## My Textbook.

For 33 years I taught a course at Western Kentucky University titled "Electronics for Physicists". I spent about the first half of that time trying to find the right textbook. The choices I had were either too low level with no derivations and little math, or were too theoretical, deriving everything but with not a trace of practicality. After much frustration I decided to write my own book for the course. Contrary to what you might think, physicists need a very practical course because after they get into graduate school they need to know how to use electronics as a tool to aid in their research. You can't just give an equation to a physics major and expect it to be taken on faith. They will lose interest in a course that is taught that way. I needed to put in enough derivations to keep them happy while presenting a solid practical course.Although I tried I never succeeded in getting a publisher interested in this book. I self published it through a copy shop near campus so the students could buy it. I retain all rights and posting it here does not mean I am placing it in the public domain.

You will find parts of it scattered around this site but the entire unedited book is here.

Every so often I get a request from someone wanting a hard copy of the book. All paper copies went away years ago. The original Word Perfect files have also disappeared so all that remains are these HTML files. I have put them together with all figures in a zip file which you can download from this location. I retain all rights to these files and electronic drawings. They are for personal use only. If you are a teacher and want to use this work as a textbook in your classes pleas contact me for permission to reproduce and distribute. If you plan to have your students access the book online please do not direct them to this site. I fear such use might exceed the bandwidth limit of my provider. Contact me so we can set up a mirror site preferably on your school or university network with limited access. Thank you.

A very kind person who wishes to remain anonymous has converted the book pages to a single Word file with drawings inserted. The same individual suggested a title change which I feel may be less intimidating than the original. The file could be printed out and distributed to a class. It may be downloaded from this location. You may print it out for your personal use but if you want to distribute it to a number of persons for a class pleas contact me for permission.

## Electronics For Non-Engineers.

## Table of Contents.

## Chapter 0 Electrical Fundamentals.

0.1 Electrical Quantities From Mechanical Quantities.

0.2 Resistance and Ohm's Law.

0.3 Series Circuits and Kirchhoff's Voltage Law.

0.4 Parallel Circuits and Kirchhoff's Current Law.

0.5 Prefixes.

0.6 Numerical Examples.

0.7 Capacitance.

0.8 Inductance.

0.9 Problems.

0.10 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 1 DC Circuits.

1.1 Solving Complex Circuits Using Loop Equations.

1.2 Voltage Dividers.

1.3 Thevenin's Theorem.

1.4 Norton's Theorem.

1.5 Current Measurement, the D'Arsonval Meter.

1.6 Voltage Measurement.

1.7 Measurement Using Multimeters.

1.8 Problems.

1.9 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 2 AC Circuits.

2.1 Alternating Current.

2.2 Capacitive Reactance.

2.3 Inductive Reactance.

2.4 Series Circuits and Impedance.

2.5 RC Filter Circuits.

2.6 The Decibel (dB).

2.7 Graphing Frequency Response.

2.8 Nonsinusoidal Waves.

2.9 The Effect of RC Circuits on Nonsinusoidal Waves.

2.10 RLC Resonate Circuits.

2.11 Transformers.

2.12 The Oscilloscope.

2.13 Problems.

2.14 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 3 DC Power Supply Circuits.

3.1 Block Diagram of a Power Supply.

3.2 Protection Devices.

3.3 The Power Transformer.

3.4 The Semiconductor Diode.

3.4A The Vacuum Diode.

3.5 Rectifier Circuits.

3.6 Filtering the Rectifier's Output.

3.7 The Zener Diode Voltage Regulator.

3.8 Integrated Circuit Voltage Regulators.

3.9 Problems.

3.10 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 4 Transistors as Switches and Amplifiers.

4.1 The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT).

4.2 The BJT as a Switch.

4.3 The BJT as an Amplifier.

4.4 The Field Effect Transistor (FET).

4.5 The FET as a Switch.

4.6 The FET as an Amplifier.

4.7 Differential Amplifier.

4.8 Problems.

4.9 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 4A Triode Vacuum Tubes.

4A.1 The Triode (3 Element) Vacuum Tube.

4A.2 Triode Amplifier Graphical Analysis, Load Line.

4A.3 Triode Amplifier Small Signal Analysis.

4A.4 Resistance Coupled Amplifier Charts.

4A.5 The Miller Effect.

4A.6 Cathode Follower.

4A.7 Grounded Grid Amplifier.

4A.8 Cascode Amplifier.

4A.9 Problems.

4A.10 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 4B Multi Grid Tubes.

4B.1 Odes to Tetra and Penta.

4B.2 The Heptode, Pentagrid Converter.

4B.3 The Beam Deflection Tube.

4B.4 Magic Eye and Cathode Ray Tubes.

4B.5 Oscillators.

4B.6 Problems.

4B.7 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 5 Applying Feedback To Amplifier Circuits.

5.1 Some Preliminary Information.

5.2 The Negative Feedback Equation.

5.3 The Special Case of the Inverting Amplifier.

5.4 Frequency Response and Stability.

5.5 Gain Accuracy and Precision.

5.6 Other Benefits of Negative Feedback.

5.7 Some Practical Circuits.

5.8 Positive Feedback, Oscillators.

5.9 Problems.

5.10 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 6 The Operational Amplifier.

6.1 Op Amp Behavior.

6.2 Equations of the Op Amp.

6.3 The Unity-Gain Buffer Amplifier.

6.4 The Noninverting Amplifier.

6.5 The Inverting Amplifier.

6.6 The Summing Amplifier.

6.7 The Integrating Amplifier.

6.8 Single Power Supply Operation.

6.9 Understanding Op Amp Specifications.

6.10 Problems.

6.11 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 7 Operational Amplifier Circuits.

7.1 Instrumentation Amplifier.

7.2 AC Voltmeter Circuit.

7.3 Open-loop Linearization.

7.4 Absolute Value Amplifier.

7.5 Log Converter.

7.6 Active Filters.

7.7 Problems.

7.8 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 8 Digital Circuits.

8.1 The Binary Number System.

8.2 Logic Functions and Gates.

8.3 Boolean Algebra.

8.4 Combinational Logic Circuits.

8.5 Flip-Flops and Counters.

8.6 Displaying the Count.

8.7 Multiplexed Displays.

8.8 Digital to Analog Converter.

8.9 Analog to Digital Converter.

8.10 The 555 Timer.

8.11 Problems.

8.12 Answers to Problems.

## Chapter 9 Digital Instruments.

9.1 Frequency Counter.

9.2 Digital Multimeter.

9.3 Frequency Synthesizer.

9.4 Problems.

9.5 Answers to Problems.

## Appendix A Standard Values for Electronic Components.

## Appendix B Reading Color Codes.

## Appendix C Transistor and IC Packages.

Back to Fun with Transistors.

Back to Fun with Tubes."