Text of the U.S. Overview Review

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Why did the Puritans want to leave England?

religious persecution

What religious movement was focused on getting an emotional response from its audience?

Great Awakening

Why did the British begin taxing the colonists in 1763?

pay for the French & Indian (7 yrs.) War

Name 2 characteristics of the New England colonies.

education, small farms, harbor cities, Puritanically based morals and religion

Name 2 characteristics of the middle colonies.

religious tolerance, commerce, craftsmanship, heavy Dutch influence

Name 2 characteristics of the southern colonies.

loyalty, plantations & cash crops, low population density

Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

What patriot is famous for being willing to pay the ultimate price for his freedom?

Patrick Henry

Name two ways the colonists protested this tax?

boycotts, demonstrations, harassment of public officials

What document set up our nationís first government?

Articles of Confederation

Name two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.

no power to tax, no power to coin money, no executive branch, weak central government

Where did the British surrender to Washington?

Yorktown

What were the two main purposes of the Declaration of Independence?

Establish ideology behind revolution and list grievances vs. King George

Who has the power to tax?

Congress

What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment?

Speech, religion, press, assembly, petition

Who has the power to declares laws/acts unconstitutional?

Judicial Branch/Supreme Court

What is the group of the Presidentís advisors called?

cabinet

What was Hamiltonís vision for America?

A country based on manufacturing and a strong central government

What was Jeffersonís vision of America?

Agricultural society, everybody owns land

Who was sent to explore the Louisiana Territory?

Lewis & Clark

How did the rivalry between the French & British affect us in the early 1800s?

War of 1812

What was the Monroe Doctrine?

donít mess around in our hemisphere & weíll stay out of yours (to Europe)

How did Andrew Jackson treat the Native Americans? What action reflects this?

Badly!, Trail of Tears

What is "Manifest Destiny"?

The belief that the U.S. would someday control the land from coast to coast.

Who opposed the Mexican-American War? Why did they oppose it?

Whigs and Abolitionists, opposed extension of slavery

What area was like an independent country before it was annexed by the U.S?

Texas

What party was formed by Jacksonís supporterís to ensure his election in 1828?

Democrats

How were the industries of westward expansion in conflict with the lifestyle of the Plains NAs?

settled (mining & farming) vs. nomadic

What issue was hotly debated in the new territories as our country expanded westward?

slavery

What were two of the main provisions of the Missouri Compromise?

MO is a slave state, ME is a free state, no slavery above 36-30

What were two of the main provisions of the Compromise of 1850?

CA free state, tougher fugitive slave law, UT & NM slave territories

What was the result of giving Kansas and Nebraska popular sovereignty over slavery?

Bleeding Kansas (fighting over slavery)

Name two advantages the South had at the start of the Civil War.

Better generals, defensive war, passion for their cause

Name 3 advantages the North had at the start of the war.

larger population, more industry, better transportation, more food production

What happened to the Southern industrial and agricultural production facilities during the Civil War?

They were almost totally wiped out

What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation?

Free the slaves in rebel states

What two Union victories happened on July 4, 1863? Why were they significant?

Gettysburg and Vicksburg, turning point in the war

What did the 13th Amendment do?

Made slavery illegal

Why did the Radical Republicans push for the 14th Amendment?

Southern States were passing Black Codes

Which amendment guaranteed freedmen the right to vote?

Fifteenth

What President did the Radical Republicans have a major problem during Reconstruction?

Andrew Johnson

Name 2 things that kept freedmen from gaining true equality.

sharecropping, KKK, black codes, racist attitudes

Give two examples of conflicts between Plains NAs and the settlers/army.

Wounded Knee, Sand Creek, Fetterman Fight, Little Big Horn, Chief Joseph

What law basically forced Native Americans to accept "white culture"?

Dawes Act

What inventions helped fuel the growth of cities?

telephone, electric light, use of steel in construction, electric street car

Why could businesses maintain such poor working conditions in the late 1800ís?

surplus of workers

Why would the govít always side with the owners against the unions?

the owners had put them into the offices they held

What is xenophobia?

fear of foreigners

Why were new immigrants subjected to so much xenophobia?

different languages, religions, complexions, illiteracy

What do you call a group of corporations controlled by the same board for common interest?

trust

How much did an unskilled worker make in 1885?

five cents a day

Name 2 major industrialists of the late 1800ís.

Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Morgan

Where were most immigrants who came to the U.S. in the late 1800s processed?

Ellis Island

What industries were the cornerstones of western settlement?

mining and ranching

What group had great faith in the ongoing progress of society?

the progressives

Name a law that progressives passed to help purify food.

Pure Food & Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act

Name a measure taken by progressives to take the corruption out of govít.

commission system, direct primaries, referendums & initiatives

What was the goal of the muckrakers?

draw attention to social problems with sensational journalism

How did Progressives view the role of government?

They saw it as an agent of social change

What organization was formed in the early 1900ís to try and improve conditions for African-Americans?

NAACP

In what two places did most of the fighting take place in the Spanish American War?

Cuba and the Philippines

Which president was the most famous "trust buster"? What law did he use to bust the trusts?

Teddy Roosevelt, Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Name a measure taken by progressives to take the corruption out of govít.

commission system, direct primaries, referendums & initiatives

Name a law that progressives passed to help purify food.

Pure Food & Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act

Name two reasons why the U.S. was interested in expanding itís imperial power.

ports for naval ships and markets for manufactured goods

What did the Open Door Policy give us free reign to do?

force China to trade with us

What virtually made Panama a U.S. Territory?

Construction of Panama Canal

What was the point of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine?

We will intervene when necessary in the Western Hemisphere

What group of countries did the U.S. fight alongside in WWI?

the Allies (GB, France, Russia)

What group formed their opposition?

Central Powers (Germany & Austria-Hungary)

Name two factors that led to WWI.

Alliances, military build up, tension in the Balkans

What weapon did the Germans use to attack allied ships and the British blockade?

U-Boat

What two factors led to trench warfare?

old tactics combined with new weapons

Name the two events that helped pull the U.S. into the war.

Lusitania & Zimmerman Telegram

What was Wilsonís stated reason for entering WWI?

"Make the world safe for democracy."

Why was it only a matter of time before the U.S. was drawn into WWI?

we had become an imperial power, we were shipping war materials to Europe

What was Wilsonís Plan for Peace at the end of WWI called?

14 Points

Name two key conditions of the Treaty of Versailles.

Germany responsible for WWI, pay big reparations, League of Nations

What law prevented "disloyal utterances" during WWI?

Sedition Act

What cause led to Wilsonís demise at the end of his presidency?

Pushing for the U.S. to join the League of Nations

What is a "red"?

someone with communist sympathies

What amendment made alcohol illegal?

18th

How successful was prohibition? Who took over distribution of alcohol during prohibition?

not very, organized crime

List three characteristics of life in rural America in the 1920s.

cultural homogeneity, religious fundamentalism, farming, traditional values, country music & ice cream socials

Identify three characteristics of urban America in the 1920ís.

cultural diversity, new immigrants, religious diversity, speakeasies & jazz, manufacturing

Name two ways women established new independent attitudes in the 20s.

Bobbing Hair, wearing shorter skirts, moving out on their own

Name 2 big athletes of the Twenties.

Babe Ruth, Red Grange, Bill Tilden, Jack Dempsey, Gertrude Elderle, Bobby Jones

Who took over after Harding to clean up after the scandals? Describe his business philosophy.

Coolidge, hands off, pro-ownership

How did the automobile change American life?

demand for roads, faster transportation, closed distances, greater contact

Why was there a surplus in farm products during the 1920ís?

overproduction from WWI

Identify two things that helped "liberate" America in the Ď20s.

Jazz, Radio, Movies, Literature, Automobiles

What amendment gave women the right to vote?

19th

The Great Depression

Insert Review Game Here

World War II

Name two places Hitler took territory before the war started.

Czechoslovakia, Austria, Rhineland

How long did it take Germany to conquer Western Europe at the start of the war?

9 months

What was the Battle of Britain?

massive air raids over a period of months in 1940

How did the federal government raise money for the war effort?

Selling war bonds

What law allowed us to provide supplies for Great Britain while remaining neutral?

Lend-Lease Act

What event brought the U.S. into WWII?

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

What attack by Hitler eventually led to his downfall?

invasion of the USSR

What major allied invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe?

D-Day/Operation Overlord

What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific Theater during WWII?

naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)

Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.

rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour

Where did the Big 3 meet to discuss post war plans?

Yalta

Which president made the decision to drop the Atomic bomb on Japan? What was his alternative to dropping the Bomb?

Truman, massive land invasion

Name one thing that was controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.

used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, unknown effects

How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?

boosted production & wages, created full employment

What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII?

United Nations

What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?

Truman Doctrine

What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free form Comm. after WWII?

Marshall Plan

Which side did the U.S. support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?

the South, the USSR

What was the result of the Korean War?

NK stays Comm., SK free, DMZ in middle

How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?

Berlin Airlift of supplies

What did the Soviets test/demonstrate in 1949?

an atomic bomb

Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950ís by hunting communists?

Joseph McCarthy

Name 2 ways U.S. citizens responded to the threat of Nuclear attack?

fallout shelters, drop and cover drills, end of the world parties

What event of 1957 caused a rush to improve math & science programs in the U.S.?

launch of Sputnik

At the peak of the arms race, how many times over could the U.S. & the USSR have blown up the world?

10

What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950ís?

Fidel Castro

What threat from the Soviets in 1962 led to some of the darkest moments of the Cold War?

Cuban Missile Crisis

What was the outcome of this crisis?

U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR took back its missiles

Give an example of a Jim Crow Law.

separate facilities, curfews, separate workplaces

What decision reversed Plessy?

Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS)

What did the Emmitt Till case demonstrate about the Southern Judicial System?

no justice for blacks from all white system

Where did Rosa Parks start the Bus Boycott? Who was chosen to lead the boycott?

Montgomery, Martin Luther King Jr.

What was the key principle of MLKís strategy to end segregation?

non-violence

What was the focus of the Mississippi Summer Project?

increase # of black voters in Mississippi

Why was it such a big deal that Jackie Robinson played baseball?

it was Americaís past time, everybody paid attention

What was the purpose of the March on Washington?

pressure for Civil Rights Legislation

What was the goal of the freedom riders? What were their tactics?

take the movement to the deep South, use segregated facilities

Name two things that happened to the Riders as they went through the South.

bombed, attacked, jailed

Who would "patrol the police" to assure they were not mistreating blacks? Name two of their demands?

Black Panthers, full employment, self determination, blacks should not serve in Vietnam, decent housing, better education

Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence after WWII?

France

What gave LBJ the power to "use any means necessary" in Vietnam?

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.

jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy

Name one factor that made our involvement in Vietnam so controversial.

just cause?, high cost ($ & lives), impatience with lack of progress

Who was the communist leader of North Vietnam?

Ho Chi Minh

What event led to the arrest of the Chicago 7?

anti-war protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention

What were the southern sympathizers of the communist North called?

Viet Cong

Why did the U.S. attack Cambodia and Laos?

there were bases for the VC and NVA

What impact did the Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war?

turned many against it

Name two ways people tried to avoid the draft during the Vietnam War.

college, family, self inflicted wound, act crazy

What was the name of the quiet group that wanted law & order & supported the war?

silent majority

What brought an end to deferments for students and married people?

draft lottery

What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?

Blacks and Hispanics

What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?

domino theory

Name 2 artists whose music opposed the Vietnam War.

Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, Joan Baez, the Doors

What goal did Nixon claim to be pursuing in the Vietnam War?

Peace with Honor

What tactic did Nixon use to try and force the Vietnamese to the bargaining table?

increased bombing

Who did Nixon claim to represent?

the Silent Majority

Why did Carter suspend the wheat deal in 1980?

USSR invaded Afghanistan

Name two reasons Nixon went to China in 1972?

keep them pissed at USSR, open markets to trade

What did the SALT talks do?

limit strategic weapons, like ICBMs

What was one of Fordís first important actions that relates to Watergate?

pardons Nixon

Why did OPEC place an embargo on oil to the U.S. in 1973?

we helped Israel in October war

What is stagflation a combination of?

unemployment & inflation

Who had to deal with it during his presidency?

Carter

What was Carterís major foreign policy victory?

Camp David Accords

What was his big foreign policy nightmare?

Iran Hostage Crisis

What major events had damaged Americans self esteem between 1969-1981?

Vietnam, Watergate, Iran Hostage Crisis

What president tried to restore prestige to the presidency in light of this?

Ronald Reagan

What was congressí position on funding the Contras in 1983?

against it

What was our govít hoping for help with from the Iranians in exchange for selling them arms?

freeing our hostages in Lebanon

What Soviet leaders reforms ultimately led to the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.

Mikhail Gorbachev

Identify two challenges George Bush faced during his presidency.

recession, end of Cold War, Gulf War, S & L Crisis, War on Drugs, Clarence Thomas