Text of the Summer Test I Review
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Name 3 things Nationalists use to define nations
language, ethnicity, history, culture
What kind of people did liberals tend to be?
Wealthy, educated & excluded
Who did liberals want to deny representation to? Why?
lower classes, unfit for rep (nothing special about them)
What kind of people were usually conservatives?
aristocratic monarchists (people who had power in the old pre-french rev system)
Name 3 ideals the Liberals took from the Enlightenment.
Free press, religious tolerance, equality before the law, unrestricted economy
Name 2 factors that contributed to the rise of the proletariat.
wage labor market, end of guilds, no longer controlled means of production
Identify the three major ways that workers sought to improve their conditions in the early 1800ís.
socialism, chartism, labor unions
What kind of equality were the Chartists pushing for? Name 3 parts of the Charter.
political equality; universal suffrage, salaries for Commons, no prop. req., annual elections, equal districts
What was Marxís major work?
What did Marx feel was necessary to reorganize society? Would this entity be permanent?
Dictatorship of the proletariat, no
What did Marx believe would be the culminating event of history?
clash between Proletariat & Bourgeoisie, leading to a society without oppression
What did the anarchists want? Why?
end to ind. & Govít, because ind. & govít limit freedom in peopleís lives
What were 3 general causes of the Revs. of 1848?
Hunger (bad harvests), unemployment, poor living & working conditions, political oppression
How many separate revolts took place in 1848? Which was the first major uprising?
Over 50, the February Revolution in France
Where were the four major revolutions of 1848?
France (Nap III), Italy (Roman Republic), Austria (Magyars & Czechs), Germany (workers and liberals)
Who did Cavour secure help from in Piedmontís fight against Austria?
Napoleon III (France)
What priorities did Garibaldi demonstrate when he turned over Southern Italy to Cavour (the monarchist)?
nationalism over republicanism
Bismarck wanted unification by ____ & ____, which symbolized what?
blood & iron, war & industrial strength
How did the realists want to portray life?
as it actually was in order to shock the bourgeoisie
Name three kinds of horrid conditions that the new urban cities faced.
disease, overcrowding, crime, sanitation, prostitution
Name two developments that helped solve these problems in the late 1800ís.
sewers, electric light, public housing
What school of painters wanted to capture the entire essence of the moment?
How did the middle class try to set themselves apart from the working class?
buying consumer goods, living in better neighborhoods, etc.
What did romantic painters like Goya and Turner attempt to portray?
their emotional view of the world
Identify three reasons for New Imperialism.
nationalism, industrialism, belief in cultural superiority, spread religion
In what continent was this new imperialism most evident?
What two nations started the colonization of Africa? What part?
GB & France, northern sections
What was GBís goal in Africa?
Cape to Cairo
Why was China ripe for forced trade in the 1800s?
What was the worst example of European exploitation in Africa?
King Leopold in the Congo
What were the only two parts of Africa not colonized by 1900?
Ethiopia and Liberia
What were the two clashes in Africa that fed animosity against GB?
Fashoda Crisis with France and the Boer War with the Dutch Afrikaners
Why was trade with China so important to the Europeans?
Chinese goods were in high demand in Europe
What was the U.S. policy for trade in China?
Open Door Policy
What British settlement came out of this policy?
What was the Chinese rebellion in response to the Open Door Policy?
What were the two examples of economically successful colonies in the 1800s?
Dutch Indonesia and British India
Why did Germany antagonize GB in the early 1900s?
to make themselves look powerful so GB will want to ally with them
What was the cause of the Sepoy Rebellion?
rumors about the animal fat used on rifle cartridges
How did the British change the way they ruled India after this rebellion?
they shifted to direct rule, placing the colonies directly under their control
What are the two largest religious groups in India? Why is this a problem?
Hindus and Muslims, tension between the two groups
What was the chief impact that Hinduism had on Indiaís social structure?
divided it into a rigid class structure (castes)
What British educated Hindu goes on to lead the Indian Nationalist Movement?
Identify three kinds of raw materials that came out of SE Asia.
teak wood, rubber, tin, spices, tea, coffee
How did France first get involved in Vietnam?
through missionaries who went there to spread Christianity
What nation took over the Philippines from Spain in 1898? Why did they want it?
the U.S., as a jumping off point for trade with China