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Some loose Facts


Distance from Earth: min. 55,784,000 km.  Max. 398,887,000 km.

Day: (Sol) 24h. 37 min. 22.66 sec.

Year: 687 earth days.

Season: Apr. 172 earth days.

Mars middle line: 6788 km.

Earth: 12,756 km.

Mass: 1/10 0f Earth’s.

Gravity: 38% of Earth’s.

Escape velocity: 5.02 km/sec.

Zero meridian: Crater Airy. O. Sinus Meridiani.

Height differences: Apr. 20 km.

Temperatures: min. 100c. Max. 15c.

Distance from the Sun, (average): 228,000,000 km.

Polar circle 25.2 degrees from the pole, =64.8.


Craters: Oudemans. 10 south, 092 west.

Gusev.   14 south, 194 west.

Noctis Labyrinthus: 105 east, 9 south.

Viking I: 22.46 north, 48.01 west. Jul. 20. 1976. 7 years after first moon landing.

Viking II Sept. 3 1976. 47.96 north, 225.77 west.


Soil: Si, Fe, O, Ca, Mag, and S.


Hoffmann transfer.

Mars lance windows. Good every 15 to 17 years.

Possible, every 25 months. 2003 Jul arr. Feb 2004.

2001 Apr arr. Oct 2004.

2005 Sept arr. May 2006.


Speed necessary to leave Earth for Mars: 40,000 km/h.


Angelina Stickney. Wife of Asaph Hall. Found Deimos and Phobos.



Poss. landing site crew 2. Oudemans. -10  092.


Liquid water, only possible under the 0 line for Mars’s heights. This is also the 6.1-mbar line. At 6.1 mbar water boils at 0. Celsius. At 6.5 it is 4C: 10...7C: 12...10C….   1000: 100C.


On Earth one square centimeter receives 2.0 calories per minu­te. On Mars this number is 0.86. North 0.7. South 1.0.           0.66 reaches the surface.








(Nuclear Engine Rocket Vehicle Appli­cation.)


Nevada tests site 60s. Ready 1970; program abandoned 1972,

It was considered to dangerous by public opinion and the anti Nuclear Energy movement.

Should have taken off for Mars, 1975 though.

Chemical rockets in the 70s. 1971 Mariner 9. 1976 Vikings.

Mars distance: 64, to 400, million km.

NERVA? Maybe 2010. NERVA could produce 1 million X as much energy,

as a chemical rocket from the same mass of fuel.

Highest output (1970) was, watt. (One Giga watt reactor.)

The Nuclear reactor is used to superheat a gas, H2, or any other gas, liquid,

 (No chemical reactions, or two kinds of propellants necessary).

Only a few hours of burn time are needed for a flig­ht to Mars.

Costs, about $400.000.000.000.  Much of which is already spent.


Nuclear propulsion