The extensive research of Bargh, Greenwald, Nosek and others has in recent years demonstrated the operation of automatic, unconscious (implicit) processes in daily life that heretofore were only theoretical ideas. These include unconscious motivation, implicit associations, and transference. While early theorists such as Freud and his associates were not altogether accurate in many details of their hypotheses, empirical evidence now supports the general framework and importance of those ideas. We now know, for example, that perceptions of significant others unconsciously affect our perceptions of strangers who resemble them; that the things we do are often in service of unconscious motives; and that we sometimes have implicit associations or attitudes that differ from our conscious ones.
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