, original land back, better education, equal rights
What was NOW?  What were two issues they focused on?
National Organization for Women, equal pay, equal rights, sexual discrimination in the work place
Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence?  Why did the United States support this nation in Vietnam?
France, Ho Chi Minh was a communist, needed French support in Europe
What gave LBJ the power to “use any means necessary”?
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.
jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy
Name one factor that made our involvement in Vietnam so controversial.
just cause?, high cost ($ & lives), impatience with lack of progress
What event led to the arrest of the Chicago 7?
anti-war protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention
What was “vietnamization”?
turning the war over to the South Vietnamese
What were the southern sympathizers of the communist North called?
Viet Cong
What is the most infamous example of the paranoid fear created by the Viet Cong?
My Lai Massacre
Name two things used to defoliate the jungles in Vietnam.
napalm & agent orange
Why did the U.S. attack Cambodia and Laos?
there were bases for the VC and NVA
What impact did the Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war?
turned many against it
Name two ways you could avoid the draft during the Vietnam War.
college, family, self inflicted wound, act crazy
What documents exposed the truth about U.S. plans for Vietnam?
Pentagon Papers
What was the name of the quiet group that wanted law & order & supported the war? What President garnered their support?
silent majority, Nixon
What were the students at Kent State protesting?
invasions of Cambodia & Laos
What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?
Blacks and Hispanics
 What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?
domino theory
What tactic did Nixon use to try and force the Vietnamese to the bargaining table?
increased bombing
What book by Betty Freidan helped inspire the start of a second Women’s movement?
the Feminine Mystique
What were the poor conditions that Latino farm workers faced in the 1960s?
low pay, poor working and living conditions, no job security
What organization was most critical in addressing these concerns?  Who was its leader?
UFW, Cesar Chavez
What were some other issues that faced Latinos at this time?
land rights & police oppression
What were the poor conditions that Native Americans faced in the 1960’s?
poverty, lack of educational opportunity
Name two famous decisions made by the “Nixon” moderate Supreme Court.
Roe (abortion), Swann (seg. neighborhods not seg. schools), Milliken (no int. over dist. lines)
Who was the wheat deal supposed to improve relations with in the 1970’s?
USSR
Why did Carter suspend it in 1980?
USSR invaded Afghanistan
Name two reasons Nixon went to China in 1972?
keep them at odds with USSR, open markets to trade
What did the SALT talks do?
limit strategic weapons, like ICBMs
What revelation by Butterfield led to Nixon’s downfall?
existence of tapes
Who replaced Spiro T. Agnew as Nixon’s VP?
Gerald Ford
What was one of Ford’s first important actions that relates to Watergate?
pardons Nixon
Why did OPEC place an embargo on oil to the U.S. in 1973?
we helped Israel in October war
Name two factors that led to the Rust Belt.
overconfidence, lost touch, energy crisis, foreign competition, slacking off
What is stagflation a combination of?
unemployment & inflation
Who had to deal with it during his presidency?
Carter
What was Carter’s major foreign policy victory in the Middle East?
Camp David Accords
What was Carter’s big foreign policy nightmare?
Iran Hostage Crisis
What major events had damaged American national esteem between 1969-1981?
Vietnam, Watergate, Iran Hostage Crisis
What president tried to restore prestige to the presidency in light of this?
Ronald Reagan
What was congress’ position on funding the Contras in 1983?
against it
What was our gov’t hoping for help with from the Iranians in exchange for selling them arms?
freeing our hostages in Lebanon
What Soviet leaders reforms ultimately led to the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Identify two challenges George Bush faced during his presidency.
recession, end of Cold War, Gulf War, S & L Crisis, War on Drugs, Clarence Thomas
Name two key aspects of Reaganomics.
Deregulation, tax cuts for wealthy/potential investors (“supply-side”,favored upper classes)
Identify an action taken by Carter early in his Presidency that was controversial with many Americans.
amnesty for draft dodgers, turning back over the Panama Canal
Identify two ways that Carter responded the the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.
grain embargo, end SALT talks, boycott Olympics
Identify three of the major problems Carter faced in his effort to get re-elected in 1980.
Afghanistan, Iran Hostage Crisis, Bad Economy, Energy Crisis
How did Reagan try to bring about the downfall of the USSR?
huge military buildup
Name three aspects of “Reagan-style” conservatism.
Anti-abortion, anti-gun control, pro-death penalty, pro-school prayer, strong defense, small government
What two things combined to help defeat  Michael Dukakis in the 1988 election?
Willie Horton (the criminal out on furlough) and the Snoopy Picture, plus Bush promised “No New Taxes”
Which one of Bush’s supreme court nominees brought the issue of sexual harassment to the country’s attention?  
Clarence Thomas
Who was Manuel Noriega?
the drug dealing dictator of Panama that Bush had to have captured and arrested, embarrassing for the U.S. (we put him in power)
What was the Savings and Loan scandal of the late 1980’s?
several U.S. senators were protecting the interests of S&L chiefs who were losing big bucks – gov’t had to bail them out
What was the “Republican Revolution” of 1994?
Republicans retook Congress after Clinton got off to a slow start
How did the Republican Revolution impact government over the late 1990s?
Clinton and Congress deadlocked, few new programs – creation of budget surplus
What was President Clinton’s most widely publicized scandal?  What was the outcome?
Monica Lewinsky affair, Republicans in Congress sought impeachment
Why did U.S. forces invade Iraq in 2003?
President Bush, and his advisors, believed the Iraqis were hiding many Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)