Claculate The Time and Cost?$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ LIST PRICE DISCOUNT PRICE RETAIL DISCOUNTED PRICE WHOLESALE DISCOUNTED PRICE SALES TAX PRICE TOTAL PRICE -------------------------------------&nbsp;<br>
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A -<br>
New York To Jerez&nbsp;<br>
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B-<br>
New York To Sanlucar de Barrameda&nbsp;<br>
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C-<br>
New York To Madrid&nbsp;<br>
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D-<br>
New York To Cordoba&nbsp;<br>
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E-<br>
New York To Malaga&nbsp;<br>
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F-<br>
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G-<br>
New York To Granada&nbsp;<br>
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New York To Barcelona New York To Almeria New York To Sevilla New York To Morocco New York To The Straight Of Gibralter New York TO ROTA New York TO CADIZ NewYork To Torremolinos Distance In Kilometers From Trinidad To Spain. Distance= Speed/Time FORMULAE Speed=DistancexTime&nbsp;<br>
(1) (1)<br>
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Mom and Child TwinFalling Airlines! (2) $3,200.00 (3) $3,000.00 (4) $5,400.00 (5) $8,000.00 (6) $3,700.00 (7) $3,005.00 (8) $3,000.00 (9) $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(2)<br>
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Legal Database at Moment's Notice Airways $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(3)<br>
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Inez Santiago and Molik Pakistanese Foster-Care Airlines! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(4)Safety First Dekalb Avenue Castro And Lugo Security Airlines $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(5)<br>
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The National Airline Of Spain! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(6)<br>
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Nato Caribbean Airways! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(7)<br>
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Legal Database Defence Airways $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(8)<br>
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Saddam Iraq Panic Airlines! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
A SPREADSHEET COMPUTES...&nbsp;<br>
Excel Spreadsheet Calculates Values From Formulae...Calculate The Speed of Snowdrops or Firing Power=Time*Distance&nbsp;<br>
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UFO's 12 seconds 13 seconds 14 seconds 15 seconds 16 seconds 17 seconds 18 seconds 19 seconds 20 seconds&nbsp;<br>
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Time is Measured In Seconds 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 I&nbsp;<br>
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Skylab 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20&nbsp;<br>
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Rockets -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --&nbsp;<br>
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Claculate The Time and Cost?$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ LIST PRICE DISCOUNT PRICE RETAIL DISCOUNTED PRICE WHOLESALE DISCOUNTED PRICE SALES TAX PRICE TOTAL PRICE -------------------------------------&nbsp;<br>
-------------------------------------- 12 hours 13 hours 14 hours 15 hours 16 hours 17 hours 18 hours 19 hours --&nbsp;<br>
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A -<br>
New York To Jerez&nbsp;<br>
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B-<br>
New York To Sanlucar de Barrameda&nbsp;<br>
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C-<br>
New York To Madrid&nbsp;<br>
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D-<br>
New York To Cordoba&nbsp;<br>
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E-<br>
New York To Malaga&nbsp;<br>
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F-<br>
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G-<br>
New York To Granada&nbsp;<br>
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H-<br>
New York To Barcelona New York To Almeria New York To Sevilla New York To Morocco New York To The Straight Of Gibralter New York TO ROTA New York TO CADIZ NewYork To Torremolinos Distance In Kilometers From Trinidad To Spain. Distance= Speed/Time FORMULAE Speed=DistancexTime&nbsp;<br>
(1) (1)<br>
<br>
Mom and Child TwinFalling Airlines! (2) $3,200.00 (3) $3,000.00 (4) $5,400.00 (5) $8,000.00 (6) $3,700.00 (7) $3,005.00 (8) $3,000.00 (9) $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(2)<br>
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Legal Database at Moment's Notice Airways $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(3)<br>
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Inez Santiago and Molik Pakistanese Foster-Care Airlines! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(4)Safety First Dekalb Avenue Castro And Lugo Security Airlines $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(5)<br>
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The National Airline Of Spain! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(6)<br>
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Nato Caribbean Airways! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(7)<br>
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Legal Database Defence Airways $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(8)<br>
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Saddam Iraq Panic Airlines! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
A SPREADSHEET COMPUTES...&nbsp;<br>
Excel Spreadsheet Calculates Values From Formulae...Calculate The Speed of Snowdrops or Firing Power=Time*Distance&nbsp;<br>
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UFO's 12 seconds 13 seconds 14 seconds 15 seconds 16 seconds 17 seconds 18 seconds 19 seconds 20 seconds&nbsp;<br>
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Time is Measured In Seconds 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 I&nbsp;<br>
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Skylab 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20&nbsp;<br>
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Rockets -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --&nbsp;<br>
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A TECHNOLOGY PLAN&nbsp;<br>
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Last Updated March 21st, 2003!&nbsp;<br>
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<br>
JESSIE MOSES BSc., Ed.Dip., MSc-Computers in Education(Author and Publisher)Copyright (c) 2002&nbsp;<br>
March 21 — Allied forces are now in control of the oil fields of southern Iraq and are bringing in contractors to extinguish fires burning at seven oil wells, Pentagon officials told NBC News on Friday. • eDiets Diet Center • Shop at B&amp;N.com • Loan Center • Yellow Pages • Newsletters • MSN Broadband • In the battle zone • Iraq interactive library • Targets in Iraq • Target Baghdad • Urban warfare • Allied deployments • The 1991 oil fires • Tools of warfare • Scuds and Arrows • World Reax • NBC: Video reports from the field • Complete coverage: Conflict with Iraq EARLIER, BRITISH military officials scaled back their estimate of the number of oil wells burning in southern Iraq, saying that only seven wells were ablaze — not the 30 reported earlier. The report of seven wells burning matched the number being reported by the Pentagon. The update came from British Adm. Sir Michael Boyce, chief of defense staff, at a briefing in London. The reason for the rollback from the earlier estimate was not clear. The allies say that Iraqi forces set fire to the wells as the invasion began, but Iraqi state television broadcast a report early Saturday saying that troops had set oil-filled trenches — not wells — ablaze in an effort to prevent U.S. and British warplanes from finding their targets. “The leadership in Iraq and the government organizations are keen to preserve this wealth, developing and expanding its capability and not burning it,” the television station said in a statement attributed to an “authorized source.” 400 OIL WELLS IN AREA U.S. and British officials were pleased that the number of wells on fire was a small percentage of the 400 wells in the area near Basra. “Put into context, that’s perhaps not as bad as we might have feared,” British Defense Secretary Geoff Hoon said earlier Friday. The oil fields of southern Iraq pump about half of the country’s daily output of 2.5 million barrels. A British military spokesman said the fires were set by Iraq. “Several of the oil heads have been set on fire by (Iraqi President) Saddam Hussein’s forces in an attempt to deflect us from the task,” Capt. Al Lockwood told Reuters. Another British spokesman, Col. Chris Vernon, told Reuters that “U.S. Marines are moving well into the ... oil fields, and it seems like we will be able to seize much of the oil structure intact.” The picture in northern Iraq was less clear amid unconfirmed reports that U.S. special operations forces had secured the giant oil fields around Kirkuk, the biggest of Iraq’s 15 operational fields. A U.S. official said earlier this month that Iraq had placed explosives at the Kirkuk fields to prevent their being captured in the event of a U.S. invasion. An arrow points to smoke plumes seen in an image taken Thursday by a U.S. satellite. The plumes are consistent with oil fires detected from space before, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said. MARKETS HAPPY Oil markets seemed to take comfort from the speed of the U.S.-British advance and shrugged off the news of the well fires. The lack of an impact from the war on oil shipments from Kuwait also inspired confidence. Kuwait’s state-run radio said Kuwaiti ports were operating normally Friday, and an oil industry source said crude shipments from Kuwaiti oil terminals were continuing without interruption. The Pentagon has said it would try to secure Iraq’s oil fields quickly to prevent Iraqi forces from damaging the country’s 1,685 wells. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Saddam uses oil as weapon in 1991 1 / 6 Oil as a weapon Jan. 15, 1991 - In the lead up to the Gulf War, military analysts considered how Saddam Hussein might use oil to thwart coalition air strikes, clog desalination plants in the Gulf and disrupt Kuwaiti oil production for years to come.&nbsp;<br>
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A trip into hell March 16, 1991 - In the Kuwaiti desert 500 oil wells burn out of control. Coping with land mines and the spectacular sights, sounds and searing heat of roaring fires, teams of well control experts struggle to control the blazes. NBC's Bill Lagatuta reports.&nbsp;<br>
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Gushers and blazes March 26, 1991 - The Wild Well Control team from Texas began trying to cap a gushing oil well, but not enough water and equipment had yet arrived to wrestle the blazing fires. NBC's Deborah Roberts reports. 4 / 6 Still a prisoner of Saddam March 21, 1991 - Burning petroleum containing high levels of sulphur and lead poisoned the air, while a slick larger than the world had ever seen blackened the waters; a health and environmental nightmare. NBC's Deborah Roberts reports.&nbsp;<br>
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HISTORY IN THE MAKING!<br>
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In 1991, Iraqi troops destroyed more than 700 well heads in Kuwait, turning its oil fields into a desert inferno that took seven months to extinguish. When Iraqi troops retreated from Kuwait in February 1991, they attached plastic explosives to well heads and piled sandbags against them to direct the force of the explosions for maximum effect. The result was geysers of burning crude at 603 wells, serious damage at more than 100 others and widespread environmental degradation. Teams of firefighters from the United States, Canada and eight other countries worked from April until November to put out the fires. Most of the teams used seawater pumped through Kuwait’s empty oil pipelines to battle the fires. The heat was so intense, at more than 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, that water sometimes continued boiling on the ground for two days afterward, said Mark Badick of Safety Boss, Inc. “We’ve had fire helmets melt on our heads,” said Badick, whose Calgary-based firm put out 180 of the Kuwaiti well fires. • How to douse an oil well fire Firefighters from Hungary had a different technique, using two jet engines mounted horizontally on a tank chassis — a homemade vehicle they called “Big Wind” — to blast flame-retardant foam at the fires. It took Kuwait more than two years and $50 billion to restore its oil output to prewar levels. If Iraq sabotaged its oil fields, any cleanup could take far longer and cost much more.&nbsp;<br>
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12 YEARS OF SANCTIONS Iraq’s fields and pipelines are badly run down after 12 years of U.N. economic sanctions. Its fields are also much farther from the sea than those in Kuwait, meaning a ready source of water might not be so easily available.&nbsp;<br>
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• Who'll cap the well fires? • Pollution industry on standby • Profile of Boots &amp; Coots • Pentagon taps Halliburton Destruction could be especially bad if Iraqis set off explosives underground, deep within the well shafts themselves. If that happened, firefighters would have to drill a new “relief well” and pump a mixture of sand, gel and mud into each damaged shaft to try to plug it up and stop the blowout. “It’s a long, arduous process,” Badick said. Whereas he and his crews put out as many as five fires a day in Kuwait, cleaning up after a single underground explosion can take two months.&nbsp;<br>
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Claculate The Time and Cost? $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ LIST PRICE DISCOUNT PRICE RETAIL DISCOUNTED PRICE WHOLESALE DISCOUNTED PRICE SALES TAX PRICE TOTAL PRICE -------------------------------------&nbsp;<br>
-------------------------------------- 12 hours 13 hours 14 hours 15 hours 16 hours 17 hours 18 hours 19 hours --&nbsp;<br>
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A -<br>
New York To Jerez&nbsp;<br>
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B-<br>
New York To Sanlucar de Barrameda&nbsp;<br>
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C-<br>
New York To Madrid&nbsp;<br>
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D-<br>
New York To Cordoba&nbsp;<br>
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E-<br>
New York To Malaga&nbsp;<br>
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F-<br>
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G-<br>
New York To Granada&nbsp;<br>
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H-<br>
New York To Barcelona New York To Almeria New York To Sevilla New York To Morocco New York To The Straight Of Gibralter New York TO ROTA New York TO CADIZ NewYork To Torremolinos Distance In Kilometers From Trinidad To Spain. Distance= Speed/Time FORMULAE Speed=DistancexTime&nbsp;<br>
(1) (1)<br>
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Mom and Child TwinFalling Airlines! (2) $3,200.00 (3) $3,000.00 (4) $5,400.00 (5) $8,000.00 (6) $3,700.00 (7) $3,005.00 (8) $3,000.00 (9) $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(2)<br>
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Legal Database at Moment's Notice Airways $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(3)<br>
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Inez Santiago and Molik Pakistanese Foster-Care Airlines! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(4)Safety First Dekalb Avenue Castro And Lugo Security Airlines $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(5)<br>
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The National Airline Of Spain! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(6)<br>
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Nato Caribbean Airways! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
(7)<br>
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Legal Database Defence Airways $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD> --&nbsp;<br>
(8)<br>
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Saddam Iraq Panic Airlines! $3,200.00 $3,000.00 $5,400.00 $8,000.00 $3,700.00 $3,005.00 $3,000.00 $3,000.00/TD>&nbsp;<br>
A SPREADSHEET COMPUTES...&nbsp;<br>
Excel Spreadsheet Calculates Values From Formulae...Calculate The Speed of Snowdrops or Firing Power=Time*Distance&nbsp;<br>
--&nbsp;<br>
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UFO's 12 seconds 13 seconds 14 seconds 15 seconds 16 seconds 17 seconds 18 seconds 19 seconds 20 seconds&nbsp;<br>
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Time is Measured In Seconds 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 I&nbsp;<br>
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THE GREATEST NATION ON EARTH...AMERICA AT WAR AGAINST TERROR!&nbsp;<br>
Iraq reels under air assault United States and British forces have pounded Baghdad with hundreds of bombs and missiles in a major escalation of the war.&nbsp;<br>
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On Saturday, new raids targeted buildings on the outskirts of the city and anti-aircraft fire lit up the sky. Earlier, huge explosions rocked the heart of the Iraqi capital, as the US unleashed what it calls its "shock and awe" strategy. In southern Iraq, an entire division of the Iraqi army surrendered to coalition forces, Pentagon officials said. Iraq's 51st Infantry Division surrendered to US marines who were advancing toward Basra, Iraq's second largest city. Officials in Washington said it was a sign that the Iraqi regime was crumbling. Map showing the advance into southern Iraq Meanwhile, in the north Turkish troops were reported to have crossed into Iraq - despite Washington's disapproval of such a move. It came soon after Turkey agreed to open its airspace to US warplanes. US Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said the scale of the assault on Baghdad was intended to show the Iraqis that Saddam Hussein was finished. "The [Iraqi] regime is starting to lose control of their country," he said. A US commander said 320 Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired in the assault. Regime symbols hit The BBC's Paul Wood in Baghdad says the targets there included President Saddam Hussein's palaces. Offices of the Foreign Ministry and the Deputy Prime Minister were also ablaze. Air strikes have also hit the city of Mosul in the north. The BBC's John Simpson, reporting from the region, said the skyline was lit up many times. Several explosions have also been reported in another northern city, Kirkuk, where American forces are trying to secure control of vast oilfields. As the bombardment continued, Iraqi Defence Minister Sultan Hashim Ahmed told a news conference that "no force in the world" would conquer Iraq, the AFP news agency reports. Port 'taken' US-led ground forces have advanced about 160 kilometres (100 miles) into Iraq, the chairman of the US joint chiefs of staff, General Richard Myers, told a news conference in Washington. IRAQ CAMPAIGN Why Basra matters Coalition forces are also moving on Basra, according to the UK Ministry of Defence. The advance on the city came after US Marines reached Iraq's only deep-water port at Umm Qasr in the south-east. "Umm Qasr has been overwhelmed by the US Marines and now is in coalition hands," Admiral Sir Michael Boyce, chief of the UK General Staff, told a news conference in London. However, the BBC's Adam Mynott, who is with the troops on the ground, says that while coalition forces undoubtedly have the upper hand, they do not have total control of Umm Qasr. The port in the south-east is seen as key for the importing of aid for the Iraqi civilian population. The US 3rd Infantry Division has moved into the centre of Iraq, close to the city of Nasiriya - a key crossing point over the Euphrates river on the way to Baghdad. The BBC's Gavin Hewitt says there have been some clashes between American forces and Iraqi forces followed by quite a strong American bombardment of the area around the city, he says. In other reported advances, US defence officials said key airfields known as H2 and H3 in western Iraq were taken over by coalition forces. The BBC's defence correspondent, Jonathan Marcus, says these are possible jumping-off points for a multi-pronged assault on Baghdad. Earlier on Friday, British troops took control of key oil installations on the nearby al-Faw peninsula after a brief firefight - an operation designed to prevent the release of oil into the Gulf by retreating Iraqi forces. But Admiral Boyce said that elsewhere in Iraq seven oil wells had been set alight by Iraqi forces, down from an earlier estimate of 30. In other developments: Saddam Hussein decrees that any Iraqi who captures an enemy soldier will get a reward of about $32,000, Iraq's government-run news agency reports. The reward for killing an enemy soldier was put at about $16,000. Two US marines are killed in southern Iraq, hours after eight British and four American servicemen die in what is believed to be a helicopter accident Anti-war protests continue around the world, with at least two people - one of them a policeman - killed in clashes in the Yemeni capital, Sanaa Patriot missile defence systems shoot down more Iraq missiles heading for Kuwait following Thursday's attacks US President George W Bush on Friday said the war was "making progress". HAVE YOUR SAY War will bring freedom to the ordinary people of Iraq Abdul, Kabul, Afghanistan Read more of your comments In official responses to the coalition attack, Iraqi ministers have issued defiant statements. Information Minister Mohammed Saeed al-Sahhaf told journalists television pictures showing Iraqi troops surrendering were fake. He also said Iraqi forces had shot down a coalition fighter jet. This has been denied by the American military. Click here to return Email this to a friend Printable version LINKS TO MORE MIDDLE EAST STORIES SelectIraq reels under air assaultOil prices drop sharplyHamas leader capturedTurkish troops 'enter Iraq'Two killed in anti-war protestsUS wants Iraqi diplomats expelledPeninsula's capture 'major victory'Mass arrests at US peace demoIraqi media defiant despite onslaughtAnti-war hackers target websitesWorld media considers war's startTough battle for Umm QasrAgency will mediate in water disputesDoubts over US aid to IsraelAbbas accepts Palestinian PM postPalestinians 'not given gas masks'UN readies Iraq food crisis planSomalia arrests terror suspectAnalysis: UK assault on FranceOn the front with Iraqi desertersProgrammes and schedules WATCH AND LISTEN The BBC's Rageh Omaar "The thunderous impact of the blasts ripple through the city" The BBC's Paul Wood "More or less, every single building is in flames" KEY STORIES Iraq reels under air assault Turkish troops 'enter Iraq' Chirac warns on 'post-war' plans European haven for Iraq envoys Iraq latest: At-a-glance Latest coverage DESPATCHES Eyewitness: Waiting for the bombs Tense days of waiting for the nightly air raids 'Baghdad is in flames' Tough battle for Umm Qasr INTERACTIVE ESSAYS Iraq issues explored HAVE YOUR SAY Your views on the war Sign up: E-mail news alerts In-depth coverage INTERNET LINKS: Iraqi presidency US presidency UK prime minister United Nations The BBC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites TOP MIDDLE EAST STORIES NOW Iraq reels under air assault Oil prices drop sharply Hamas leader captured Turkish troops 'enter Iraq'&nbsp;<br>
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New email address is jessiemoses@37.com.&nbsp;<br>
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Within a few hours of crossing into southern Iraq, the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit encountered 200 or more Iraqi troops seeking to surrender. THE SURRENDER of Iraq’s 51st Infantry Division came as coalition forces advanced toward Basra, Iraq’s second-largest city. The mechanized division had about 200 tanks before the war, according to independent analysts and U.S. officials. The 51st was one of the better equipped and trained in Iraq’s regular army forces and was the key division protecting Basra, a major transportation and oil shipment hub on the Shatt al-Arab waterway that leads to the Persian Gulf. That led to optimism among allied commanders that the city would soon fall. But elsewhere, smaller groups of Iraqi soldiers were abandoning their vehicles and trenches to surrender to onrushing U.S. and British troops. TROOPS ARE ILL-EQUIPPED The soldiers who were giving up are not the fabled and well-fed Republican Guardsmen who anchor Saddam Hussein’s defense. These are members of a rag-tag army, many of them draftees, often in T-shirts. Their handguns and small arms could accomplish little against opposing forces wielding 21st century weaponry. • Complete MSNBC coverage • Psyops used against Iraqis • Lead role for elite forces • Kurds brace for backlash • Top defector disappears • Dispatches from the field • Video coverage from NBC • Blog: Army family's journal • Encarta: Detailed Iraq map • WashPost: Special coverage LATEST FROM NEWSWEEK • Special war section • Q&amp;A on smart weapons Who Will Try Iraqi War Criminals? By Ed Finn Posted Wednesday, March 19, 2003, at 3:19 PM PT In his speech to the nation Monday, President Bush promised that Iraqi war criminals would be tried and punished—but he didn't specify which criminals or in which court they would be tried. Which Iraqis will be tried, and who will judge them? The answers depend largely on the outcome of the war, once it's clear who's still alive to stand trial. Most experts agree that war-crimes trials will be limited to indictments against a small fraction of the thousands of likely suspects, since wiping out Iraq's government infrastructure (on top of its economic and military infrastructure) will make it that much harder to build a new state. In fact, the U.S. government has kept its official list of Iraqi war criminals extremely short, even though hundreds of officials have been implicated in the use of chemical weapons against Iraqi Kurds in 1988. It's likely that only the top echelons of the military will be tried—perhaps 50 people, perhaps more, depending on who you ask and whether or not local commanders fight. (If they surrender, they might escape prosecution.) For the invading Americans, "who" is tried is almost less important than "how," because these trials give the United States a much-needed chance to exhibit fairness and restraint after initiating a war. Possible trial venues include: International Criminal Court: This one can probably be ruled out—neither the U.S. nor Iraq ever agreed to it. Ironically, it might be legally possible to try British or Australian troops in the ICC for war crimes if they commit any atrocities, since their nations are signatories. U.N. ad hoc tribunal: This is a special international court that has to be mandated by the Security Council—recent examples include courts created to try war criminals from the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Considering the intense misgivings fellow Security Council members like France and Russia have about the war, it is unlikely that the United States will ask them to create a tribunal. And even if they did, there's another snag if the blue helmets show up—no U.N. court can sentence a war criminal to death. U.S. federal courts: Under the War Crimes Act of 1996, war crimes by or against U.S. citizens can be prosecuted in American federal courts. This option also seems unlikely, however, because many of the crimes likely to be prosecuted involve Iraqi officials assaulting their own citizens. Local Iraqi courts: These might do for small-fry Baath loyalists. After all, the United States will be trying to create a respectable criminal justice system in Iraq, and war criminals would provide useful fodder to get things rolling. But it's unlikely that any of the regime's kingpins would face a local court, since there would be too many opportunities for political skullduggery and old allegiances to taint the process. Hybrid courts: All the rage since their success in Sierra Leone, hybrid courts bring together a combination of local and international jurists. The idea is to mix the grass-roots appeal of civil courts with the respectability and fence-mending powers of international courts. This option also allows the United States to involve European jurists without having to go through the United Nations. The flexibility of a hybrid court will be attractive to post-Iraq planners not because of its appeal to international justice but because it will allow the United States to better trade amnesty for information while still satisfying world opinion. Say the United States invades Iraq and raids all the bunkers and palaces but doesn't find weapons of mass destruction or Saddam Hussein. In that case, the post-war administration's first priority will be to pump Iraq's surviving officials for information—a process that could carry over to war crimes courts. If you're wondering what war crimes are, Explainer has covered this before. Next question? Explainer thanks Ruth Wedgwood, professor of International Law and Diplomacy at John Hopkins University and senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations; David Phillips, deputy director of the Center for Preventative Action and senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations; and Reed Brody, special counsel for Human Rights Watch. of statistics and facts on topics at home and abroad. • Slide show: War begins&nbsp;<br>
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DISPUTE OVER PORT There were conflicting accounts over the fate of Umm Qasr, 20 miles south of Basra and the main city in the narrow strip of Iraqi territory that gives access to the Persian Gulf. A Reuters reporter Adrian Croft said U.S. Marines raised the Stars and Stripes flag over the new port Friday but that the old city, about a mile away, remained in Iraqi hands. Separately, a British military spokesman said 250 Iraqi soldiers had surrendered to the U.S. 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit in the city. Capturing the city would give the coalition forces an important access point for supplies into Iraq. In this image taken from television, unidentified Iraqis surrender to a British Royal Marine in southern Iraq on Friday. In Baghdad, Interior Minister Mahmoud Diab al-Ahmed described the report of the city’s downfall as “silly talk.” “Umm Qasr is an Iraqi port and is going to remain an Iraqi port,” he told a news conference at which he was decked out in military fatigues. Raising his rifle above his shoulder and pointing at the ceiling, he said, “It will be hard for them to take it.”&nbsp;<br>
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Some targets in the sights of bomber and missile crews.&nbsp;<br>
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THE ROAD TO BASRA Elsewhere in southern Iraq, First Marine Division needed air support to suppress Iraqi mortar and small arms fire while seizing Route 80, which leads from Kuwait to Basra. “Every now and then they pop off to let us know they’re still there,” Lt. Col. Steve Holmes, a Marine in charge of clearing berms for troops and armor to enter Iraq. Supported by Cobra attack helicopters and howitzers, Marine tanks and armored vehicles rolled down Route 80 through the demilitarized zone between Kuwait and Iraq. Tanks were placed on berms to provide cover for Marines moving on the road. Until then, the Marines had taken side roads. Route 80 allowed a faster approach to Basra itself, and hundreds of Marine vehicles moved up it into Iraq. The Marines had encountered resistance in the area for several hours Friday morning after moving to attack the nearby town of Safwan, which fell within hours. The military continued to broadcast warnings to civilians in the area on loudspeakers to stay indoors and urging Iraqi troops to surrender. On the Kuwait side, Marines in a sandbagged watchtower directed mortar fire at the Iraq side, where U.S. troops have watched the Iraqis, who appeared to be either digging defensive positions or setting land mines. “We’ll find out soon enough,” Holmes said.&nbsp;<br>
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• Targets in Iraq • Tools of war • Missile defense system • Cruise missiles • B-2 stealth bombers • F-117 Nighthawk • B-1B bombers • Nimitz-class carriers • AEGIS, eyes of the fleet • M1A2 Abrams tank • Iraq's T-72 tanks • Predator drones • A-10 "Warthogs" • Weapons: new vs. old ALLIED CONFIDENCE The apparent early gains coupled with signs of disarray within the Iraqi leadership bolstered political and military leaders of the coalition forces. British Prime Minister Tony Blair said Friday the military campaign seemed to have started well, but he cautioned against expectations of immediate victory. “Our forces will face resistance and the campaign, necessarily, will not achieve all its objectives overnight,” Blair told a news conference. At the Central Command in the gulf nation of Qatar, the main spokesman for the British forces also adopted a confident tone, telling reporters that he expected forces to reach Baghdad in less than a week, “If I were a betting man, which I’m not — hopefully in the next three or four days,” Capt. Al Lockwood said. Meantime, on board the USS Abraham Lincoln in the gulf, Rear Admiral John Kelly predicted a speedy victory. “I think that the folks on the ground realize that their time is up and that we’re coming ...So their efforts to counter it have increased,” he said. people can do is to try to protect civilians here.” He said at least five American human shields are elsewhere in Iraq.&nbsp;<br>
SURRENDER TALKS? After the first two days of airstrikes, Pentagon officials said serious cracks in the Iraqi regime had led to secret surrender talks with Iraqi military leaders.&nbsp;<br>
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• Lead role for elite forces • Kurds brace for backlash • Top defector disappears • Dispatches from the field • Video coverage from NBC • Blog: Army family's journal • Encarta: Detailed Iraq map • WashPost: Special coverage LATEST FROM NEWSWEEK • Iraqis welcome attack • Zakaria: Arrogant empire Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said the United States was talking directly to Iraqi military leaders, even those in the Special Republican Guard, who are drawn from the elite Republican Guard corps and are noted for their loyalty to Saddam. The Iraqis were being told that they could avoid all-out war if they took out Saddam themselves, Rumsfeld said. “There are communications in every conceivable mode and method, public and private, to the Iraqi forces that they can act with honor and turn over their weapons and walk away from them and they will not be hurt,” Rumsfeld told reporters Thursday night in Washington. SADDAM’S FATE Two days after the start of the U.S.-led war on Baghdad, the whereabouts of Saddam Hussein remained a mystery. U.S. officials had suggested he might have been killed or injured in the opening foray of the conflict, a strike of a building in the Iraqi capital where the president and his inner circle were believed to be meeting. On Friday, Iraq’s information minister acknowledged that one of Saddam’s homes was hit in the U.S. bombardment, but said no one was hurt. “They rocketed the residence of his household,” Mohammed Sa’eed al-Sahhaf said at a news conference. “But thank God, they are all safe.” Al-Sahhaf lashed out at the “criminal George Bush and his gang.”&nbsp;<br>
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“They are superpower of villains. They are superpower of Al Capone,” he said. “We will not allow them to get out of this quagmire which we trapped them in. They will see their end there.”&nbsp;<br>
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A semblance of normalcy returned to Baghdad after Thursday night’s bombing. There was a great deal of traffic on the streets, many shops were open and many people were out on the street. But there was still a heavy security presence, including armed members of the ruling Baath Party, security forces and police, and pickup trucks mounted with heavy machine guns. The official Iraqi News Agency said 37 people were injured in Thursday night’s raid at heart of Baghdad and in other locations in and around the city.&nbsp;<br>
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Sahhaf also denied any U.S.-led advance into Iraq and argued that TV images of Iraqis surrendering were fabricated. “Those are not Iraqi soldiers at all,” he said. “Where did they bring them from?” Al-Sahhaf suggested that any captured U.S. and British soldiers may not be treated as prisoners of war under the Geneva Conventions. Al-Sahhaf said Iraq was considering how to treat them. “Those are mercenaries. Most probably they will be treated as mercenaries, hirelings and as war criminals. ... For sure, international law does not apply to those,” he said.&nbsp;<br>
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A busload of journalists was taken to the main Al-Douri power plant, which was damaged in the 1991 Gulf War, where at least 12 human shields from Switzerland, Turkey, France and the United States are staying.&nbsp;<br>
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font-size: 4pt; color: white; font-weight: bold;} U.S. May Use 'E-Bomb' During Iraq War Wed Mar 19, 4:21 PM ET By MATT CRENSON, AP National Writer U.S. forces may use a new "e-bomb" during the expected invasion of Iraq (news - web sites) as part of a 21st century blitzkrieg designed to render Saddam Hussein (news - web sites)'s forces blind, deaf, dumb and incapable of retaliation. The highly classified bomb creates a brief pulse of microwaves powerful enough to fry computers, blind radar, silence radios, trigger crippling power outages and disable the electronic ignitions in vehicles and aircraft. "They would be useful against any adversary that is dependent on electronic systems," said Loren Thompson, a defense analyst at the Lexington Institute, a think-tank based in Arlington, Va. In modern warfare, electronics undergird virtually every weapon more sophisticated than a rifle or hand grenade. For that reason, Air Force scientists have worked for decades on a practical way of producing powerful but brief pulses of microwaves that can incapacitate electronic equipment without damaging buildings or harming people. Officially, the Pentagon (news - web sites) does not acknowledge the weapon's existence. Asked about it at a March 5 Pentagon news conference, Gen. Tommy Franks said: "I can't talk to you about that because I don't know anything about it." However, military analysts say a number of unclassified documents suggest such a device is ready for the battlefield. "There's been a lot of discussion behind closed doors in the Pentagon and in the trade press that these things are now being tested," Thompson said. According to a 2000 report by Air Force Col. Elaine M. Walling, scientists at Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico have created microwave sources that generate up to 10 times the amount of energy that Hoover Dam produces in a day. Such powerful pulses can incapacitate electronic equipment without damaging buildings or harming people, making them an attractive weapon whenever civilian casualties are a concern. In laboratory tests, microwave pulses can melt silicon chips, pushing their circuits far beyond their capacity to conduct electricity. But on the battlefield, even the most impressive e-bomb's effects rapidly diminish with distance. Although e-bombs' capabilities are classified, military analysts believe their range is a few hundred yards at most. That relatively short range decreases the odds that hospitals, orphanages and other civilian infrastructure will be affected, unless they are directly adjacent to or networked with military targets. "I think it is almost always more humane to use this compared to a conventional weapon," Thompson said. The bombs' effects are also hard to predict, analysts say. The surge of electricity produced by a microwave pulse could go directly to the nearest bank of military supercomputers, or it could just as easily be shunted harmlessly into the ground. "The effects are hard to focus. The moment the energy is absorbed into wiring or other electrically conductive material you don't know where it's going to go," Thompson said. Those uncertainties and others may prevent e-bombs from playing a major role in the anticipated U.S. offensive against Iraq, said Lt. Col. Piers Wood, a military analyst at the defense policy think-tank globalsecurity.org. "There will be a few commanders who will see these and get to try them out," Wood said. "We're not talking about arsenals of these things." Defense experts are particularly eager to see if e-bombs can reach into deep underground bunkers that could otherwise be neutralized only by tactical nuclear weapons. By shutting off the electricity, a microwave weapon could render a bunker uninhabitable by disabling lighting, security systems, ventilation and computers. Eventually, Wood said, other nations may acquire high power microwave weapons; American forces, which depend so heavily on technology, would be particularly vulnerable to them. He predicted that soon all military electronics will have to be protected from high power microwaves by metal casings, with sophisticated circuit breakers connected to any incoming wires.&nbsp;<br>