Text of the Summer Test II Review
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Identify at least two of the big trends leading to WWI.
industrial arms race, colonial rivalry, nationalism, alliances
What was the root of the tension between A-H & Russia?
territorial interests in the Balkans
In 1914, who belonged to the Triple Alliance?
Italy, Germany, A-H
In 1914, Who belonged to the Triple Entente?
GB, France & Russia
What event triggered war between these two alliances?
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
What were the basics of the Schlieffen Plan?
swing through France with strong right, defeating them quickly then beating the Russians
What were the two major actions on the Western Front in 1916?
German attack on Verdun, Allied offensive at Somme
How successful were these actions?
not at all
What were the Allies trying to accomplish at Gallipoli?
break through & reestablish connection with Russia
What were the two major battles on the western front in 1916?
Verdun and the Somme
Identify three weapons that were used first in WWI.
machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines, poison gas
Who took control in the March Revolution?
liberals/cadets (Provisional Govít lead by Kerensky)
What brought the U.S. into the war?
Zimmerman Telegram & sinking of the Lusitania
What did the Germans do after the Bolsheviks surrendered?
Launched an all out attack on the Western Front
What allowed the British and French to hold off this assault?
help from the U.S.
How did the Germans try to counter the British blockade?
with the U-Boat (unterseebooten)
What was Kerensky (and the provisional govít)ís biggest mistake?
staying in the war vs. Germany
When did the Bolsheviks take control of Russia?
October/November of 1917
Why did the Bolsheviks have to sign the treaty of Brest Litovsk?
needed to get out of war & focus on keeping control
Who was the political leader of the Bolsheviks? Military Leader?
Identify 4 ways that the Treaty of Versailles was hard on Germany.
blame for war, huge reparations, Alsace-Lorraine, small army, dictated, demil-Rhineland
Why did trench warfare suck? (list at least three reasons)
machine guns, trench foot, boredom, shell shock, rats, barbed wire
How did this impact the Ger. economy?
huge inflation, some unemployment
Name 2 parts of the Nazi Party Platform.
repudiation of T of V, unification of Aust & Ger., eradication of Jews, agrarian reform, confiscation of war profits, etc.
What was the first attempted takeover by the Nazi Party?
Beer Hall Putsch (Munich, 1923)
Who rose to power in response to the GD in Ger.? Who did they use as scapegoats?
Nazis, Jews and Communists
What did Hitler blame on the Communists & use as an excuse to expand his power?
What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?
What was the name of Hitlerís elite secret police force? Who led it?
What kinds of propaganda were used by the Nazis? Who was their minister of propaganda?
marches, rallies, radio, print; Joseph Goebbels
What was the Nazisí economic policy?
Gear all production toward strong military state
What old empire had controlled the Middle East for hundreds of years prior to 1900? What event brought the collapse of this empire?
The Ottoman Empire, WWI
How did the Ottoman govít respond to the uprising of Armenian Christians in 1915?
They killed 600,000 Armenians and sent 500,000 more into exile
What leader took over Turkey at the end of WWI and allowed for the official end of the end of the Empire? What was his biggest reform?
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, make Turkey a secular state, free from connections with Islam
What resource was discovered in Persia that served to increase foreign interest?
Name at least two of the new ďstatesĒ created in the Middle East after WWI?
Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan
What was the first new kingdom created by Arabs in the Middle East? What specific industry brought great wealth to this kingdom in the 1930ís?
Saudi Arabia, the American oil industry
In what part of the former Ottoman empire is there a great deal of tension today? Who is the tension between?
Former Palestine; Arab Palestinians and the Israelis
Who took over leadership of the Nationalists after Sun Yat Senís death?
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek)
Who did Jiang Jieshi identify as the two major enemies to Chinese unification in the late 1920ís ?
the Communists and Japan
What is the basic message of Maoís Four Slogans?
do the opposite of what the enemy wants/expects
What was Maoís ďLong MarchĒ?
when Mao and the communists broke the nationalist siege and marched north to their only remaining base
Why did Jiang feel the peasants were not ready for a republic?
They were very poor and illiterate
Why did Jiang suppress all opposition and censor free expression?
he feared Communist influence
Sum it all up by identifying 3 of the major problems China faced during the 1930ís.
the Great Depression, Japanese aggression, internal conflict (comms vs. nats)