Civil Rights Movement Review
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What SC decision made segregation legal?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What organization, founded by WEB Dubois, fought school segregation in the courts?
Give an example of a Jim Crow Law.
separate facilities, curfews, separate workplaces
How did WWII serve as a catalyst for the Movement?
fight for U.S. then come home to discrimination
What did the Emmitt Till case demonstrate about the Southern Judicial System?
no justice for blacks from all white system
What was the key principle of MLK’s strategy to end segregation?
Where did Rosa Parks start the Bus Boycott?
Why was it such a big deal that Jackie Robinson played baseball?
it was America’s past time, everybody paid attention
Who was chosen to lead the boycott?
Martin Luther King Jr.
What decision reversed Plessy?
Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS)
Who were King’s chief influences in the use of non-violent tactics?
Gandhi & Thoreau
What organization was founded by King & other ministers in 1957?
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
How did President Eisenhower support the integration of Central High School in Little Rock?
Sent in National Guard troops to keep the peace and protect the students
Give 2 examples of tough conditions faced by black students at Central High School in Little Rock.
soldier escorts, name calling, fights, threats
What was the SNCC? What was their first big action in the movement?
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, Sit Ins
What was the goal of the Freedom Riders? What challenges did they face?
Integrate bus terminals and take the movement to the deep South, bombings, beatings, arrests, etc.
Name two things that happened to the Riders as they went through the South.
bombed, attacked, jailed
Why was JFK reluctant to fully support the Freedom Riders?
He was afraid of America looking bad on the world scene (Cold war, tension with the Soviets)
Why was Bull Connor so infamous?
Symbol of white resistance and oppression; ordered use of police dogs & fire hoses on protestors in Birmingham
What did the SCLC do to expose Bull Connor? What happened to MLK there?
Marches in Birmingham, he was put in jail
What was MLK’s chief purpose in his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"?
He will be an extremist in the cause of morality, it is not the fault of the movement that their actions result in violence
What was the purpose of the March on Washington in 1963?
pressure for Civil Rights Legislation
What legislation came out of this pressure?
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965
What was the focus of the 1964 Mississippi Summer Project?
increase # of black voters in Mississippi
What happened to three of the volunteers who went down to help?
Kidnapped and murdered by local Klan members
What kinds of groups believed blacks must rely on themselves and not on integration?
Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization.
Black Panthers, Nation of Islam
According to Malcolm X, who would it be OK to use violence against?
someone who had "laid a hand" on you
What did Malcolm X say blacks should reject?
self hatred imposed on them by white culture
Where was militancy more rampant among blacks?
Who would "patrol the police" to assure they were not mistreating blacks?
Name two demands of the Black Panthers.
full employment, self determination, blacks should not serve in Vietnam, decent housing, better education
Who fled the inner cities for the suburbs after WWII? What did they take with them?
middle class whites, tax dollars needed for social services
Name two places riots broke out in response to poor conditions in the cities.
Watts (1965) Newark and Detroit (1967)
What was the SCLC’s final campaign under the direction of MLK?
Poor People’s Campaign
How did the assassinations of MLK and Bobby Kennedy impact the Civil Rights Movement?
Greatly slowed its momentum
What was John Kennedy’s plan for America called? What were two of its major goals?
New Frontier, reinvigorate the United States & continue the triumph of capitalism
What was Johnson’s plan for the United States called? What were two of its goals?
Great Society, eliminate poverty, improve civil rights & provide health care
What was the impact of the Bakke v. UC Regents SC decision?
Affirmative Action is OK, but it’s not; leaves open the debate on Affirmative Action
What did the Swann and Milliken SC decisions open the door for?
School busing designed to create "racial balance"
What community experienced a huge clash over the busing issue in 1974?