Text of the APS Unit III Review

How are most state legislatures organized?
bicameral, just like congress
What person holds the executive power in a state gov’t?
the governor
What is the usual term for a governor?
4 years
What military group do many governors control?
their state national guard
What is an item veto?
the power to veto just one part of a piece of legislation
Who is usually the top legal officer in the state government?
attorney general
Identify two ways that state judges are chosen.
elected by the people, chosen by the governor, Missouri Plan
State courts have original jurisdiction in cases involving what kinds of laws?
state and local
Identify two types of businesses often regulated by states.
banks, utilities, insurance companies
Name the two types of compensation insurance states provide for workers.
unemployment and disability (or workers’ comp)
Identify three ways states protect their environments.
food labeling laws, pollution controls, conservation of lands
Who does the state turn over responsibility for education to?
local school districts
What are three of the traditional ways candidates have sought election?
caucus, nominating convention, primary, petition
What is a nominating convention?
an official public meeting of party delegates
What is the most commonly used method of selecting candidates (or delegates to nominate candidates)?
direct primary
How are candidates chosen in a direct primary?
all party members vote to decide which candidate they want
What groups have been more actively included as convention delegates since the 1970’s?
women, minorities, and young people
What is proportional representation?
a candidate gets the number of delegates equal to the proportion of votes they received
What are two common criticisms of the primary system?
too long and costly and too focused on image
Why is winning the early primaries a huge advantage?
you get most of the media attention
What is a regional primary?
when several states agree to hold primaries on the same day
What is the purpose of the party platform?
lays down the specific ideas and beliefs of the party
What is an initiative?
when state voters vote directly on a constitutional amendment
Name three of the four basic types of local gov’t.
county, township, municipality, and special district
What group provides the government for most counties?  What 2 types of power do they have?
county board of supervisors, leg. and exec.
Where did the town meeting serve to provide government?
the old New England town
What type of local gov’t is T.O.?
a municipality
What is the oldest and most widely used form of local government?
mayor-council form
In the commission form, what is each commissioner in charge of?
a local department (fire, parks, police, finance, etc.)
What is the local unit of party organization? Who is its leader?
precinct, precinct captain
Who runs the party in each state?  Who leads this group?
the party central committee, state chairperson
Identify at least three major political party functions.
recruiting candidates, educating the public, running the gov’t, dispensing patronage
How many electoral votes does a candidate need to be elected President?
270 out of 538
In what states is a presidential candidate most likely to campaign? why?
Large ones (CA, TX, NY, IL, etc.) because they have more electoral votes
What is the difference between hard and soft money?  Which needs to be reformed?
Hard money goes directly to candidate, Soft money goes to party for “party building” purposes, soft
What happens to the campaign staffers of winning candidates?
They go on to work in the winner’s administration
What kind of person was eligible to vote when the United States was founded?
Property holding white men
Identify two measures used to keep blacks from voting even after the 15th Amendment was passed.
Poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses
When were these measures finally abolished?
1960’s during the Civil Rights Movement
What amendment guaranteed the vote for women?  When was it passed?
19th, 1920 (after WWI)
What amendment changed the voting age from 21 to 18?  What election did it first impact?
26th Amendment, 1972
Identify three things from a voter’s background that tend to influence their vote.
Age, religion, education, race or ethnicity
What is the term for someone who always votes the party line?
A strong party voter
Identify two reasons why some people do not vote.
Don’t meet requirements, lack of faith in gov’t, mobile society keeps them from registering