Introduction | Text
Archives Board (hereafter SAB), W.M. Whitelaw Papers, vol. 4, Storer to
Whitelaw, 28 Dec 1949.
2Whitelaw was a member of the faculty of the University of Saskatchewan Department of History from 1941 to 1946, during which time he was involved in the preservation of historical material on the Prairie West and was a member of the University Committee on Historical Records.
3The basis for this date of completion is Storer’s “Reverie,” which may been have written after Storer’s completion of her work to preface the work itself; see Appendix A for “Reverie”.
4Storer was a noted journalist all her life; she had obtained her first newspaper experience at her father’s newspaper, the Saskatchewan Herald and later at the Regina Leader-Post and the Moose Jaw Times Herald. SAB, Effie Laurie Storer Papers, A402, vol. 4.
5See Appendix A for Storer’s “Reverie,” for information about Hayes and Moore.
6SAB, Effie Laurie Storer Papers, A 402, vol. 4, p. 1.
7Details appear in Storer’s “Reverie,” Appendix A.
8SAB, W.M. Whitelaw Papers, vol. 4, Storer to Whitelaw, 28 Dec 1949.
9Ibid., Whitelaw to Storer, 22 Dec 1949.
10Doris is W. Menzies Whitelaw’s daughter.
11American historian whose work, Woman as a Force of History (1946), inspired feminist historians in the early years of the recent wave of feminist history. Alberti, Johanna, Gender and the Historian. (Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2002), 7.
13Gendering the Master Narrative: Women and Power in the Middle Ages. (Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2003), 7.
14Wives of John Gowanlock and John Delaney who were killed at the massacre at Frog Lake.
15Piecing the Quilt: Sources for Women’s History in the Saskatchewan Archives Board. (Winnipeg: Canadian Plains Research Center, 1996), vii-viii.
16Alberti, Johanna, Gender and the Historian. (Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2002), 8.
17Women’s Archives Guide: Manuscript Sources for the History of Women. (Ottawa: National Archives of Canada, 1991), 1.
18Piecing the Quilt: Sources for Women’s History in the Saskatchewan Archives Board. (Winnipeg: Canadian Plains Research Center, 1996), viii.
19Women and history: Voices of Early Modern England. (Concord,ON: Irwin Publishing, 1997), xxiii.
20Again, as previously explained, the basis for this date is Storer’s “Reverie,” possibly written after Storer’s completion of her work to preface the work itself; see Appendix A for “Reverie”.
21See Appendix A.
22Hayes, on pages 216-217, includes 4 maps specific to the North-West Rebellion, 1885: 1) a map of the Seat of Riel’s Insurrection showing the Connection of Prince Albert with other points in the North-West (1885), 2) Bishop’s North West War map (1885), 3) a map of Winnipeg to District of Riel’s Rebellion (1885), and 4) a map of the Plan of Attack on Batoche (1885).
23Sir Frederick Dobson Middleton (b at Belfast, Ire 2 Nov 1825; d at London, Eng 25 Jan 1898), commander of the Canadian Militia, organized and led the expedition during the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. The Canadian Parliament voted him a monetary award, while the British government made him a KCMG and promoted him to lieutenant-general for his successful campaign (Macleod).
24Sir William Dillon Otter (b at Clinton, Ont 3 Dec 1843; d at Toronto 6 May 1929) commanded the Battleford column in the North-West Campaign of 1885 (Desmond).
25Founded in 1670 in London, England (hence, Canada’s oldest business enterprise) by a group of English merchants eager to exploit the resources of Canada, the HBC today retails under The Bay, Zellers, Fields, Home Outfitters (Ray and Yusufali). For HBC’s conflict with the Metis free traders and Louis Riel over its monopoly rights, see Bumstead 34-37, 46-7; see also Ray and Yusufali.
26Recognized leader of the Metis in Red River and elected president of a provisional government in 1869 and 1870 which negotiated with the Canadian government over terms of entry into the new Canadian federation. Louis Riel, in 1884, led the protest movement for Metis rights and the redress of settlers’ grievances in the Saskatchewan Valley, an action that turned into incipient revolt culminating in the Northwest Rebellion of 1885 (Archer 51, 84-5).
27The heart of the Metis settlement and Riel’s headquarters, also the site of a May 9, 1885 battle between Middleton’s ground troops and the Metis; Middleton’s troops won over the Metis, who out of ammunition, were driven from their rifle-pits. Riel eventually surrendered to Middleton on May 15 (Archer 94).
28Plains Cree chief (b around 1842 in what is now central Saskatchewan; d in 1886 at Blackfoot Crossing, Alta) known to have worked to establish peace in the prairies. One of the Cree chiefs who in 1876 signed Treaty No. 6 with the government and in 1879, when there were no longer enough buffalo left to feed his band, he settled quietly on the reserve allotted to him near Battleford (“Poundmaker”).
29Residents in the area sought refuge at Fort Battleford, March 29, 1885, as the Cree and Assiniboine forces organized a huge war camp to the west (Beal and McLeod).
30Storer must have meant ‘meet’ instead.
31Refer again to notes 4 and 5 for details.
32According to Storer herself, “the status of the Indian was quite different from that of Riel and his metis friends [because] the Indian tribes were in a sense nations and had treaty relations with the Federal government ” (“Aftermath” 82). This may well explain the leniency accorded the Indians by the government as compared to “Riel and his metis friends,” who, as Storer notes, “were charged at Regina under the Canadian Criminal Law with having committed murder, not under International law having broken treaty” (82).
33Plains Cree chief (b near Fort Carlton, Sask 1825; d on the Poundmaker Reserve 17 Jan 1888) who refused in 1876 to sign Treaty No 6, maintaining that position until 1882, when starvation was a reality. He worked to wring further concessions from the federal government whose refusal lost Big Bear the support of his more extreme followers who, against his will, later killed nine whites at Frog Lake, burned Fort Pitt, and were defeated at Loon Lake (Pannekoek).
34Five other prisoners- Rv. Mr. and Mrs. Quinney, Anglican missionaries at Onion Lake Settlement, and three employees of the Hudson’s Bay Company--had made their escape directly from Big Bear’s camp by hiding in a poplar bluff (Storer, “Aftermath” 84).
35Theresa Delaney is the wife of James Delaney, newly appointed Farming Instructor for the Frog Lake sub-agency, from the Ottawa Valley (Hughes x).
36Theresa Gowanlock is the wife of John Gowanlock, a private contractor from Ontario (Hughes x).
37See Fryer for a fuller account of the incident; see also Hughes for various captivity narratives including Delaney’s, Gowanlock’s, and Cameron’s.
38The fur trapping, hunter gathering Wood Crees and the equestrian, buffalo-hunting Plains Crees are aboriginal groups inhabiting the woodlands of northern Saskatchewan and Alberta. In the Frog Lake massacre, the “aggressors” were the Plains Cree, who appealed to their common ethnicity to cajole the Wood Cree for their support of the venture (Hughes xv, 3).
39Stanley offers that, indeed, Big Bear had consistently advocated peace; unfortunately, at this critical moment, not only was he away on a hunting trip, his authority was also undermined by Wandering Spirit, the war chief, Little Poplar, an Indian agitator, and Imasees, Big Bear’s eldest son, all supposedly influenced by Riel’s agents (338).
40Gowanlock’s and Delaney’s full accounts of their captivity are included in Hughes; Dagg’s The Women on the Bridge equally offers a version of Gowanlock’s story. Interestingly, Storer’s “Theresa,” a short story which won second place in the short story contest of the Women’s Canadian Club, of Regina, in 1923 and later published in the Times of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, is based on Gowanlock’s account of the incident (Storer, “Theresa” 1).
41The nine victims were Thomas Quinn, Canadian Indian service agent; John Delaney, farming instructor; John Gowanlock, contractor; William Gilchrist, Gowanlock’s clerk; George Dill, trader; John Williscraft, mechanic; Rev. Leon Adelard Fafard and Rev. Felix Marie Marchand, priests, and Charles Gouin, a Columbia River half-breed employed at Frog Lake building the agency stores and houses (Cameron 50-51).
42The Hudson’s Bay Company agent at Frog Lake, William Bleasdell Cameron (Stanley 338) was safeguarded by a local native, Yellow Bear (Hughes 3). One of several versions of Cameron’s account of the incident appears in Hughes 5-158.
43Hughes notes that perhaps as a result of his Intermediary ethnic identity, Pritchard, a Metis, at no small expense to himself, protected the two non-local and non-native captive women from the anticipated depredations of the natives (3).
44Father Leon Adelard Fafard, a French-Canadian local priest and Superior of a district, killed at Frog Lake by Plains Cree foot soldiers Bare Man and Man Who Wins (Fryer 19, Gowanlock and Delaney 242).
45Storer’s father is Patrick Gammie Laurie, pioneer newspaperman in Battleford.
46One of Saskatchewan’s earlier newspapers; was founded by Storer’s father in 1878 in Battleford, its first issue having been printed on August 25 of that year (Archer 79).
47The eight included Miserable Man, Manichoos, Walking the Sky, Wandering Spirit, Napaise, and Apischiskoos, all indicted of murder at Frog Lake, and two Assiniboine Indians for the murders of James Payne and Bernard Fremont, settlers of Battleford (Cameron 146). Lucky Man and Big Bear’s son, Imasees, who, with Wandering Spirit, had been responsible for the Frog Lake Massacre escaped death by fleeing to Montana (Stanley 379). See Cameron 145-148 for details regarding the execution.
48Big Bear, surrendering at Fort Carlton in July 1885, was convicted of treason and imprisoned for two years.
49Poundmaker was found guilty of treason and sentenced to three years in prison (“Poundmaker”).
50Big Bear, Ill and broken in spirit, died in 1888 on the Poundmaker Reserve shortly after his release (Pannekoek); Poundmaker, released after a few months because he was very sick with tuberculosis, died in 1886 while visiting Crowfoot on the Blackfoot Reserve, Blackfoot Crossing, Alberta (“Poundmaker”).
51Cameron’s account differs in that the young Assiniboine, while indeed asking for heavy top boots for use on his march to the scaffold, wore instead new moccasins with thick soles which his sweetheart brought him (148).
52Accounts of the trial appear in Bumsted 269-95, Stanley 384-5, Archer 96.
53See Flanagan 156-168 for evidence of the government’s manipulation of the medical commission--Dr.Michael Lavell, Dr. Francoise- Xavier Valade, Dr. Augustus Jukes--tasked to determine Riel’s sanity. Also, Flanagan notes that because the McNaghten Rules (see Flanagan 148-151 for an elaboration on these rules) were taken by the presiding judges, both at the trial and appellate levels, to constitute the law, the jury had little choice but to convict (149).
54An account of the execution appears in Asfar and Chodan 225-228, Archer 96-97, Bumsted 305, Stanley 385.
55To promote western settlement and railway construction, homestead policies were devised, among these, the Dominion Lands Act of 1872, which provided the legal authority for lands to be given to intending settlers in return for the payment of a small $10 fee and specified settlement duties - eg, building a habitable residence and cultivating a certain area annually (Regehr).
56Storer here refers to the Metis; for Storer, the “menace” and the “rebellion had been instigated” by the French breeds who outnumbered the Indians (91).
57Storer’s mother is Mary Eliza Carney of Ontario.
58Riel’s wife, Margeurite Monet Bellehumeur, with whom he had two children, a boy, Jean, and a girl, Marie-Angelique, lost one more child in pregnancy while Riel was in prison (Bumsted 236). She succumbed to tuberculosis a few months later, on May 24, 1886. Angelique died of diphtheria in 1897 at 14 years old, Jean of a freak carriage accident near St. Boniface in 1908 (Asfar and Chodan 230).
59Katherine Hayes (1856-1945) wrote for the Regina Leader, the Manitoba Free Press, and the Ottawa Free Press; she was also territorial legislative librarian, one of the founders of the Canadian Women's Press Club (1904) and president of the club from 1906-07, and as Mary Markwell published numerous plays, sketches, short stories, songs and verses (Jackel).
60Lawyer, journalist, politician (1843-1901), Davin was known as the voice of the North-West. As speaker and Conservative MP for Assiniboia West from 1887-1900, he tried to gain provincial status for the territory, economic and property advantages for the new settlers, and even the franchise for women (Gibson).
61The first newspaper in Assiniboia, it was founded (in 1883) and edited by Nicholas Flood Davin, and carried his detailed reports of the 1885 trial of Louis Riel (Gibson).
62From Louis Riel (Asfar and Chodan).