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Group 1 and 2: Part I


Words from the 2nd Sheet (the ones that Moran never tested)



1. Compromise of 1877 provisions - Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.


2. Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.


3. Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's - Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929


4. Greenbacks - Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.


5. Panic of 1873, depression - Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inflation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work. Federal troops were called in to end the strike.


6. Horace Greeley (1811-1873) - Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.


7. Election of 1872: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley - Liberal Republicans sought honest government and nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley. Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.


8. Thomas Nast - Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.


9. William Tweed - Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".


10. Jay Gould and Jim Fiske - Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.


11. Sharecropping, Crop Lien System - Sharecropping provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, was not unlike slavery.


12. Blanche K. Bruce - Became a senator in 1874 -- the only black to be elected to a full term until Edward Brooke in 1966.


13. Scalawags - A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.


14. Civil Rights Act -1866 Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.


15. Impeachment - To bring charges against a public official. Johnson was impeached, but was saved from being taken out of office by one vote.


16. Secretary of War Stanton - As Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.


17. Tenure of Office Act 1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".


18. Fourteenth Amendment's "Due Process Clause" - No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law. (The accused must have a trial.)


19. Fifteenth Amendment - Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.


20. Fourteenth Amendment's "Due Process Clause" - No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law. (The accused must have a trial.)


21. 13th Amendment - outlawed slavery.


22. Charles Sumner - The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.


23. Radical Republicans - After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.


24. Black codes - Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.


25. Freedmen's Bureau 1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.


26. Andrew Johnson (1808-1875) - A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.


27. Wade-Davis Bill, veto, Wade-Davis Manifesto 1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.


28. Morril Act 1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building colleges.


29. Conscription draft riots - The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.




30. Ex Parte Milligan 1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under marshall law.


31.Copperheads - Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads", poisonous snakes waiting to get him.


32. John Wilkes Booth - An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.


33. Appomattox Court House- Lee surrendered to Grant.


34. Election of 1864: candidates, parties - Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln had fired McClellan from his position in the war.)

35. Gettysburg - 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won.


36. Emancipation Proclamation - September 22, 1862 Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.


37. The Laird rams - ships specifically designed to break blockades; the English prevented them from being sold to the South.


38. The Alabama - a British-made vessel and fought for the Confederacy, destroying over 60 Northern ships in 22 months.


39. Trent - A Union frigate stopped the Trent, a British steamer and abducted two Confederate ambassadors aboard it.


40. Ulysses S. Grant - U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.


41. Monitor and the Merrimac - First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Cheasepeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor - Union. Merrimac - Confederacy. Historians use the name of the original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern ironclad was constructed, even though the official Confederate name for their

ship was the CSS Virginia.


42. Antietam - turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln.


43. General Winfield Scott - Led the U.S. forces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.


44. Bull Run - At Bull Run, a creek, Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington. Confederates didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it. First major battle of the Civil War - both sides were ill-prepared.


45. Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens - Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.


46. Border states - States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.


47. Nat Turner's Insurrection 1831 - Slave uprising. A group of 60 slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to free his people, killed almost 60 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. This let to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.


48.       Habeas corpus - Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them.


49. Fort Sumter - Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861.


50. Crittenden Compromise proposal - A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.


51. Buchanan and the Secession Crisis - After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.


52. Harper's Ferry – where In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal.


53. Freeport Doctrine - During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn't force a territory to become a slave state against its will.


54. Lincoln's "House Divided" speech - in his acceptance speech for his nomination to the Senate in June, 1858, Lincoln paraphrased from the Bible: "A house divided against itself cannot stand." He continued, "I do not believe this government can continue half slave and half free, I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do believe it will cease to be divided."


55. Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois Senatorial campaign - A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.


56. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (pronounced "Tawny") - As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.


57. Wilmot Proviso - When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.


58. Ostend Manifesto - The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.


59. Gadsen Purchase - 1853 - After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgowas signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsen, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.


60. Great American Desert - Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region.


61. Confiscation Acts

1.   designed to punish rebelling southerners, captured slaves who had been used by their owners actively, to support the war efforts to the confederacy were to be set free.

2.   Was passed which declared the slaves of all adherents the rebellion to be free


62. Civil Rights Act of 1875 – passed in the closing hours of the Republican-Controlled congress. The law guaranteed person s of every race “the full and equal treatment” of all public facilities such as hotels, theaters, and railroads.”


63. Elias Howe (1819-1869) - Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.


64. Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph - Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.


65. Perry and Japan - Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trade between it and the U.S. In 1853, his armed squadron anchored in Tokyo Bay, where the Japanese were so impressed that they signed the Treaty of Kanagania in 1854, which opened Japanese ports to American trade.


66. Popular sovereignty - vote of the people


67. Election of 1848: Cass, Taylor - Zachary Taylor - Whig. Lewis Cass - Democrat. Martin Van Buren - Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.


68. General Zachary Taylor - Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk’s orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor’s forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.


69. Compromise of 1850: provisions, impact – Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.


70. Stephen A. Douglas - A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.


71. Fugitive Slave Law - Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.


72. Underground Railroad - A secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.


73. Harriet Tubman (1821-1913) - A former escaped slave, she was one of the shrewdest conductors of the underground railroad, leading 300 slaves to freedom.


74. Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe - She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.


75. Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South - Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owing Whites in his 1857 book, which as a violent attack on slavery. It wasn't written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer


76. George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society - The most influential propagandist in the decade before the Civil War. In his Sociology (1854), he said that the capitalism of the North was a failure. In another writing he argued that slavery was justified when compared to the cannibalistic approach of capitalism. Tried to justify slavery.


80. Kansas - Nebraska Act 1854 - This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.


81. Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing.”


82. Republican Party: 1860 platform, supporter, leaders 1860 - platform: free soil principles, a protective tariff. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward, Carl Shulz.


83. John C. Fremont - Civil governor of California, led the Army exploration to help Kearny. Heard that a war with Mexico was coming, thought he could take California by himself before the war began and become a hero. He failed, so he joined forces with Kearny.


84. Buchanan and the Secession Crisis - After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.

 

85. New England Emigrant Aid Company - Promoted anti-slavery migration to Kansas. The movement encouraged 2600 people to move. Emigrant Aid Society sent rifles at the instigation of fervid abolitionists like the preacher Henry Beecher. These rifles became known as "Beecher's Bibles".


86. "Bleeding Kansas" - Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped percipitate the Civil War.


87. John Brown's Raid - In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.


88. Sumner-Brooks Affair 1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the first Republican martyr.


89. Lecompton Constitution - The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. It was rejected.


90. Dred Scott Decision - A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.


91. American Colonization Society - Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.


92. Abolitionism - The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830's to the Civil War.


93. The Liberator - A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.


94. Election 1844: Liberty Party - The first abolitionist party - believed in ending slavery.


95. Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) - A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.


 

96. Sojourner Truth - Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.

97. David Walker (1785-1830), "Walker's Appeal" - A Boston free black man who published papers against slavery.


98. Frederick Jackson Turner, Frontier Thesis - American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.


99. Alexander Graham Bell 1876 - Invented the telephone.

 

100. Manifest Destiny - Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.