Text of the M01B Final Review
History M01B - Krister Swanson – Moorpark College
What movement started in Germany in response to Nappy & the FR?
What type of government was favored by the Congress of Vienna?
How did the COV attempt to isolate France?
sets up buffer states around it (Netherlands, Swiss Confed., Sardinia, etc.)
In what two areas did romanticism flourish? Why?
Germany and GB, most impacted by actions of Napoleon
What is the volksgeist?
spirit of the German people
What period of history did many romantics look to for inspiration? How can this be seen in their architecture?
Middle Ages, gothic revival
What was HegelŐs view of the ongoing pattern of history?
Thesis vs. anti-Thesis = Synthesis (which becomes the new thesis)
Identify at least three English romantic poets.
Keats, Byron, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Johnson
Name 3 things Nationalists use to define nations
language, ethnicity, history, culture
What kind of people did liberals tend to be?
Wealthy, educated & excluded
Who did liberals want to deny representation to? Why?
lower classes, unfit for rep (nothing special about them)
What country eventually met reform with accommodation instead of repression? WhatŐs the best example of this?
Great Britain, Great Reform Bill of 1832
Who were the two main architects of the Congress of Vienna?
Castleragh & Metternich
Why did the Great Powers decide to support the Greek Revolution?
Further weaken the Ottoman Empire
Why was the British Great Reform Bill of 1832 such a success?
revolution unnecessary, kept institutions, brought economic interests into line with political interests
What did the Protocol of Troppau do?
Gave the Great Powers permission to intervene in revolutions Ňfor the good of EuropeÓ
What kind of people were the biggest proponents of Nationalism?
writers & historians
What kind of people were usually conservatives?
What time would the Conservatives liked to return to?
Pre-French Rev. Europe
Name 3 ideals the Liberals took from the Enlightenment.
Free press, religious tolerance, equality before the law, unrestricted economy
How did conservatives view Constitutions?
worse than the plague
Who did the Russian Decembrists want to be Tsar? Were they more liberal or conservative?
Identify two characteristics of the reign of Nicholas I of Russia.
Repressive, gendarme of Europe, Official Nationality protects from corruption of West
What king was ousted in the July Revolution? What did he do to provoke revolution?
Charles X, ousted liberal ministry – issued 4 (July) ordinances
What class ousted him?
Bourgeoisie, with force provided by the working class
Who backed the independent Serbs against the Austrians?
What was the purpose of GBŐs Six Acts?
Make it easier to repress the reform demanders in GB
Who were the Burchenshaften?
Student Nationalist groups in Germany
What happened to them?
banned by Metternich & Carlsbad Decrees
What was the basic idea of the Concert of Europe?
Great Powers would get together to solve problems
What problems led to calls for reform in GB after 1815?
Hunger & Unemployment
What country/statesman had the most to lose from Nationalism?
Name 2 reasons why GB was able to maintain industrial dominance.
foreign markets, quality of goods, strong navy, coal & iron
Name 2 factors that contributed to the rise of the proletariat.
wage labor market, end of guilds, no longer controlled means of production
Name 2 things that happened to the family as a result of industrialization.
mother provides domestic support, less time together, just unit of consumption
What did the Factory Act of 1833 do?
limited child labor to 9 hrs/day, must be 9, 2 hrs. of ed.
What action was intended to help feed the poor in Ireland but led to more free grain trade?
Repeal of the Corn Laws
What is the primary basis for classical economic thought?
the free market (Laissez Faire)
Who thought the population would eventually outstrip the food supply?
Whose Iron Law of Wages justified low wages? What else did this justify?
Ricardo, opposition to labor unions who push for high wages
Who pushed the concept of utility combined with reason?
What did Europeans use as a model for prison reform?
prisons in U.S. (Philadelphia system)
What was the driving force behind the creation of the modern urban police force?
Rising crime and the desire of the MC for order
Who thought he could successfully build utopias based on textile manufacturing? Where did he succeed? Fail?
Owen, Scotland & Indiana
What was MarxŐs major work?
Name 4 parts of the Charter.
universal suff, salaries for Commons, no prop. req., annual elections, equal districts
What did Marx feel was necessary to reorganize society? Would this entity be permanent?
Dictatorship of the proletariat, no
What did Marx believe would be the culminating event of history?
clash between P & B, leading to a society without oppression
What did the anarchists want? Why?
end to ind. & GovŐt, because ind. & govŐt limit freedom in peopleŐs lives
What were 3 general causes of the Revs. of 1848?
Hunger (bad harvests), unemployment, poor living & working conditions, political oppression
How many separate revolts took place in 1848? Which was the first major uprising?
Over 50, the February Revolution in France
What was the chief cause of the start of the February French Rev. of 1848?
Repression by Louis Phillippe (banning the banquets)
What was the first example of class warfare? Who were the two groups involved?
June Days of the French Rev. of 1848, the radical working poor and the French Army
What was the main thing that helped Louis Napoleon get elected?
name recognition & desire for order
Who led the revolt in Vienna? What major figure fled at the start of their uprising?
academic legions (student nationalists), Metternich
The Magyars blew it because they ______ when they tried to rebel against the Austrians.
annexed Romania, Croatia & Serbia (treated others like the Austrians had treated them)
How did rulers all over the Germanic Confederation respond to the uprisings by workers and peasants in 1848?
Made concessions, promised constitutions, and sent reps to the Frankfurt Parliament
Why did the members of the Frankfurt Parliament fail?
Too liberal (ignored Conservatives & workers) and too slow
What group did Guiseppe Mazzini lead? What did the group want?
Young Italy, a united Italy with a republican government
How did the Pope respond to the declaration of a Roman Republic?
He fled, was not as liberal as he claimed to be
Who goes in to Italy to squash revolt & put the Pope back?
France & Louis Napoleon
What two Great Powers fought Russia in the Crimean War? What 2 powers stayed neutral?
France & GB, Prussia & Austria
What were the RussiansŐ goals in the Crimean War?
Protect the Xians in Ottoman Empire, territorial gains (WWPs)
What impact did the Crimean war have on the Concert of Europe?
Ended it (broke up order of COV)
What impact did this break up have on Germany & Italy?
Allowed for their unification (since powers couldnŐt unite against it)
Why was Piedmont the natural place for Italian unification to start?
most independent & industrial
What did Cavour think was the key to unification of Italy?
Economic strength that would make Italy a viable state and a monarchy
Which Ňromantic republicanÓ founded the Young Italian Society? What was their goal?
Guiseppe Mazzini, a unified Italy with a republican govŐt
Why did the Pope resist Italian unification?
wanted to keep the independence of the Papal States (which were under his control)
Who did Cavour secure help from in PiedmontŐs fight against Austria?
Napoleon III (France)
What priorities did Garibaldi demonstrate when he turned over Southern Italy to Cavour?
nationalism over republicanism
Who was the first king of a united Italy?
Victor Emmanuel (of Piedmont)
What state was sick of being second to Austria in Germany? Who was itŐs chief minister in 1862?
Prussia, Otto von Bismarck
Bismarck wanted unification by ____ & ____, which symbolized what?
blood & iron, war & industrial strength
What was the first Ňwar of German unificationÓ & what was at stake?
Danish War (1864), Holstein & Schleswig
How did Bismarck use the Danish war to deal with Austria?
Conflict over spoils of war leads to Austro-Prussian War in 1866
What document played on French fears & started the Franco-Prussian War? What did the French fear?
Ems Dispatch, a Hohenzollern king of Spain (Germans on both sides)
Name 2 key outcomes of the Franco-Prussian War.
end of Nap III (start of 3rd Rep.), finalizes Ger. Uni. (southern states), new mil. tactics
How did Bismarck, a conservative, overcame the Ger. Libs.?
Using cons. Institutions (e.g. army), F-P war, N. Ger. Confed.
What forced Napoleon III to be more liberal at home?
foreign policy failures (Italy & Mexico)
What group lay siege to Paris to remove the Commune from power? What did Marxists call this?
French Army under orders of NA, class warfare
Why did French Monarchists in the NA fail to establish a monarchy?
CouldnŐt find a king (Bourbon refused)
What was the Dreyfus Affair?
Jewish French Army captain unjustly accused of spying for Germany
Name two key outcomes of the Dreyfus Affair.
cleared way for 3rd Rep., embarrassed Conservs., demonstrated anti-Semitism of the era
What were 3 chief characteristics of Austria in 1860? Why did these characteristics conflict with the rest of Europe?
dynastic, absolutist & agrarian, rest of Europe was becoming more industrial and democratic
What forced the Hapsburgs to deal with the Magyars in 1867?
no support from Russia, loss in A-P war
Name two characteristics of the Dual Monarchy of A-H.
one king, separate legislatures, separate countries, some common ministers, common foreign policy & defense
What area were Austria & Russia rivals for influence in the late 1800s? What major event will this lead to?
The Balkans, World War I
How did the other nats. in the Austrian emp react to the Dual Monarchy? Which nat. was most outspoken for equality?
Wanted similar deal, Czechs
What did many Irish landlords do with their peasants during the Potato famine?
evicted them & shipped them to the U.S.
Name two things that use the internal combustion engine.
cars, subs, planes
Name the industries associated with the 2nd ind rev.
steel, chemicals, oil
What created a real interest in public health?
MC fear of cholera, new understanding of disease
What is parliamentary socialism?
working within assembly to make change
What country took the lead in social reform?
How did Nicholas II respond to the December Revolution?
What made Marxism the main brand of socialism in the 1870s?
Why did revisionists like Bernstein believe revolts would never happen in Ger. & France?
stock ownership, broader franchise, improved standard of living (conditions are just getting too good for revolution)
What were the two principles of Bolshevism?
dual revolution and elite revolutionary force
Name 2 problems with Russian industrialization.
inefficient farming, profits leaving to other countries, small WC, bad conditions
How did Bismarck respond to failed repression of the GSPD?
Social reforms (insurance & pensions)
What improvements were made to cut down on cholera?
sewers & water systems, eliminate slaughterhouses
Name two components of Russian anti-Semitism.
pogroms, internal passports, living restrictions, censorship, limited jobs & educ.
What did the educational revolution of the late 1800s help people break free from?
How has FreudŐs thinking affected our modern world?
Changed the way we view things, events, and most importantly people
What did Nietzsche insist man must do to achieve greatness?
follow his instincts and pursue ecstasy (ubermensch)
What did Nietzsche claim Christianity and Democracy had done to man?
made him meek and mediocre
What did Weber claim was the most significant development of the 19th Cent.?
What did impressionists attempt to depict?
their full impression of the scene (sight, sound, emotion, light, etc.)
What is social Darwinism?
belief in Ňsurvival of the fittestÓ in the social world - those who suffer do so because they are weak
Identify three reasons for New Imperialism.
nationalism, industrialism, belief in cultural superiority, spread religion
In what continent was this new imperialism most evident?
Identify at least two of the big trends leading to WWI.
industrial arms race, colonial rivalry, nationalism, alliances
What two nations started the colonization of Africa? What part?
GB & France, northern sections
What was GBŐs goal in Africa?
Cape to Cairo
Why was China ripe for forced trade in the 1800s?
What was the worst example of European exploitation in Africa?
King Leopold in the Congo
What were the only two parts of Africa not colonized by 1900?
Ethiopia and Liberia
What were the two clashes in Africa that fed animosity against GB?
Fashoda Crisis and the Boer War
What was the U.S. policy for trade in China? What British settlement came out of this policy?
Open Door Policy, Hong Kong
Why was trade with China so important to the Europeans?
Chinese goods were in high demand in Europe
What was the Chinese rebellion in response to the Open Door Policy?
What were the two examples of economically successful colonies in the 1800s?
Dutch Indonesia and British India
What was BismarckŐs primary foreign policy goal?
avoid 2 front conflict
What was the root of the tension between A-H & Russia?
territorial interests in the Balkans
Why did France ultimately make an alliance with Russia?
lots of $ invested in Russian industry
Why did Germany antagonize GB in the early 1900s?
to make themselves look powerful so GB will want to ally with them
In 1914, who belonged to the Triple Alliance?
Italy, Germany, A-H
In 1914, Who belonged to the Triple Entente?
GB, France & Russia
What event triggered war between these two alliances?
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Who came in to back A-H? Serbia?
Germany and Russia
What were the basics of the Schlieffen Plan?
swing through France with strong right, defeating them quickly then beating the Russians
Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail? What did this lead to?
weak right, digging trenches on Western Front
What were the two major actions on the Western Front in 1916?
German attack on Verdun, Allied offensive at Somme
What were the Allies trying to accomplish at Galipoli?
break through & reestablish connection with Russia
Identify three weapons that were used first in WWI.
machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines, poison gas
What is a war of attrition?
you try to win by wearing down the other side
Identify at least 4 causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
reform-revolt-repress, industrialism, NickyŐs a weenie, Rev. of 1905, Crimea, R-J War, Duma-Duma-Duma
Who took control in the March Revolution?
liberals/cadets (Provisional GovŐt lead by Kerensky)
Who snuck Lenin back into Russia?
What brought the U.S. into WWI?
Zimmerman Telegram & sinking of the Lusitania
What did the Germans do after the Bolsheviks surrendered?
Launched an all out attack on the Western Front
What allowed the British and French to hold off this assault?
help from the U.S.
How did the Germans try to counter the British blockade?
with the U-Boat (unterseebooten)
What was Kerensky (and the provisional govŐt)Ős biggest mistake?
staying in the war vs. Germany
What did the treaty of Brest-Litovsk give the Germans?
lots of land & an indemnity
Why did the Bolsheviks have to sign this treaty?
needed to get out of war & focus on keeping control
Who was the political leader of the Bolsheviks? Military Leader?
Identify three of WilsonŐs 14 Points.
free seas, self determination, open diplomacy, League of Nations, ŇPeace Without VictoryÓ
Identify 4 ways that the Treaty of Versailles was hard on Germany.
blame for war, huge reparations, Alsace-Lorraine, small army, dictated, demil-Rhineland
What did the T of V do to Austria-Hungary?
split it into 6 states, made it a nationalist & economic mess
What did Wilson cash in his idealism for?
League of Nations
Why was WWI truly an end to the old order?
all old monarchies no longer exist (A-H & Russia)
Why did trench warfare suck? (list at least three reasons)
machine guns, trench foot, boredom, shell shock, rats, barbed wire
Name 2 things that squash WilsonŐs vision for peace.
Natty, economics, & conservatism
Who most wanted the Treaty of Versailles enforced? Why?
France, most damaged & all alone vs. Ger.
Name 2 groups who fought the Reds in the Russian Civil War.
Whites (Cadets), peasants, allies
What was LeninŐs solution to the economic problems the Communists faced after the Russian Civil War?
New Economic Policy (NEP)
What did the NEP allow peasants to do?
What impact did the NEP have on the communist party?
Lenin's death led to a power struggle between whom? Who was the victor?
Stalin & Trotsky, Stalin
What was the main threat that fascist regimes responded to?
spread of communism
What did fascist rulers insist the individual must put before everything?
How did Mussolini become Prime Minister?
appointed by king after Black Shirts march on Rome
What two things did France do immediately after WWI to secure themselves?
Enforce T of V & East Alliances (C, R & Y)
What did France do in 1923 when Ger. fell behind on reps.?
How did this impact the Ger. economy?
huge inflation, some unemployment
Describe the economy in GB after WWI.
What group of states was supposed to get self determination after WWI?
the successor states
Out of which three former empires were the successor states composed?
Germany, A-H, & Russia
Which was the only successful one?
Which state wanted to unify with Ger.?
Name 1 flaw of the Weimar Constitution.
small party representation & dictatorial powers
Name 2 parts of the Nazi Party Platform.
repudiation of T of V, unification of Aust & Ger., eradication of Jews, agrarian reform, confiscation of war profits, etc.
What was the first attempted takeover by the Nazi Party?
Beer Hall Putsch (Munich, 1923)
What two things helped reconstruct the Weimar Republic between 1925-1929?
Dawes Plan & Locarno agreements
What did the Dawes Plan do?
restructured rep pay back (tied to Ger. economy)
Name 2 of the key causes of the Great Depression.
Crisis in currency & investments, commodities crisis, lack of leadership
How did the crash of Ô29 affect U.S. investment in Europe?
Why couldnŐt farmers pay their debts in the Ô20s?
glut of agricultural goods in market
How did most European govŐts respond to the GD?
cut spending, wage & price controls
Who did the Popular Front in France oppose?
right wingers (fascists)
Who rose to power in response to the GD in Ger.? Who did they use as scapegoats?
Nazis, Jews and Communists
What did Hitler blame on the Communists & use as an excuse to expand his power?
What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?
What was the name of HitlerŐs elite secret police force? Who led it?
What kinds of propaganda were used by the Nazis? Who was their minister of propaganda?
marches, rallies, radio, print; Joseph Goebbels
What was the NazisŐ economic policy?
Gear all production toward strong military state
What happened to the rights of organized labor in Germany & Italy?
What rights?, they were taken away
What two organizations did the Italian Fascists use to control the economy?
corporations & syndicates
What instrument guided the Soviet economy between 1927 & 1942?
the Five Year Plans
What did these plans call for?
rapid industrialization w/ specific goals for production
How did the plans expect to pay for these increases?
grain exports from collectivized farms
What class strongly opposed collectivized farming?
What was done to those who opposed?
death or imprisonment
How much did Soviet industrial production increase between 1928 & 1940?
What was the cost of this industrialization?
millions of deaths, lack of economic equality, years of self denial
What is the Cult of Personality?
worship of the ruler who embodies the greatness of the state
What was StalinŐs goal in the great Purges?
eliminate all opposition w/in the Party (old Bolsheviks)
Who would replace these people?
new faces loyal only to him
At what point before WWII did Hitler say he was ŇdoneÓ adding territory?
What 1939 treaty guaranteed HitlerŐs security on the eastern front?
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Why did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor?
the U.S cut off shipments of oil
Where was there a great deal of island hopping?
What was the goal of Operation Barbarossa? What delayed its start?
take the USSR before winter, Germans had to go bail out Mussolini in N. Africa
What was the Allied invasion of Normandy called?
What were TrumanŐs two main options to defeat Japan? Which did he choose?
invasion or A-Bomb, A-Bomb
What was the Vichy government?
controlled non-occupied France during WWII
What event led to hardships on the German homefront?
failure of Barbarossa
Name the last two big peace conferences.
Yalta & Potsdam
How was Germany divided after WWII?
4 zones, one each for US, GB, Fr., USSR
How did the U.S. respond to the 1948 blockade of West Berlin?
What divided eastern & western Europe after WWII?
Name two things Khruschev did to lessen StalinŐs influence.
some freedoms, ag reform, more consumer goods, Secret Speech
How did the Soviets respond to the 1968 uprising in Cz.?
sent in troops
Who led Vietnamese resistance to French control?
Ho Chi Minh
What movement led to independence for Poland in 1989?
Name the 2 people that created a desire for buffer states in the USSR.
Napoleon & Adolf Hitler
What slowed UN actions after WWII?
Soviet veto on the Security Council
What provided US aid to European nations to keep them free from Communism?
What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War?
NATO & Warsaw Pact
What was the basic idea of the Truman Doctrine?
containment of Communism
Name two of the Crises of 1956.
Suez, Poland, Hungary
What organization was opposed to peace between Israel & Egypt?
How did the U.S. respond to Sputnik?
WhoŐs set of major reforms brought an end to the USSR?
What were deGaulleŐs priorities for France?
hostility to U.S. & GB, nukes, tension w/ NATO
Which half did the US back in both Vietnam & Korea?
What were the two parts of GorbachevŐs reforms?
perestroika and glasnost
How did the satellite states respond to the weakness of the USSR in 1989?
ŇrevoltedÓ for independence
Identify four areas that ŇrevoltedÓ in 1989.
Poland, E Ger., Czech., Romania, Hungary,
Who backed the State of Israel right from the beginning?
the U.S. & western Europe
What were the three possible ways Europe could be unified? Which was most likely?
political, military, economic
Give two examples of student protest in Europe in 1968.
Prague and Paris
What has the focus of European feminism been for the last 60 years?
social & workplace equality
Who led the movement for Indian independence?
What 1977 agreement started to lessen tension between Israel & Egypt?
Camp David Accords
What is the basic nature of the problem in the former Yugoslavia?
many different ethnic/religious groups, discrimination outside common areas
Where is the current conflict there?
Give two examples of Americanization in Europe.
McDonalds, English, Levis, etc.
What impact did decolonization have on em/immigration?
former colonizers & colonial subjects go to Europe