Text of the M01B Midterm Review

Krister Swanson – Moorpark College

 

Identify 3 early sources of law.

Hammurabi’s Code, The 12 Tables from Rome, the 10 Commandments

Who was the Father of Greek Philosophy?  What method did he use to find truth?

Socrates, question and question to find truth

How did Aristotle believe you could find the best government?

Evaluating existing governments

Who took Greek ideas and spread them throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa?

Alexander the Great

What two things allowed for a dramatic change in population growth between 1000-1300.

more peaceful conditions (less war) and better agriculture

What was the purpose of the Crusades?  Who usually went on them?

Retake the Holy Land from the “infidel”, noblemen & knights looking for glory and salvation

Middle Age universities were dedicated to what school of thought?

scholasticism

What two things did peasants get in exchange for giving up their freedom to the lord of the manor?

Protection and the use of land

Identify at least three of the “obligations” placed on peasants.

Pay a portion of crop to lord, rent pastureland, tithes to the church, portion of catch to the lord

Identify three ways the lords exercised control over their peasants.

Permission to leave, permission to marry, lords run local courts, lords control crafts and trades for their peasants

What two areas did scholasticism attempt to reconcile?

Faith (xianity) and reason (Aristotle)

Who was the most well known scholastic?  What was his most famous work?

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica

Name two examples of church corruption during the Middle Ages.

simony, legal exemptions, tax exemptions, clerical infidelity, misuse of church funds

Name 2 of the main ways that the Black Death impacted Europe.

decreased supply of labor, increased power of poor, decreased demand for land, decreased power of nobility

Identify the four basic levels of the church hierarchy.

Pope - Cardinal - Bishop - Priest

What was a vassal expected to give loyally in exchange for his fief?

military service

Name two benefits the serf received in the manorial system.

protection from outside threat, food during shortages, legal protection

How did France ultimately benefit from the 100 Years War?

regained much lost territory

Who was the local legal authority in the feudal system?

the lord (vassal)

Name Michelangelo’s most famous painting & sculpture.

Sistene Chapel & David

Who wrote “The Prince” and hoped that a strong Italian ruler would come from the Medicis?  What quality did he value?

Machiavelli, virtú

How did Renaissance Art differ from art from the Middle Ages?

realism, accurate anatomy, secular patronage

What economic developments allowed for secular patronage of the arts?

increased trade & banking

Who was the father of Humanism? What kind of activity did he inspire?

Petrarch, Examination of the classics, and writing related to them

List two reasons the church feared the humanists.

Self-reliance, outside interpretations, authorities other than God

What invention caused literacy to boom and made it much easier for thinkers to spread their ideas?  Roughly when was it invented?

printing press, late 1400’s

Name the work and author that describe an ideal society that will never exist.

Utopia, Thomas More

Identify the two major northern humanists.

More & Erasmus

What was Erasmus’ philosophy a combination of?

Christian and classical beliefs

Identify two classical features that were prominent in Ren. Architecture.

Domes, columns, roman arches, ornamentation, integrated supports

How was the subject matter of the Northern Ren. a departure from the High Ren?

Gothic, supernatural

How did members of the Schmalkaldic League and Henry VIII benefit from the Reformation Economically?

Took over Church lands & property

Who said: “We are all equal in the eyes of God, members of the Priesthood of all Believers”?

Luther

What conclusion pushed Luther to write the 95 Theses?

That man is saved through Faith and not works or indulgences

Which theologian believed people were predestined for salvation?

Calvin

What tool did Calvin use to create his “New Jerusalem”?

Strict moral code (spread through sermons and Catechism)

List three components of Calvin’s moral code.

No drinking, no dancing, no plays, religious music & psalm reading in taverns

What was the main reason Henry VIII started the English Reformation?

Wanted an annulment from Catharine, desired control over church structure & resources

How was the Anglican Church that Henry VIII created different from Roman Catholicism?

It was different organizationally because the king was in charge, it was not different theologically

Under which monarch did England become truly Protestant (theologically)?

Edward VI

Which English monarch attempted to reinstate Roman Catholicism? Was she successful?

Mary I, no she was not

What three religious groups did Elizabeth I face when she came to the throne?  What did she recognize as the official religion of England?

RCs, Anglicans, & Puritans;  Anglicanism (Church of England)

Identify two key components of the Roman Catholic Counter Reformation.

Founding new orders (like the Jesuits), the Inquisition, emphasis on discipline, the Index of Forbidden Books

What type of art reflected the spirit of the Counter Reformation?  What did the RC church hope it would do?

Baroque, bring people back to the faith

What is Baroque Art designed to do?

Get an emotional response/reaction

What two groups were fighting each other in the French Religious conflict?

The Huguenots and the Catholic League

How did Henry of Navarre bring a close to conflict in France?

converting to RC & issuing the Edict of Nantes which protected the Huguenots

Why did Phillip II of Spain want to keep control of the Netherlands?

He wanted to keep them Catholic and he needed the tax $$$

Which  protestant group wanted to rid the Anglican Church of all Catholic practices and structures?

Puritans

Who wanted Mary Queen of Scots to be Queen of England? Why was she executed?

Phillip II and other RCs, Plotting to kill Elizabeth I

What was the impact of the Thirty Years War on Germany?

Total devastation, kills 1/3 of population

What is the main goal of mercantilism?

strengthen your nation’s economy at the expense of another nation

What kinds of practices do mercantilist nations use?

tariffs, colonies, sea trade, support for industry, shipping regulations, full employment, large population

What two classical thinkers were most of the early scientific beliefs based on?

Aristotle & Ptolemy

What were the two key components of Copernicus’ theory about the universe?

The sun is in the middle, the planets travel in circular orbits around it

Who was Brahe’s assistant that drew pro-Copernican conclusions from Brahe’s charts?

Johannes Kepler

How did the church respond to Galileo’s use of the telescope?

They condemned it, “God would have made us able to see it”

Who was the father of modern philosophy and the deductive method?

Descartes (“I Think therefore I am”)

Who was the champion of the empirical method?  What does this method encourage?

Bacon, observations based on lots of data

Who was the first scientist to maintain that mathematical relationships explain everything?

Galileo

What major events were the two of the main influences on Hobbes & Locke?

English Civil War, Louis XIV & Glorious Revolution

List two of Locke’s major beliefs.

blank slate, overthrow bad gov’t, natural state is freedom, natural rights: life, liberty & property

Who believed that people must turn over their rights to a strong ruler his rule would prevent anarchy?

Hobbes

How did Hobbes’ absolute ruler control his people?

Manipulating their fear of pain and desire for pleasure

Who are the three most prominent Enlightenment philosophes?

Montesquieu, Voltaire, & Rousseau

Why would you associate Voltaire with our First amendment?

he advocated basic freedoms (speech, press, petition, etc.)

Name the author that advocated Laissez Faire Economics.  What economic system was he responding to?

Adam Smith, mercantilism

In what role did the Deists place God?

“divine watchmaker”, created world and stood back, men control own actions

What did Montesquieu argue was the best form of gov’t?

Three branch, separation of powers

Name three major beliefs of Rousseau.

Importance of society over individual, bend to will, glorified motherhood, Men & Women in separate spheres

Why was the first encyclopedia such a major undertaking? Who edited it?

first time any group tried to compile “all” knowledge, Diderot

If you had to sum up the enlightenment in one word, what would it be?

Reason

What two sides clashed in the English Civil War?

The Anglican Monarchists and the Puritan Parliamentarians

What was the key outcome of the Glorious Revolution in England?

William III and Mary accepted the English Bill of Rights and the terms of a constitutional monarchy

Who was the absolute monarch?  Identify two characteristics of his reign.

Louis XIV, army, propaganda, Versailles, bureaucracy

Name one factor that may have led to the population boom that started in the mid-1700’s.

End of the plague, less warfare, improved health

What were Jethro Tull’s two main contributions to the Ag. Rev.?

iron plow and seed drill

Name the two crops that were introduced from the New World.  How did these help?

potatoes & corn, more variety in diet and helped replenish the soil

Why did landlords want to enclose their lands?

higher bread prices, wanted to force the use of new methods to increase productivity

What happened to many peasants as a result of enclosure?

cut loose from the land, forced to look for other employment

In which industry did the Industrial Revolution start?  Why?

textiles, the larger population needed to be clothed

What did the flying shuttle create a demand for?  What invention helped solve this?

thread/yarn, spinning jenny

Name two reasons the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain.

coal & iron, individual liberties, roads & waterways, relatively mobile social structure

Name 2 benefits of the steam engine.

Move factories away from rivers, constant source of power, leads to development of cities

What did many “new” cities lack that would have helped them handle the influx of people?

infrastructure (roads, sewers, housing, etc.)

In what kinds of places did the “new cities” spring up?

waterways, road hubs, sea ports

Why did the Bourgeoisie resent the nobility?

inherited legal rights & privileges

What system was replaced by the factory system?

cottage or “putting-out”

How did GB try to address the massive war debt they were left with after the 7 Years War?  What was the response to this?

Taxing their colonists, the colonists hated it

Name three causes of the French Rev..

Food shortages & prices, heavy taxation of poor, little taxation of nobles & clergy, bourgeoisie vs. nobles, nobles vs. monarchy

What group did the 3rd Estate form when they left the Estates General?  What did they promise in the Tennis Court Oath?

National Assembly, keep meeting until they wrote a constitution

What did Louis XVI do to cause the poor to storm the Bastille?

muster troops around Paris which made them think he was going to stop the revolution

How did French nobles react to the Great Fear?

renounced their rights, cleared the way for a Constitution

Identify a way in which Louis XVI demonstrated his anti-revolutionary sentiment.

muster troops, stall on Dec. of Rights, flee to Varennes, refractory clergy

Why did the women of Paris march on Versailles?

food, make Louis agree to Dec. of Rights

Despite their active participation in the revolution, which two groups were consistently left out of the benefits?

poor (esp. urban) & women

What kind of reaction did the invasion by Austria & Prussia produce?

panic, fear, “invasion mentality”

What tool did the Convention use to mobilize France for war? name two components of this tool.

levee en masse; conscription of all males, price ceilings, war production

What two places did the Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen get its ideas from?

Declaration of Independence & Enlightenment

What radical member of the third estate led the Reign of Terror?  What eventually happened to him?

Robespierre, he was guillotined

Name two parts of the Napoleonic Code.

civic equality, no guilds, promotion based on merit, end to social hierarchy, religious tolerance

What two groups supported Napoleon’s rise to power?

bourgeoisie & land owning peasants

Name two things Napoleon did to squash his people who opposed him.

Centralize government, execution, give them high government posts (with little power), secret police

Who formed the Quadruple Alliance against him?

GB, Austria, Prussia, Russia

Who supported the Spanish Guerillas against Napoleon?

RC Church & GB (Wellington)

What strategy did the Russians use to defeat Napoleon after his invasion in 1812?

Scorched earth (destroy everything useful & back up) & starve him out

Who rallied to attack Napoleon from the east in 1813-14?  From the west?

East: Austria, Prussia & Russia; West: Great Britain

How did he bring an end to the Ancien Regime (the Old Regime)?

spread ideals of French Rev. across Europe

What was the goal of the Continental System?

Economic defeat of GB

What effect did Napoleon have on the political power of the Church?

greatly diminished it because of religious toleration