501. Sedition Act - Forbade any criticism of the gov’t, flag, or uniform (even if insignificant) and expanded mail exclusion.
502. Schenck vs. the United States - Upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act
503. Selective Service Act - was drafted by Brigadier General Hugh Johnson after the United States entered the First World War. The law authorized President Woodrow Wilson to raise a volunteer infantry force of not more than four divisions. All males between the ages of 21 and 30 were required to register for military service
504. Bolsheviks - grabbed power by the Petrograd Soviet, which ruled with the Provisional Gov't. The Revolution WAS necessary in the sense that without it, the chances that the Mensheviks would get their way of a communism the parliamentary way was slim. Though that way you may have actually got communism in the end.
505. 14 Points
1. Made Wilson the moral leader of the Allied cause
a. Inspired embattled Allies to push harder in the war
b. Demoralized enemy gov'ts by issuing alluring promises to their dissatisfied minorities.
a. Abolish secret treaties (pleased liberals of all countries)
b. Freedom of the seas (appealed to Germans & Americans wary of Br.)
c. Remove economic barriers (comforting to Gr. who feared post-war vengeance)
d. Reduction of armament burdens (appealed to taxpayers everywhere)
e. Adjustment of colonial claims in interests of both native peoples and
colonizers (pleased anti-imperialists).
f. Promise of independence ("self-determination") to oppressed minority
groups (e.g. Poles, Czechs), millions of which lived in Gr. and Austria-Hung.
g. 14th point: International organization to supply collective security
i. Foreshadowed League of Nations
ii. Wilson hoped it would guarantee political independence and
territorial integrity of all countries, large or small.
506. Treaty of Versailles ("war-guilt" clause)
a. Placed sole blame for WWI on Germany.
b. Germany obliged to pay reparations to the Allies = $31 billion over 30 years.
c. Germany forced to accept severe military restrictions and loss of territory.
d. Germany left out of League of Nations (Russia also)
2. Self-determination granted to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Finland, and the Baltic
states of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Yugoslavia.
-- Self-determination failed in Africa and in India
507. Big Four - Wilson -- U.S., David Lloyd George – Britain; Premier Georges Clemenceau – France, Premier Vittorio Orlando -- Italy
508. George Clemenceau - French minister at Versailles
509. Vittoriano Orlando - Italian minister at Versailles
510. League of Nations - Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
511. Henry Cabot Lodge - was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
a. Reserved rights of U.S. under the Monroe Doctrine and the Constitution and
otherwise sought to protect American sovereignty.
b. Focused on Article X of League as it morally bound the U.S. to aid any
member victimized by external aggression.
-- Congress wanted to reserve war-declaring power for itself.
513. Irreconcilables - voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations; opposed a League of Nations in any form; Hiram Johnson of California and William Borah of Idaho
514. Red Scare - In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans feared Communism. In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.
515. Palmer Raids - After bomb scares, Wilson’s Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer, got $500K from Congress to "tear out the radical seeds that have entangled American ideas in their poisonous theories."
516. Emma Goldman - U.S. (Lithuanian-born) anarchist; For an assassination attempt on H. Frick, Berkman was imprisoned; She founded and edited (1906-17) the anarchist magazine Mother Earth and wrote on anarchism, feminism, birth control, and other social problems.
517. Warren Harding - Republicans nominee of Ohio.
1. Platform was effectively ambiguous on the issue of the League.
2. Harding spoke of returning America to "normalcy"
3. displayed public desire for change from idealism, moral overstrain, and
518. Fordney-McCumber Tariff - It raised duties to an average of 38 percent. It particularly provided protection to the chemical and drug industries that developed during World War I.
519. Bureau of the Budget - created by Congress in 1921 to reduce nat’l debt
520. Teapot Dome - Famous incident in the Harding administration in which oil companies bribed the Secretary of the Interior in order to drill on public lands.
a. 1921, Sec. of Interior Albert Fall arranged transfer of valuable naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, WY & Elk Hills, CA to Interior Dept.
b. Harding indiscreetly signed the secret order.
c. Fall then leased lands to 2 oilmen and received a bribe of about $400,000
521. Calvin Coolidge - carried out Harding’s conservative programs
522. Herbert Hoover
1. Quaker-humanitarian already a hero since he had successfully led a massive
charitable drive to feed the starving people of war-torn Belgium.
2. Preferred to rely on voluntary compliance rather than formal laws.
523. Alfred E. Smith - he began his political career with a job from Tammany Hall; He twice served as governor of New York (1919-20, 1923-28) and fought for improved housing, child welfare, and efficient government. In 1928 he won the Democratic nomination for U.S. president, the first Roman Catholic to be nominated, but lost to H. Hoover. He later opposed the New Deal programs of F. Roosevelt.
524. Business prosperity - Booming economy because of war, booming business
525. Henry Ford - Inventor of the first Model-T; revolutionized transportation
526. Assembly Line - A faster, more efficient way of making cars
527. Ashcan School- Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.
528. Armory Show 1913 - The first art show in the U.S., organized by the Ashcan School. Was most Americans first exposure to European Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, and caused a modernist revolution in American art.
529. Mark Twain- American author. Humorist, narrator, and social observer. Best
known for The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
530. William Dean Howells-Writer and critic. Became king of critics with Easy Chair Column. Had a great influence on Mark Twain and Henry James, his theories of fiction came out in his Criticism and Fiction+
531. Stephen Crane- Writer and War correspondent. Began as a journalist. Became known as novelist through Maggie: A Girl of the Streets and The Red Badge of Courage, a vivid story of the Civil War. Worked as war correspondent in Greece and Cuba.
532. Jack London- Early 20th-century writer associated with San Francisco and adventure. Wrote romantic adventures with realistic setting and character. Most famous book by far is The Call of the Wild. Known for his dashing lifestyle and was also known for his steady output of novels, articles, and short stories.
533. Theodore Dreiser- a.k.a. Herman Albert. Pioneer of Naturalism. Mechanistic view of lifeFirst novel. Sister Carrie, was starkly realistic and criticized for obscenity. Later novels Jennie Gerhardt and American Traged, based on a famous murder brought him success.
534. Winslow Homer – Painter born in Boston. His oils and watercolors alike are characterized by their directness, realism, objectivity, and splendid color but he execelled at water colors. Watercolors of the ocean are unsurpassed in American art. Breaking Stormand Maine Coast
535. Thomas Eakins- American born Painter, photographer, and sculptor. Influenced by Spanish painters. His work exhibits his mastery of observation and perspective, as well as his stylized but precise realism.
536. James McNeil Whistler- American born painter and graphics artist. Active mainly in England. Related to impressionism, symbolism and aethetcism. Played a role in the modern movement in England
537. Mary Cassat- American born painter who lived and worked in France. Important member of the Impressionist group. Did not commission paintings but used family members. Intimate family relationships were her main theme.
538. Henry Hobson Richardson- American painter whose unique style called “Richardson Romanesque” influenced many painters including Stanford White and Louis Sullivan. Unique style was based on French and Spanish Romanesque styles of the 11th century
539. Chicago School- American architect. With his partner John Wellborn Root, designed the first American Skyscraper. One of the earliest modern city planners.
540. Daniel Burnham- American architect. With his partner John Wellborn Root, designed the first American Skyscraper. One of the earliest modern city planners
541. Frederick Law Olmstead- Widely recognized as America’s premier landscape architect and parkmaker. Famous parks designed by him include Central Park and Prospect Park both in New York. Great accomplishments in the fields of park conservation, town planning, and landscape architecture.
542. John Phillip Sousa- American born composer. Inventor of the Sousaphone.
Composed such classics as Stars and Stripes Forever
543. Jelly Roll Morton- little known jazz/ragtime pianist in the early 20th Century. His impact on the genre, though practically anonymous to those outside the community, had a long lasting effect on the art of jazz.
544. Scott Joplin – Maple Leaf Rag- American born musician. Became known as the “King of Ragtime”. Later in his life he worked in the Maple Leaf Club in Sedalia. From this name came one of his best known works, the Maple Leaf Rag.
545. Joseph Pulitzer NY World- Hungarian Born. In the later 19th century was one of the most skillful of newspaper publishers. His innovative New York World and St. Louis Post Dispatch reshaped newspaper journalism. His will provided for the Pulitzer Prize to be given out to excellence in American Arts and Educatoin
546. William Randolph Hearst- American Born son of self-made mutlimillionare miner and rancher Gearge Hearst. Inspired by Pulitzer, Hearst turned the San Francisco Examiner into a newspaper of reformist investigative reporting and lurid sensationalism. Employed many famous journalists including Twain, Crane, and London.
547. P.T Barnum's Greatest Show on Earth- Barnum was 60 when his traveling museum, menagerie, caravan, and circus made its debut. Grossed $400,000 in first year. By 1872 was called the “Greatest Show on Earth”. Joined forces with James Bailey and James Hutchinson in 1881
548. Buffalo Bill and Annie Oakley- American born, Oakley became well known as a execellent female marksman in the traveling show Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show. Buffalo Bill was the creator of the show.
549. Spectator sports- date from roughly the late 19th century. Became greatly popularized and separated from the pastimes of England by the creation of the National League in 1867. Since then has become an integral part of American culture as their popularity has increased.
550. Bachelor Sports-
551. Melting pot-
552. Cultural Diversity-
553. Rutherfold B. Hayes- One of the most contentious elections in history. Hayes insisted on appointing cabinet members on merit not political consideration. Advocated protecting Afircan-American rights and restoration of self-government in the south. Withdrew federal troops and ended reconstruction in the south. One ran for one term.
554. James A. Garfield- former Civil War General. Worked to attack political corruption and return prestige to the Presidency. Became embattled with Senator Roscoe Conkling and Stalwart Republicans in the New York Housing Authority. Garfield defreated Conkling who later resigned. Garfield was shot in a railroad station by a deranged lawyer and died some weeks later.
555. Grover Cleveland- First democrat elected after the Civil War. Only President to marry in office. Pursed policies against special favors for any economic group (denied needy farmers aid). Vetoed many Civil War pension bills. Investigated railroads for fraud and corruption (Intersated Commerce Act), Favored reducing protective tarrifs. Policies during the Depression were unpopular and was abandoned by his party for William Jennings Bryan.
556. Veterans Pension- Veterans pensions for the Civil War were greatly disputed for some time. President Cleveland vetoed many bills allowing for the payment of pensions to veterans even to disabled veterans. All this led to large protests during the Great Depression and probably contributed to the downfall of Grover Cleveland.
There are still some words missing. If you haven’t seen the terms you defined on this web site please e mail me the terms at Knaskills2000@aol.com as soon as possible.