In 1949 when The People's Republic of China was formed the population was mostly workers and families were paid to have babies. The probelm was the population didn't stop growing after that and by 1953 it had grown to about 583 million people.
By 1964 the chinese goevernment realized they had a problem on their hands and came out with the Later Sparcer Fewer Policy. The problem with this policy was that there were still to many people that even though families were having fewer children further apart and later in life the population was still growing.
In 1979 the government came up with a new plan. A very extreme plan. The One Child Policy.
One Child Policy