Text of the M01A Final Review
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What organization allowed artisans to monopolize the local economy?
What type of architecture was most popular in the high middle ages? What type of buildings are the best examples of this style?
Gothic, Cathedrals like Chartres, Notre Dame, Ely, Westminster Abbey
Middle Age universities were dedicated to what school of thought?
Identify the four basic levels of the church hierarchy.
Pope - Cardinal - Bishop - Priest
Who were the two main combatants in the investiture controversy?
Gregory V and Henry IV
Name two examples of church corruption during the Middle Ages.
simony, legal exemptions, tax exemptions, clerical infidelity, misuse of church funds
What Pope clashed with Phillip IV of France over the issue of taxation of the clergy?
After the Great Western Schism there were Popes in what two cities?
Rome (the Vatican) & Avignon
What Council effectively ended the Great Western Schism?
Council of Constance
Name Joan of Arc’s 2 greatest accomplishments.
stopping the English invasion & getting the French heir to come to the throne
Name 2 of the main ways that the Black Death impacted Europe.
decreased supply of labor, increased power of poor, decreased demand for land, decreased power of nobility
Why did many peasants revolt during the time of the Black Death ?
Nobles were passing laws tying them to the land
Name two benefits the serf received in the manorial system.
protection from outside threat, food during shortages, legal protection
What ethnic group was made a scapegoat for the spread of the Plague?
How did France ultimately benefit from the 100 Years War?
regained much lost territory, unified the nation
What process allowed kings to appoint the church officials in their country?
Who was the local legal authority in the feudal system?
the lord (vassal)
Name Michelangelo’s most famous painting & sculpture.
Sistene Chapel & David
Name two characteristics of the nation state.
taxes, standing army, bureaucracy, support of townspeople
Who was the father of Humanism? What kind of activity did he inspire?
Petrarch, Examination of the classics, and writing related to them
What did Ferdinand & Isabelle do (besides get married) to unify the nation of Spain?
secure borders, venture abroad militarily, strengthen the RC church
Name the three main components of the colonial economy in Latin America.
Mining, shipping, and farming
What were the three main characteristics of the Spanish Empire in America?
Roman Catholicism, Social hierarchy, economic dependence
Which emperor united the Spanish and Austrian sides of the Habsburg empire?
Name three countries where strong nation-states developed.
Spain, France, England
Name two key places where they did not.
Italy & Holy Roman Empire
Who was the most popular classical figure during the Renaissance?
Who hoped that a strong Italian ruler would come from the Medicis?
What work and author focused on man’s ability to determine his destiny?
Oration on the Dignity of Man, Pico Della Mirandola
What was Erasmus’ philosophy a combination of?
Christian and classical beliefs
What was the “virtu” that Machiavelli so valued?
The ability to act heroically & decisively
Why was Machiavelli’s emphasis on virtu so humanist?
strong individual, classical source (Rome)
What English dynasty emerged from the War of the Roses?
Tudor (starting with Henry VII)
How did Renaissance Art differ from art from the Middle Ages?
realism, accurate anatomy, secular patronage
What did the competing political factions of the Renaissance use to communicate with the masses?
Art that they patronized
Identify two classical features that were prominent in Renaissance Architecture.
Domes, columns, roman arches, ornamentation, integrated supports
What economic developments allowed for secular patronage of the arts?
increased trade & banking
Who was the “Spider King” who ruled France at the peak of its power in the 1400s?
List two reasons the church feared the humanists.
Self-reliance, outside interpretations, authorities other than God
Which two nations were most involved in the exploration of the “New World” during the Renaissance?
Spain and Portugal
What did the benefice system allow the laity to do?
Buy desirable church offices & benefit economically from those offices
What act by the Roman Catholic Church inspired the 95 Theses?
Selling of indulgences (especially the Jubilee Indulgence for St. Peter’s Basilica)
Why did Luther abandon the Peasants in their revolt of 1524?
not a Christian’s role to transform society, better politically to back princes
How did Luther respond to the charges brought against him at the Diet of Worms?
“Here I Stand”, would not change
Who said: “Whatever lacks scriptural support should not be believed or practiced”? Which part of the Reformation did he start?
Zwingli, Swiss Reformation
Why did Zwingli feel penance was unnecessary?
Christ had already borne the pain for our sins
What group believed in adult baptism and were eventually opposed by both Protestants and Catholics?
Anabaptists (esp. radicals gathered at Munster)
Identify two major characteristics of the Jesuits.
Focused on church, underground missionaries, great educators, confessors to kings
What tool did Calvin use to create his “New Jerusalem”?
Strict moral code (spread through sermons and Catechism)
List three components of Calvin’s moral code.
No drinking, no dancing, no plays, religious music & psalm reading in taverns
How did Calvinists organize the churches and governments? What was the focus of their worship services?
Locally, scripture and sermons
Who were the “elect”?
Those predestined for salvation (big Calvinist belief)
Which Pope got the counter reformation rolling?
Paul III, 28 years after the 95 Theses
What group called on clergy to live as examples and upheld the doctrine of the Catholic Church?
Council of Trent
What did the Council of Trent say about church language and the official Bible? What did it say about salvation?
Speak Latin & use the Vulgate, both faith and works are necessary for salvation
What were the main reasons Henry VIII started the English Reformation?
Wanted an annulment from Catharine, desired control over church structure & resources
Name the two major down sides of the Counter Reformation.
Index of Forbidden Books and Inquisition
Under which monarch did England become truly Protestant (theologically)? What book laid out this Protestant theology
Edward VI, Book of Common Prayer (Cranmer)
Which English monarch attempted to reinstate Roman Catholicism? Who was she married to?
Mary I, Phillip II of Spain (the Catholic Warrior of the Counter Reformation)
Who wanted to rid the Anglican Church of all Catholic practices and structures?
What three religious groups did Elizabeth I face when she succeeded Mary I?
RCs, Anglicans (Church of England), & Puritans
Why was Mary, QOS such a bad match for Scotland? Why was she finally executed?
Very French and RC, Plotting to kill Elizabeth I
What finally gave princes in the HRE official control over religion?
the Peace of Augsburg in 1555
What type of art reflected the spirit of the Counter Reformation?
What is Baroque Art designed to do? How does it accomplish this?
Get an emotional response/reaction, elaborate design & style
How did Henry of Navarre bring a close to conflict in France?
converting to RC & Edict of Nantes
Identify three freedoms guaranteed Huguenots by the Edict of Nantes.
worship, assemble, attend university, fortify towns, hold public offices
What were Spain’s economic motives for trying to hold on to the Netherlands?
tax $$$ and valuable trade & shipping
Why did the English want to keep the Spanish out of the Netherlands?
fear of invasion, trade rivalry
What tactics did the Dutch resisters use against the Spanish Army?
guerilla warfare, piracy
What country was formed by the lower 10 provinces of the Netherlands?
Spanish Netherlands, which became Belgium
What leader of the Dutch resistance became a martyr for the cause?
William of Orange
What did Phillip II of Spain do in 1588 to try and solve his problems with the Netherlands and Elizabeth I in England? Why did this fail?
Sent the Armada; “Protestant wind”, bad tactics, sea dogs
What were Ferdinand II’s chief goals at the start of the 30 Years War?
centralize his control over HRE and re-Catholicize the empire
What Swedish King swung the 30 yrs. War in favor of the Protestants? What was his strength?
Gustavus Adolphus, military leadership
Name 2 groups that came in to support the Protestants in the 30 Years War.
Swedes, Richelieu, Danes, Dutch
Who did Spain support in the 30 Years War?
Identify two of the major outcomes of the 30 Years’ war.
France most powerful, German states remain separate, continuation of Augsburg, Switz. & Neth. are independent