Cold War Test Review

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What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII?

United Nations

What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free from Comm. after WWII?

Marshall Plan

Which side did the U.S. (and the U.N.) support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?

the South, the USSR

Why did Truman fire MacArthur during the Korean War?

insisted on being more aggressive (nuke China)

What was the result of the Korean War?

NK stays Comm., SK free, DMZ in middle (38th parallel)

What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War?

NATO (U.S. led) & Warsaw Pact (USSR led)

What was Truman accused of being "soft" on? How did he respond to this?

Communism, policy review boards

What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?

Truman Doctrine

How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?

Berlin Airlift of supplies

What did the Soviets test/demonstrate in 1949 that scared the heck out of us?

an atomic bomb

Who was put to death for supposedly giving our nuclear secrets to the Soviets?

Julius & Ethel Rosenberg

Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950ís by hunting communists? What was his fate?

Joseph McCarthy, brought down by his former allies

Name 2 ways U.S. citizens responded to the threat of Nuclear attack?

fallout shelters, drop and cover drills, end of the world parties

What made it possible for the U.S. to avoid a major post-war economic slump?

Marshall Plan and people spent what they had saved during the war

What form of popular music emerged in the 1950ís? Who were some key artists?

Rock and Roll, Elvis, Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly, Richie Valens

What was the societal expectation for American women in the 1950ís?

Stay home, raise the kids, and consume

What was the result of the need for new housing and desire for a middle class lifestyle in the post war era?

The suburbs

Name two factors in the emphasis on conformity in 1950ís America.

TV, the suburbs, corporate culture, fear of communism, consumerism

How did the GI Bill impact the U.S.?

Made it possible for vets to buy homes, businesses & farms, as well as go to college

Who did both parties covet as their candidate for President in 1952? Why?

Dwight D. Eisenhower, because he was a moderate war hero

Which party did Eisenhower choose? What young senator became his running mate?

Republican, Richard Nixon

Name 2 places the CIA intervened on behalf of U.S. interests in the 1950ís.

Iran, Guatemala, Lebanon

How did the Suez Crisis of 1956 effect the Cold War?

opened the Middle East to Soviet influence

What did the U.S. response to the European crises of 1956 demonstrate?

We were unwilling to intervene behind the Iron Curtain

What event of 1957 caused a rush to improve math & science programs in the U.S.?

launch of Sputnik

At the peak of the arms race, how many times over could the U.S. & the USSR have blown up the world?

10

How did the U-2 incident effect relations between the superpowers?

put them in the deep freeze

What was the bracero program?

recruited Mexican immigrants across the border to work on the farms during World War II

What government operation focused on deporting many of these immigrants during the 1950ís?

Operation Wetback

What new form of retail center emerged in the 1950ís?

the suburban shopping mall

What were the two main provisions of the Taft Hartley Act?

President could declare an 80 day "cooling off" period in labor negotiations, communists & socialists were removed from union leadership

What did Truman fear about unionsí demands for higher wages?

they were inflationary and would be harmful to the economy

What was the purpose of Trumanís Fair Deal?

continue the programs of FDRís New Deal

Identify two key aspects of Eisenhowerís "modern republicanism"?

limit the role of the federal government, reduce role of the President while increasing power of Congress and the Courts, balance budget, support corporations

The following questions will be covered in class on 3/23 feel free to preview them now.

What effort did Kennedy make to remove him from power?

the Bay of Pigs

What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950ís? What did he do that angered Americans?

Fidel Castro, seized American properties and favored the Soviets

Why did the Bay of Pigs fail?

lack of Cuban support, no air strike

Why did the Soviets put up the Berlin Wall in 1961?

Embarrassed by the flow of immigrants fleeing East Germany

What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy wonít attack you if he knows you can retaliate?

Mutually Assured Destruction

Where did the Soviets attempt to set up missiles in October of 1962? How did the U.S. respond?

Cuba, naval blockade (this is the Cuban Missile Crisis)

What was the outcome of this crisis?

U.S. promises not to invade Cuba again, USSR takes back its missiles