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Name 3 things Nationalists use to define nations
language, ethnicity, history, culture
What kind of people did liberals tend to be?
Wealthy, educated & excluded
Who did liberals want to deny representation to? Why?
lower classes, unfit for rep (nothing special about them)
What two things did the Belgians get their inspiration for revolt from?
French Rev. of 1830 & the nationalist Opera
What kind of people were usually conservatives?
aristocratic monarchists (people who had power in the old pre-french rev system)
Name 3 ideals the Liberals took from the Enlightenment.
Free press, religious tolerance, equality before the law, unrestricted economy
What king was removed in the French Revolution of 1830? What did he do to provoke revolution?
Charles X, ousted liberal ministry Ė issued 4 (July) ordinances
Name 2 factors that contributed to the rise of the proletariat.
wage labor market, end of guilds, no longer controlled means of production
What was the purpose of the Six Acts?
Make it easier to repress the reform demanders in GB
Who were the Burchenshaften? What happened to them?
Student Nationalist groups in Germany banned by Metternich & Carlsbad Decrees
Identify the three major ways that workers sought to improve their conditions in the early 1800ís.
socialism, chartism, labor unions
Who was the pioneer of socialism? Who did he believe should control the means of production?
Saint Simon, industrial and intellectual elites
Who thought he could successfully build utopias based on textile manufacturing? Where did he succeed? Fail?
Owen, Scotland & Indiana
What kind of equality were the Chartists pushing for? Name 3 parts of the Charter.
political equality; universal suffrage, salaries for Commons, no prop. req., annual elections, equal districts
What was Marxís major work?
What did Marx feel was necessary to reorganize society? Would this entity be permanent?
Dictatorship of the proletariat, no
What did Marx believe would be the culminating event of history?
clash between Proletariat & Bourgeoisie, leading to a society without oppression
What did the anarchists want? Why?
end to ind. & Govít, because ind. & govít limit freedom in peopleís lives
What were 3 general causes of the Revs. of 1848?
Hunger (bad harvests), unemployment, poor living & working conditions, political oppression
How many separate revolts took place in 1848? Which was the first major uprising?
Over 50, the February Revolution in France
Where were the four major revolutions of 1848?
France (Nap III), Italy (Roman Republic), Austria (Magyars & Czechs), Germany (workers and liberals)
What impact did the Crimean war have on the Great Powers (Au. Pr., Ru. & GB)?
Ended it (broke up the order of Congress of Vienna)
What impact did this break up have on Germany & Italy?
Allowed for their unification (since powers couldnít unite to stop it like they had in the past)
Who did Cavour secure help from in Piedmontís fight against Austria?
Napoleon III (France)
What priorities did Garibaldi demonstrate when he turned over Southern Italy to Cavour (the monarchist)?
nationalism over republicanism
Bismarck wanted unification by ____ & ____, which symbolized what?
blood & iron, war & industrial strength
How did Bismarck use the Danish war to deal with Austria?
Conflict over spoils of war leads to Austro-Prussian War in 1866
How did the realists want to portray life?
as it actually was in order to shock the bourgeoisie
Name three kinds of horrid conditions that the new urban cities faced.
disease, overcrowding, crime, sanitation, prostitution
Name two developments that helped solve these problems in the late 1800ís.
sewers, electric light, public housing
What school of painters wanted to capture the entire essence of the moment?
How did the middle class try to set themselves apart from the WC?
buying consumer goods, living in better neighborhoods, etc.
What did romantic painters like Goya and Turner attempt to portray?
their emotional view of the world
Name two kinds of white collar jobs that were created by the 2nd Ind Rev.
sales clerks, typists, phone operators, traveling salesmen