Text of the Unit III Review Game
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Which two countries were most involved in conquering South America in the 1500ís?
Spain and Portugal
What were the two big native civilizations that were conquered by these nations?
Incas and Aztecs
What religion did the Spanish spread throughout their empire in Latin America?
What kinds of commodities were the Spanish interested in taking back to Spain?
precious metals (gold and silver bullion)
What did the explorers bring with them that wiped out large portions of the native populations?
What two countries colonized the eastern part of North America?
Britain and France
What major war did they fight over this territory in the mid-1700ís?
7 Years War, or French and Indian War
Name one factor that may have led to the population boom that started in the mid-1700ís.
End of the plague, less warfare, improved health
What were Jethro Tullís two main contributions to the Ag. Rev.?
iron plow and seed drill
Name the two crops that were introduced from the New World. How did these help?
potatoes & corn, more variety in diet and helped replenish the soil
Why did landlords want to enclose their lands?
higher bread prices, wanted to force the use of new methods to increase productivity
In which industry did the Industrial Revolution start? Why?
textiles, the larger population needed to be clothed
What did the flying shuttle create a demand for? What invention helped solve this?
thread/yarn, spinning jenny
Name two reasons the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain.
coal & iron, individual liberties, roads & waterways, relatively mobile social structure
Name 2 benefits of the steam engine.
Move factories away from rivers, constant source of power, leads to development of cities
What did many "new" cities lack that would have helped them handle the influx of people?
infrastructure (roads, sewers, housing, etc.)
In what kinds of places did the "new cities" spring up?
waterways, road hubs, sea ports
What system was replaced by the factory system?
cottage or "putting-out"
How did GB try to address the massive war debt they were left with after the 7 Years War? What was the response to this?
Taxing their colonists, the colonists hated it
How did the new govít the Americans created differ from all previous govíts?
Equality of all white men, no aristocracy or social classes by birth, no king
Name three causes of the French Rev..
Food shortages & prices, heavy taxation of poor, little taxation of nobles & clergy, bourgeoisie vs. nobles, nobles vs. monarchy
What group did the 3rd Estate form when they left the Estates General? What did they promise in the Tennis Court Oath?
National Assembly, keep meeting until they wrote a constitution
What kind of reaction did the invasion of France by Austria & Prussia produce?
panic, fear, "invasion mentality"
What radical member of the third estate led the Reign of Terror? What eventually happened to him?
Robespierre, he was guillotined
What French general took over the French govít after the revolution?
Name two parts of the Napoleonic Code.
civic equality, no guilds, promotion based on merit, end to social hierarchy, religious tolerance
Who supported the Spanish Guerillas against Napoleon?
Roman Catholic Church & Great Britain (Wellington)
What strategy did the Russians use to defeat Napoleon after his invasion in 1812?
Scorched earth (destroy everything useful & back up) & starve him out
How did he bring an end to the Ancien Regime (the Old Regime)?
spread ideals of French Rev. across Europe
What was the goal of the Continental System?
Economic defeat of GB
What effect does Napoleon have on the political power of the Church?
greatly diminishes it because of religious toleration
What was the first Latin American colony to break free from European control?
What ethnic group led most of the independence movements in Latin America?
Who were the two great Libertadores of the Latin American revolutions?
Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar
Where did Indians and mestizos play a leading role in the revolutionary movement?