Text of the Unit III Review

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What were the key inventions in communications?

telegraph, telephone, typewriter

Identify two of the great inventors of this era.

Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell

**Give two examples of men who took advantage of these new inventions to build powerful business empires.

Carnegie (Steel), Rockefeller (oil), Vanderbilt, Stanford, Huntington (RRís)

What is laissez faire economics?

a system with no govít control or interference

How do corporations raise capital?

sell stock or take loans

What do you call a group of corporations controlled by the same board for common interest?

trust

What is a pool?

companies in competition divide up market

Why were companies able to pay low wages and maintain poor conditions?

huge labor surplus (more workers than jobs)

Give 2 examples of poor working conditions.

heat/cold, unsafe machines, long hours, toxic chemicals, low wages

What kind of organizations did workers form to try and improve pay and conditions? How do these orgs get their power?

unions, collective bargaining

What was the first national labor organization?

Knights of Labor

Who was the first leader of the American Federation of Labor?

Samuel Gompers

What two groups did unions regularly exclude?

blacks and immigrants

What clash between labor and govít was wrongfully blamed on "bomb-throwing anarchists"?

Haymarket Square Riot

What was the first strike where one union supported another?

Pullman Strike

Why would the govít always side with the owners against the unions?

the owners had put them into the offices they held

**Identify 2 reasons why many immigrants came to the U.S. between 1875-1925.

religious or political freedom, economic opportunity, land ownership, seeking adventure

Where were most immigrants who came to the U.S. in the late 1800ís & early 1900ís processed?

Ellis Island

Name 2 things that would have kept an immigrant from getting into the U.S..

health problem, criminal record

What two regions did most immigrants come from in the late 1800s?

Europe and Asia (China and Japan)

Why were new immigrants subjected to so much xenophobia?

different languages, religions, complexions, illiteracy

**What are 2 characteristics of the "Gilded Age"?

new wealth, conspicuous spending, political corruption, imitating Victorian lifestyle

Why was President James Garfield assassinated?

disgruntled job seeker upset that he was reforming spoils system

What groups essentially stole the voting power away from the poor to use for their own benefit?

political machines

What law brought reform to the civil service system?

the Pendleton Civil Service Act

How many families was the floor of a tenement designed for? How many actually lived there?

2, 6-10

What was Jane Addamsí solution to the housing problems of the late 1800s?

settlement houses

What photographer wrote "How the Other Half Lives" to expose the horrors of life in the inner city?

Jacob Riis

What was the goal of the muckrakers?

draw attention to social problems with sensational journalism

Name a law that progressives passed to help purify food.

Pure Food & Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act

Name a measure taken by progressives to take the corruption out of govít.

commission system, direct primaries, referendums & initiatives

How did Progressives view the role of government?

They saw it as an agent of social change

Which president was the most famous "trust buster"?

Teddy Roosevelt

**What organization was formed in the early 1900ís to try and improve conditions for African-Americans? Who was itís founder

NAACP, WEB DuBois

What did the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision effectively make legal?

racial segregation

**Name two ways blacks were kept from voting in the South during the late 1800ís.

grandfather clauses & poll taxes

What type of vigilante justice was often used to keep blacks "in line"?

lynching

Who encouraged blacks to advance through education and economic means?

Booker T. Washington

Identify 2 types of work women performed outside the home in the late 1800s.

domestic, clerical

What issue did women focus on in the late 1800ís in their fight for equality?

suffrage (the right to vote)