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History of the Earth

 in one million year increments

by

 

 

( Dates are approximate.)

4,608,000,000 (Years ago.)

4,607,000,000 (Years ago.)

4,606,000,000 Inside the Milky Way, hundreds of new stars were about to shine.

4,605,000,000 Our sun was one of them. Nearby, a star went supernova.

4,604,000,000 The heavy metals and other elements, uranium included,

4,603,000,000 were created at the moment of the supernova's explosion.

4,602,000,000 This material was dispersed into the surrounding space.

4,601,000,000 Some impacted the sun, while other material found its way

4,600,000,000 into orbit around the sun and eventually added to or began 

4,599,000,000 the formation of some of the planets. All the stars in the

4,598,000,000 cluster received material from this supernova. When the

4,597,000,000 supernova exploded, the planets that circled it were blown

4,596,000,000 apart. Life is common in the universe and life could be found

4,595,000,000 on these planets. Microbes attached to particles were

4,594,000,000 dispersed into space by the explosion. 

4,593,000,000 The theory that simple forms of life travel in ejecta from

4,592,000,000   other worlds is called: lithopanspermia.

4,591,000,000  Panspermia is the theory that

4,590,000,000 radiation pressure from the stars blow microbes about like

4,589,000,000 tiny solar sails. These microbes have the ability to survive in a

4,588,000,000 cold vacuum by going into stasis. They reduce there chemical

4,587,000,000 interactions to zero while maintaining there biological

4,586,000,000 structure well enough to later thaw and multiply when

4,585,000,000 they find themselves in a sustaining environment.

4,584,000,000

4,583,000,000 Two planetoids, less than a thousand mile in diameter, orbit the sun

4,582,000,000 at about the same distance from the sun as the earth does today.

4,581,000,000 Comets, meteorites (some left over from the supernova), and planetoids

4,580,000,000 crash into other planets and planetoids adding mass. At this time

4,579,000,000 there are dozens of planets and planetoids circling the sun. Many

4,578,000,000 cross the orbits of others. They crash into each other, adding mass,

4,577,000,000 and become larger.

4,576,000,000

4,575,000,000

4,574,000,000

4,573,000,000 Positive identification of living extraterrestrial bacteria

4,572,000,000 entering the Earth's upper atmosphere from space came in 2001. 

4,571,000,000 Panspermia no longer a theory. Daily, the earth receives more

4,570,000,000 than 600 pounds of biological material from space.

4,569,000,000

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4,532,000,000

4,531,000,000

4,530,000,000 The sun is only half as bright as it is today. Heat is rapidly lost from

4,529,000,000 the planetoids that orbit the sun in this cold solar system. As the sun burns,

4,528,000,000 its composition changes, gradually growing brighter and hotter with age.

4,527,000,000

4,526,000,000

4,525,000,000

4,524,000,000

4,523,000,000

4,522,000,000

4,521,000,000

4,520,000,000

4,519,000,000

4,518,000,000

4,517,000,000 The planetoids and planets keep receiving mass from the impact of space debris.

4,516,000,000 Two planetoids orbit the sun at about 93,000,000 miles. They are less than half

4,515,000,000 the size the earth is today. We will call the larger planetoid Earth and

4,514,000,000 the smaller Theia. It is believed that Earth had at least 6 impacts with bodies

4,513,000,000 that had diameters of 300 miles or more. These impacts would melt the entire

4,512,000,000 surface of Earth, and larger ones could melt the entire planet.

4,511,000,000

4,510,000,000

4,509,000,000

4,508,000,000

4,507,000,000 Theia is now a small planet about the size of Mars. Theia and Earth

4,506,000,000 orbit the sun with paths that cross. At some point, Theia and

4,505,000,000 Earth will be at the same place at the same time.

4,504,000,000

4,503,000,000 Earth is now about 5000 miles in diameter and Theia is about 4000

4,502,000,000 miles in diameter.

4,501,000,000 Theia smacked into Earth about 4.5 billion years ago tilting

4,500,000,000 Earth's axis to 23.5 degrees and started Earth to rotate.

4,499,000,000 Theia combined with Earth to make Earth a larger planet.

4,498,000,000 Some of Earth's surface was ejected into space by the impact

4,497,000,000 and found its way into orbit leading to the creation of the moon.

4,496,000,000 The heat generated from the collision caused Earth

4,495,000,000 to become molten. Some rock was vaporized by this impact, creating

4,494,000,000 a rock vapor atmosphere that would take at least two thousand

4,493,000,000 years to condense leaving behind an atmosphere of

4,492,000,000 carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor (steam).

4,491,000,000 With the Earth molten, heavier elements would gravitate (sink)

4,490,000,000 to the center of the Earth and lighter elements would rise to the

4,489,000,000 surface, water among them. Iron sinks to the center of the Earth

4,488,000,000 along with the radio active elements. Uranium, thorium, samarium

4,487,000,000 and neodymium are found floating on a layer above the

4,486,000,000 iron core, called the D" layer.

4,485,000,000 This D" layer is not homogeneous and there are hot spots.

4,484,000,000 One hot spot is so hot it vaporizes the the rock. This rock vapor

4,483,000,000 is surrounded by liquid rock. The pressure builds until the

4,482,000,000 mantle gives and a massive amount of liquid rock spews into

4,481,000,000 space.

4,480,000,000

4,479,000,000 The radio active elements in the D" layer burn, churn, and react,

4,478,000,000 creating the planet's magnetic field, keeping the Earth's core

4,477,000,000 molten and providing the energy for volcanoes and plate tectonics.

4,476,000,000 On this molten planet water migrates to the surface where

4,475,000,000 it turns to steam. The steam is so thick it blocks out the sun

4,474,000,000 along and its UV radiation.

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4,450,000,000 Earth cools enough to form crust.

4,449,000,000 Rain striking the hot ground would turn to steam.

4,448,000,000 Vary little of this early crust remain today

4,447,000,000 having been recycled back into the earth's mantle.

4,446,000,000

4,445,000,000

4,444,000,000 Earth's atmosphere is mostly water vapor with methane,

4,443,000,000 carbon dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen.

4,442,000,000

4,441,000,000 Water can be found in places on the earth's surface.

4,440,000,000

4,439,000,000 Comets seed the earth with microorganisms.

4,438,000,000 Cyanobacteria, sulfur bacteria and archaea arrive

4,437,000,000 on earth by way of comets. Sulfur bacteria

4,436,000,000 manufacture carbohydrates (food) from non-living

4,435,000,000(inorganic) raw materials. These so-called chemoautotrophic

4,434,000,000 bacteria do not need sun light for energy. They can be

4,433,000,000 found living in pools of water under the bottom

4,432,000,000 sediments. They take in hydrogen sulfide and carbon

4,431,000,000 dioxide and release as waste products,

4,430,000,000 water, methane and sulfur. These one cell organisms

4,429,000,000 are busy making our future oceans and comets are also

4,428,000,000 bringing in water from space. Meteorites also contain about 20%

4,427,000,000 water. Today, when a meteorite enters our atmosphere, only 2 or 3

4,426,000,000 millimeters of the outside is melted. The interior remains frozen.

4,425,000,000

4,424,000,000

4,423,000,000

4,422,000,000

4,421,000,000

4,420,000,000

4,419,000,000 There are at least four sources of water on planet earth:

4,418,000,000 1) Much of the water migrated up from the mantle to the surface

4,417,000,000 when the mantle was molten. The earth's mantle still

4,416,000,000 contain 5 times more water than is found on the surface.

4,415,000,000 2) Volcanoes release water vapor.

4,414,000,000 Volcanoes also release hydrogen sulfide, food for sulfur bacteria.

4,413,000,000 3) Sulfur bacteria eat hydrogen sulfide and pee water.

4,412,000,000 Over time, a great deal of water was created by bacteria.

4,411,000,000 4) Icy rocks, icy planetoids, and comets bring water to the earth.

4,410,000,000

4,409,000,000

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4,400,000,000 Rain increasing. The earth is large enough and gravity is

4,399,000,000 strong enough that little water can escape into space. The

4,398,000,000 water that is lost is replaced by comets and volcanoes.

4,397,000,000 Top crust less than 200 degrees. The earth's surface

4,396,000,000 is mountain-less, flat, covered by water.

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4,208,000,000 In space ice-covered grains collide, stick together and form

4,207,000,000 increasingly larger objects, eventually becoming comets.

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4,116,000,000

4,115,000,000 The Moon does not just go around the Earth. In reality,

4,114,000,000 the two objects orbit about a common gravitational midpoint,

4,113,000,000 called a barycenter. Centrifugal force causes water on the

4,112,000,000 far side to bulge out (pushed away) and the moons gravity

4,111,000,000 attracts water on the other side, causing another bulge in

4,110,000,000 the earth's oceans. There are two high tides at the same time

4,109,000,000 on opposite sides of the earth. At this time, an earth day and

4,108,000,000 night is 6 hours. Massive tides occur every 3 hours.

4,107,000,000 The earth is still being bombarded by asteroids and comets. Some

4,106,000,000 of the earth's surface was melted at the site of large impacts.

4,105,000,000 Most of the earth's water's remained cool enough to sustain

4,104,000,000 the microbes that arrived from  space.  Comets continue to bring

4,103,000,000 water to the earth and sulfur bacteria continue to make water.

4,102,000,000

4,101,000,000

4,100,000,000 No mountains, water covering the earth. Only volcanoes

4,099,000,000 sticking their heads out of the water. The moon orbits

4,098,000,000 the earth at about 120,000 miles away compared to today's

4,097,000,000 238,000 miles. Massive tidal waves

4,096,000,000 circle the earth twice a day, eroding away any

4,095,000,000 land sticking out above the water. On this world, at this

4,094,000,000 time, land is temporary.

4,093,000,000 We now know that the vacuum of space and extreme

4,092,000,000 hot and cold is not fatal to bacteria.

4,091,000,000

4,090,000,000

4,089,000,000

4,088,000,000

4,087,000,000 Archaea: a purple membrane containing organism that

4,086,000,000 gave the sea a purple color. Archaea are not plants or

4,085,000,000 animals, nor are they bacteria, or viruses. They are

4,084,000,000 a separate and different life form.

4,083,000,000 The water is too hot for cyanobacteria live well.

4,082,000,000 Archaea and sulfur bacteria can stand the heat.

4,081,000,000 The atmosphere consisted of carbon dioxide,

4,080,000,000 nitrogen, water vapor, methane and

4,079,000,000 hydrogen sulfide.

4,078,000,000

4,077,000,000 Many different microbes arrive from space. In this article

4,076,000,000 we will deal only with three (archaea, cyanobacteria, and

4,075,000,000 sulfur bacteria) because each was the dominant life form on

4,074,000,000 earth at certain points in time.

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4,015,000,000 Some microorganisms can remain

4,014,000,000 dormant for hundreds of millions of

4,013,000,000 years, perhaps billions of years, or forever.

4,012,000,000 When conditions are right, they are reanimated.

4,011,000,000

4,010,000,000

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4,008,000,000 

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4,004,000,000 Comets continue to bring water to the earth and

4,003,000,000 seed the earth with microorganisms. This will

4,002,000,000 continue as long as comets hit the earth.

4,001,000,000 The water on the earth's surface and the air temperature

4,000,000,000 is about 150 degrees. Sunlight 30% weaker than it is today.

3,999,000,000 The temperature is low enough for cyanobacteria to live well.

3,998,000,000 Empact by planetesimals occur less often as the planets

3,997,000,000 gravitational pull sweeps the solar system clear of debris.

3,996,000,000 Earth slightly smaller than it is today. Still no mountains,

3,995,000,000 only a few volcanoes sticking their heads out of the water.

3,994,000,000 Volcanoes release hydrogen and cyanobacteria produce oxygen

3,993,000,000 making more water on earth.

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3,920,000,000

3,919,000,000

3,918,000,000

3,917,000,000

3,916,000,000

3,915,000,000

3,914,000,000

3,913,000,000

3,912,000,000

3,911,000,000

3,910,000,000

3,909,000,000

3,908,000,000

3,907,000,000

3,906,000,000

3,905,000,000

3,904,000,000

3,903,000,000

3,902,000,000

3,901,000,000 Up until this time the Earth and Moon were massively bombarded

3,900,000,000 (one per hundred years) by planetesimals and large meteorites.

3,899,000,000 Most of the craters still seen on the moon were caused before this time.

3,898,000,000 Erosion erased all of the craters on the earth.

3,897,000,000 Comets continue to seed the earth with bacteria.

3,896,000,000 Cyanobacteria, sulfur bacteria and archaea continue to arrive  on

3,895,000,000 earth by way of comets. Living conditions for cyanobacteria improving.

3,894,000,000 Cyanobacteria can tolerate the extreme damaging effect of solar UV-B

3,893,000,000 by synthesizing a variety of protecting pigments which either

3,892,000,000 screen or prevent the effect of the radiation.

3,891,000,000 Seawater also protects living organisms from UV radiation.

3,890,000,000 Archaea are found living on the surface waters of the sea.

3,889,000,000 Cyanobacteria are floating on a layer just below them.

3,888,000,000 Sulfur bacteria are found living in the oxygen-less mud

3,887,000,000 at the bottom of the sea.

3,886,000,000 Sulfur bacteria take in hydrogen sulfide and expel sulfur.

3,885,000,000 These bacteria cannot thrive in oxygenated environments.

3,884,000,000 Cyanobacteria use the suns energy to take in carbon dioxide

3,883,000,000 and water and expel oxygen. At night cyanobacteria fix nitrogen.

3,882,000,000 Nickel was abundant in the Earth's primordial oceans. Archaea

3,881,000,000 rely on nickel-based enzymes for key metabolic processes to produce methane.

3,880,000,000 Archaea thrive in this environment producing a great amount of

3,878,000,000 the greenhouse gas methane that keeps the earth's atmosphere warm.

3,877,000,000

3,876,000,000 Sulfur is one of the components that make up proteins, vitamins and hormones.

3,875,000,000 Proteins consist of amino acids that contain sulfur. Sulfur is important for

3,874,000,000 the functioning of proteins and enzymes in plants. Animals depend on

3,873,000,000 plants to get sulfur. Sulfur bacteria take in the toxic hydrogen sulfide

3,872,000,000 emitted by volcanoes and release elemental sulfur, carbohydrates, and

3,871,000,000 sulfuric acid, and water.

3,870,000,000 All living organisms found on earth need nitrogen,

3,869,000,000 a basic component of amino acids and proteins.

3,868,000,000 But for atmospheric nitrogen to be usable, it must be

3,867,000,000 "fixed," or converted to a biologically  useful form.

3,866,000,000 Cyanobacteria turn atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia,

3,865,000,000 a form in which the nitrogen can be easily absorbed

3,864,000,000 by other organisms. Amino acids are critical to life,

3,863,000,000 and have a variety of roles in metabolism. They are the

3,862,000,000 building blocks of proteins, which are linear chains of

3,861,000,000 amino acids. Meteorites with an abundance of carbon, called

3,860,000,000 carbonaceous chondrites constantly bring amino acids to Earth.

3,859,000,000 Oxygen is highly corrosive and toxic to all living things

3,858,000,000 in high concentrations. Today animals take in oxygen and

3,857,000,000 and expel carbon dioxide. Animals constantly remove oxygen

3,856,000,000 not allowing it to build into toxic concentrations.

3,855,000,000 At this time, there are no animals to remove oxygen.

3,854,000,000 Oxygen is removed in the sea by rusting iron.

3,853,000,000 Enormous quantities of methane are produced by archaea keeping the

3,852,000,000 planet warm. Cyanobacteria create the planet's oxygen in the oceans.

3,851,000,000 Some of this oxygen escapes into the atmosphere and combines with

3,850,000,000 the methane forming carbon dioxide and water.

3,849,000,000 Sulfur bacteria remove toxic hydrogen sulfide

3,848,000,000 and in the process make water.

3,847,000,000 Methane would cause the earth to be a hot house, except, UV

3,846,000,000 light also breaks down methane, leaving its components free to

3,845,000,000 react with carbon dioxide, forming large organic molecules.

3,844,000,000 100 million kilograms of organic material could have been

3,843,000,000 produced each year as it floated down to

3,842,000,000 the Earth's surface. In addition to serving as a

3,841,000,000 source of organic material (food for microbes), it created a

3,840,000,000 haze layer over the Earth that shielded living organisms from

3,839,000,000 harmful UV rays.

3,838,000,000

3,837,000,000

3,836,000,000

3,835,000,000

3,834,000,000

3,833,000,000

3,832,000,000

3,831,000,000

3,830,000,000

3,829,000,000

3,828,000,000

3,827,000,000

3,826,000,000 Archaea are the dominate life form on earth, They

3,825,000,000 absorb green light for energy and reflect red and blue.

3,824,000,000 The ocean has a purple hue.

3,823,000,000 In the sea cyanobacteria are found floating on a layer beneath

3,822,000,000 the archaea. Cyanobacteria receive little green light and must

3,821,000,000 adapt to the red and blue light they receive for energy.

3,820,000,000

3,819,000,000

3,818,000,000

3,817,000,000

3,816,000,000

3,815,000,000

3,814,000,000

3,813,000,000

3,812,000,000

3,811,000,000

3,810,000,000 The balance of life is tipping in favor of cyanobacteria

3,809,000,000 because the chlorophyll it makes from the red and blue light

3,808,000,000 uses the energy from sun light more efficiently than the

3,807,000,000 retinal made by archaea from green light.

3,806,000,000

3,805,000,000 More oxygen and less methane is being produced.

3,804,000,000 Without oxygen, methane can remain in the atmosphere for

3,803,000,000 thousands of years. In the presence of oxygen, methane is

3,802,000,000 oxidized and removed from the atmosphere. In today's

3,801,000,000 atmosphere, methane can last for about 10 years at most.

3,800,000,000

3,799,000,000 The first banded ironstone began forming in the sea.

3,798,000,000 Volcanoes release iron into the ocean as dissolved

3,797,000,000 ions of iron.

3,796,000,000 At first, without oxygen, the iron had nothing to react with and

3,795,000,000 did not rust. Iron remained in solution as silica minerals were

3,794,000,000 deposited on the ocean's floor. But now, Cyanobacteria are thriving

3,793,000,000 in localities and producing oxygen. The iron in these areas began to rust

3,792,000,000 in the presents of oxygen, forming magnetite and hematite.

3,791,000,000 These iron oxides are insoluble and sink to the bottom of the sea.

3,790,000,000 Rusting iron constantly removed oxygen from the sea. Cyanobacteria

3,789,000,000 and sulfur bacteria thrived in this low oxygen environment. At

3,788,000,000 some point all the iron in the area had combined with the oxygen

3,787,000,000 and settled to the bottom. Without iron rusting, oxygen would increase.

3,786,000,000 Volcanoes would continue to release iron into the sea and remove some

3,785,000,000 of the oxygen, but very little compared to the amount of oxygen being

3,784,000,000 produced by the cyanobacteria. Eventually, the increasing quantity of

3,783,000,000 their waste products (oxygen) would become toxic to the cyanobacteria.

3,782,000,000 At that tipping point, when oxygen became so great they couldn't stand

3,781,000,000 it any longer, a massive die off would occur. Some bacteria survive

3,780,000,000 in sheltered places where there is little or no oxygen.

3,779,000,000 Iron being released into the sea eventually used up all the oxygen in

3,778,000,000 the sea. When the oxygen is used up, iron remains in solution and

3,777,000,000 silica minerals are again being deposited on the ocean's floor. With no

3,776,000,000 oxygen, the surviving bacteria begin to multiply. Cyanobacteria begin

3,775,000,000 to produce oxygen, iron begins to rust, and the multi-million year cycle

3,774,000,000 is repeated over and over again until there is no more iron to be rusted.

3,773,000,000 These life and death cycles did not occur over the entire earth's

3,772,000,000 surface at the same time. Localized areas with different conditions

3,771,000,000 would have their own cycles.

3,770,000,000

3,769,000,000

3,768,000,000

3,767,000,000

3,766,000,000

3,765,000,000

3,764,000,000

3,763,000,000

3,762,000,000

3,761,000,000

3,760,000,000

3,759,000,000

3,758,000,000

3,757,000,000

3,756,000,000

3,755,000,000

3,754,000,000

3,753,000,000

3,752,000,000

3,751,000,000

3,750,000,000

3,749,000,000

3,748,000,000

3,747,000,000

3,746,000,000

3,745,000,000

3,744,000,000

3,743,000,000

3,742,000,000

3,741,000,000

3,740,000,000

3,739,000,000

3,738,000,000

3,737,000,000

3,736,000,000

3,735,000,000

3,734,000,000

3,733,000,000

3,732,000,000

3,731,000,000

3,730,000,000

3,729,000,000

3,728,000,000

3,727,000,000

3,726,000,000

3,725,000,000

3,724,000,000

3,723,000,000

3,722,000,000

3,721,000,000

3,720,000,000

3,719,000,000

3,718,000,000

3,717,000,000

3,716,000,000

3,715,000,000

3,714,000,000

3,713,000,000

3,712,000,000

3,711,000,000

3,710,000,000

3,709,000,000

3,708,000,000

3,707,000,000

3,706,000,000

3,705,000,000

3,704,000,000

3,703,000,000

3,702,000,000

3,701,000,000

3,700,000,000

3,699,000,000

3,698,000,000

3,697,000,000

3,696,000,000

3,695,000,000

3,694,000,000

3,693,000,000

3,692,000,000

3,691,000,000

3,690,000,000

3,689,000,000

3,688,000,000

3,687,000,000

3,686,000,000

3,685,000,000

3,684,000,000

3,683,000,000

3,682,000,000

3,681,000,000

3,680,000,000

3,679,000,000

3,678,000,000

3,677,000,000

3,676,000,000

3,675,000,000

3,674,000,000

3,673,000,000

3,672,000,000

3,671,000,000

3,670,000,000

3,669,000,000

3,668,000,000

3,667,000,000

3,666,000,000

3,665,000,000

3,664,000,000

3,663,000,000

3,662,000,000

3,661,000,000

3,660,000,000

3,659,000,000

3,658,000,000

3,657,000,000

3,656,000,000

3,655,000,000

3,654,000,000

3,653,000,000

3,652,000,000

3,651,000,000

3,650,000,000

3,649,000,000

3,648,000,000

3,647,000,000

3,646,000,000

3,645,000,000

3,644,000,000

3,643,000,000

3,642,000,000

3,641,000,000

3,640,000,000

3,639,000,000

3,638,000,000

3,637,000,000

3,636,000,000

3,635,000,000

3,634,000,000

3,633,000,000

3,632,000,000

3,631,000,000

3,630,000,000

3,629,000,000

3,628,000,000

3,627,000,000

3,626,000,000

3,625,000,000

3,624,000,000

3,623,000,000

3,622,000,000

3,621,000,000

3,620,000,000

3,619,000,000

3,618,000,000

3,617,000,000

3,616,000,000

3,615,000,000

3,614,000,000

3,613,000,000

3,612,000,000

3,611,000,000

3,610,000,000 Both Earth and Mars have been wet and warm for a very long time.

3,609,000,000 Microbes that arrived from space are doing well on both planets.

3,608,000,000 On Mars volcanic activity is coming to an end. With fewer green house

3,607,000,000 gasses being released, the planet cools. With its smaller size, gravity can't

3,606,000,000 hold onto its atmosphere and Mars cools and begins to drys out.

3,605,000,000

3,604,000,000

3,603,000,000 On Earth we have a

3,602,000,000 methane rich atmosphere.

3,601,000,000 Air temperature about 100 degrees.

3,600,000,000 Prokaryotes (Archaea) a tiny one-celled

3,599,000,000 organisms, living in the sea, exploit

3,598,000,000 a great variety of energy sources.

3,597,000,000 They can use sugars, ammonia, metal ions

3,596,000,000 and even hydrogen gas as nutrients and sunlight

3,595,000,000 as a source of energy.

3,594,000,000 They can be found today in the sea,

3,593,000,000 in volcanic hot pools and in your intestines.

3,592,000,000 Archaea in plankton may be one of the most

3,591,000,000 abundant groups of organisms on the planet.

3,590,000,000 They are responsible for the bad smell

3,589,000,000 of flatulence (methane).

3,588,000,000

3,587,000,000 Others believe that cyanobacteria are the

3,586,000,000 most abundant group of organisms on the planet.

3,585,000,000 They can be found everywhere, The green slime in

3,584,000,000 your swimming pool or pond, on your garden soil

3,583,000,000 after too much rain, in the ocean and all bodies

3,582,000,000 of water. They are everywhere, even making up the

3,581,000,000 slippery slime on your teeth.

3,580,000,000

3,579,000,000

3,578,000,000

3,577,000,000

3,576,000,000

3,575,000,000

3,574,000,000

3,573,000,000

3,572,000,000

3,571,000,000

3,570,000,000

3,569,000,000

3,568,000,000

3,567,000,000

3,566,000,000

3,565,000,000

3,564,000,000

3,563,000,000

3,562,000,000

3,561,000,000

3,560,000,000

3,559,000,000

3,558,000,000

3,557,000,000

3,556,000,000

3,555,000,000

3,554,000,000

3,553,000,000

3,552,000,000

3,551,000,000

3,550,000,000

3,549,000,000

3,548,000,000

3,547,000,000

3,546,000,000

3,545,000,000

3,544,000,000

3,543,000,000

3,542,000,000

3,541,000,000

3,540,000,000

3,539,000,000

3,538,000,000

3,537,000,000

3,536,000,000

3,535,000,000

3,534,000,000

3,533,000,000

3,532,000,000

3,531,000,000

3,530,000,000

3,529,000,000

3,528,000,000

3,527,000,000

3,526,000,000

3,525,000,000

3,524,000,000

3,523,000,000

3,522,000,000

3,521,000,000

3,520,000,000

3,519,000,000

3,518,000,000

3,517,000,000

3,516,000,000

3,515,000,000

3,514,000,000

3,513,000,000

3,512,000,000

3,511,000,000

3,510,000,000

3,509,000,000

3,508,000,000

3,507,000,000

3,506,000,000

3,505,000,000

3,504,000,000 Water covers the earth's surface.

3,503,000,000 Plate tectonics have begun to pattern the earth's

3,502,000,000 surface, mountains began to form beneath the sea,

3,501,000,000 some sticking their heads out of the water.

3,500,000,000 microbial remains(stromatolites) found in

3,499,000,000 Western Australia's Pilbara region

3,498,000,000 dated to this time (Stromatolites are layered structures

3,497,000,000 formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding

3,496,000,000 and cementation of sedimentary grains

3,495,000,000 of micro-organisms, especially cyanobacteria. )

3,494,000,000

3,493,000,000

3,492,000,000

3,491,000,000

3,490,000,000

3,489,000,000

3,488,000,000

3,487,000,000

3,486,000,000

3,485,000,000

3,484,000,000

3,483,000,000

3,482,000,000

3,481,000,000

3,480,000,000

3,479,000,000

3,478,000,000

3,477,000,000

3,476,000,000

3,475,000,000

3,474,000,000

3,473,000,000

3,472,000,000

3,471,000,000

3,470,000,000 An asteroid, estimated to be 12 to 30 miles wide, slammed into Earth.

3,469,000,000 The upper ocean boiled into steam killing most of the microbes in

3,468,000,000 the upper ocean. Bacteria in the deep ocean survived. Sulfur bacteria

3,467,000,000 living in the mud under the ocean are now the dominate life

3,466,000,000 form on earth. The impact and the volcanism it caused, increased

3,465,000,000 the release of hydrogen sulfide. The sulfur bacteria metabolized

3,464,000,000 hydrogen sulfide to make more water.

3,463,000,000 CO2 + 2H2S = CH2O + H2O + 2S

3,462,000,000 Carbon dioxide + hydrogen sulfide = sugar + water + sulfur

3,461,000,000 Surviving cyanobacteria and archaea began the long

3,460,000,000 process (one million years) to repopulate.

3,459,000,000 Paleontologist J. William Schopf at the University of California

3,458,000,000 identified eleven different species that resemble cyanobacteria

3,457,000,000 that date to this time.

3,456,000,000

3,455,000,000

3,454,000,000

3,453,000,000

3,452,000,000

3,451,000,000

3,450,000,000

3,449,000,000

3,448,000,000

3,447,000,000

3,446,000,000

3,445,000,000

3,444,000,000

3,443,000,000

3,442,000,000

3,441,000,000

3,440,000,000

3,439,000,000

3,438,000,000

3,437,000,000

3,436,000,000

3,435,000,000

3,434,000,000

3,433,000,000

3,432,000,000

3,431,000,000

3,430,000,000

3,429,000,000

3,428,000,000

3,427,000,000

3,426,000,000

3,425,000,000

3,424,000,000

3,423,000,000

3,422,000,000

3,421,000,000

3,420,000,000

3,419,000,000

3,418,000,000

3,417,000,000

3,416,000,000

3,415,000,000

3,414,000,000

3,413,000,000

3,412,000,000

3,411,000,000

3,410,000,000

3,409,000,000

3,408,000,000

3,407,000,000

3,406,000,000

3,405,000,000

3,404,000,000

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3,402,000,000

3,401,000,000

3,400,000,000

3,399,000,000

3,398,000,000

3,397,000,000

3,396,000,000

3,395,000,000

3,394,000,000

3,393,000,000

3,392,000,000

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3,390,000,000

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3,388,000,000

3,387,000,000

3,386,000,000

3,385,000,000

3,384,000,000

3,383,000,000

3,382,000,000

3,381,000,000

3,380,000,000

3,379,000,000

3,378,000,000

3,377,000,000

3,376,000,000

3,375,000,000

3,374,000,000

3,373,000,000

3,372,000,000

3,371,000,000

3,370,000,000

3,369,000,000

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3,367,000,000

3,366,000,000

3,365,000,000

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3,362,000,000

3,361,000,000

3,360,000,000

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3,357,000,000

3,356,000,000

3,355,000,000

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3,352,000,000

3,351,000,000

3,350,000,000

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3,348,000,000

3,347,000,000

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3,344,000,000

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3,341,000,000

3,340,000,000

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3,336,000,000

3,335,000,000

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3,333,000,000

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3,331,000,000

3,330,000,000

3,329,000,000

3,328,000,000

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3,326,000,000

3,325,000,000

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3,322,000,000

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3,320,000,000

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3,317,000,000

3,316,000,000

3,315,000,000

3,314,000,000

3,313,000,000

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3,311,000,000

3,310,000,000

3,309,000,000

3,308,000,000

3,307,000,000

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3,305,000,000

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3,303,000,000

3,302,000,000

3,301,000,000

3,300,000,000

3,299,000,000

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3,297,000,000

3,296,000,000

3,295,000,000

3,294,000,000

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3,292,000,000

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3,290,000,000

3,289,000,000

3,288,000,000

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3,286,000,000

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3,218,000,000

3,217,000,000

3,216,000,000

3,215,000,000

3,214,000,000

3,213,000,000

3,212,000,000

3,211,000,000

3,210,000,000

3,209,000,000

3,208,000,000

3,207,000,000

3,206,000,000

3,205,000,000

3,204,000,000

3,203,000,000

3,202,000,000

3,201,000,000

3,200,000,000

3,199,000,000

3,198,000,000

3,197,000,000

3,196,000,000

3,195,000,000

3,194,000,000

3,193,000,000

3,192,000,000

3,191,000,000

3,190,000,000

3,189,000,000

3,188,000,000

3,187,000,000

3,186,000,000

3,185,000,000

3,184,000,000

3,183,000,000

3,182,000,000

3,181,000,000

3,180,000,000

3,179,000,000

3,178,000,000

3,177,000,000

3,176,000,000

3,175,000,000

3,174,000,000

3,173,000,000

3,172,000,000

3,171,000,000

3,170,000,000

3,169,000,000

3,168,000,000

3,167,000,000

3,166,000,000

3,165,000,000

3,164,000,000

3,163,000,000

3,162,000,000

3,161,000,000

3,160,000,000

3,159,000,000

3,158,000,000

3,157,000,000

3,156,000,000

3,155,000,000

3,154,000,000

3,153,000,000

3,152,000,000

3,151,000,000

3,150,000,000

3,149,000,000

3,148,000,000

3,147,000,000

3,146,000,000

3,145,000,000

3,144,000,000

3,143,000,000

3,142,000,000

3,141,000,000

3,140,000,000

3,139,000,000

3,138,000,000

3,137,000,000

3,136,000,000

3,135,000,000

3,134,000,000

3,133,000,000

3,132,000,000

3,131,000,000

3,130,000,000

3,129,000,000

3,128,000,000

3,127,000,000

3,126,000,000

3,125,000,000

3,124,000,000

3,123,000,000

3,122,000,000

3,121,000,000

3,120,000,000

3,119,000,000

3,118,000,000

3,117,000,000

3,116,000,000

3,115,000,000

3,114,000,000

3,113,000,000

3,112,000,000

3,111,000,000

3,110,000,000

3,109,000,000

3,108,000,000

3,107,000,000

3,106,000,000

3,105,000,000

3,104,000,000

3,103,000,000

3,102,000,000

3,101,000,000

3,100,000,000

3,099,000,000

3,098,000,000

3,097,000,000

3,096,000,000

3,095,000,000

3,094,000,000

3,093,000,000

3,092,000,000

3,091,000,000

3,090,000,000

3,089,000,000

3,088,000,000

3,087,000,000

3,086,000,000

3,085,000,000

3,084,000,000

3,083,000,000

3,082,000,000

3,081,000,000

3,080,000,000

3,079,000,000

3,078,000,000

3,077,000,000

3,076,000,000

3,075,000,000

3,074,000,000

3,073,000,000

3,072,000,000

3,071,000,000

3,070,000,000

3,069,000,000

3,068,000,000

3,067,000,000

3,066,000,000

3,065,000,000

3,064,000,000

3,063,000,000

3,062,000,000

3,061,000,000

3,060,000,000

3,059,000,000

3,058,000,000

3,057,000,000

3,056,000,000

3,055,000,000

3,054,000,000

3,053,000,000

3,052,000,000

3,051,000,000

3,050,000,000

3,049,000,000

3,048,000,000

3,047,000,000

3,046,000,000

3,045,000,000

3,044,000,000

3,043,000,000

3,042,000,000

3,041,000,000

3,040,000,000

3,039,000,000

3,038,000,000

3,037,000,000

3,036,000,000

3,035,000,000

3,034,000,000

3,033,000,000

3,032,000,000

3,031,000,000

3,030,000,000

3,029,000,000

3,028,000,000

3,027,000,000

3,026,000,000

3,025,000,000

3,024,000,000

3,023,000,000

3,022,000,000

3,021,000,000

3,020,000,000

3,019,000,000

3,018,000,000

3,017,000,000

3,016,000,000

3,015,000,000

3,014,000,000

3,013,000,000

3,012,000,000

3,011,000,000

3,010,000,000

3,009,000,000

3,008,000,000

3,007,000,000

3,006,000,000

3,005,000,000

3,004,000,000

3,003,000,000 Small micro pieces of land sticking out above the water

3,002,000,000 came together to form a very small continent called Ur.

3,001,000,000 Small pieces of this continent can be found in current

3,000,000,000 day Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica.

2,999,000,000

2,998,000,000 Cyanobacteria  (blue-green algae or pond scum)

2,997,000,000 have been the prevailing life form for

2,996,000,000 the past billion years and will continue

2,995,000,000 to be for the next billion years.

2,994,000,000 Cyanobacteria can convert carbon dioxide and water

2,993,000,000 into sugars and oxygen.

2,992,000,000 The air temperature is about 100 degrees.

2,991,000,000 Banded iron continues to be made.

2,990,000,000 Microbes have made significant changes in the earth's

2,989,000,000 environment and the microbes themselves have diversified

2,988,000,000 to become more sophisticated and better adapted to their

2,987,000,000 changing environment. Each domain (bacteria and archaea)

2,986,000,000 split into multiple lineage to assume different roles  

2,985,000,000 (division of labor).

2,984,000,000

2,983,000,000

2,982,000,000

2,981,000,000

2,980,000,000

2,979,000,000

2,978,000,000

2,977,000,000

2,976,000,000

2,975,000,000

2,974,000,000

2,973,000,000

2,972,000,000

2,971,000,000

2,970,000,000

2,969,000,000

2,968,000,000

2,967,000,000

2,966,000,000

2,965,000,000

2,964,000,000

2,963,000,000

2,962,000,000

2,961,000,000

2,960,000,000

2,959,000,000

2,958,000,000

2,957,000,000

2,956,000,000

2,955,000,000

2,954,000,000

2,953,000,000

2,952,000,000

2,951,000,000

2,950,000,000

2,949,000,000

2,948,000,000

2,947,000,000

2,946,000,000

2,945,000,000

2,944,000,000

2,943,000,000

2,942,000,000

2,941,000,000

2,940,000,000

2,939,000,000

2,938,000,000

2,937,000,000

2,936,000,000

2,935,000,000

2,934,000,000

2,933,000,000

2,932,000,000

2,931,000,000

2,930,000,000

2,929,000,000

2,928,000,000

2,927,000,000

2,926,000,000

2,925,000,000

2,924,000,000

2,923,000,000

2,922,000,000

2,921,000,000

2,920,000,000

2,919,000,000

2,918,000,000

2,917,000,000

2,916,000,000

2,915,000,000

2,914,000,000

2,913,000,000

2,912,000,000

2,911,000,000

2,910,000,000

2,909,000,000

2,908,000,000

2,907,000,000

2,906,000,000

2,905,000,000

2,904,000,000

2,903,000,000 

2,902,000,000

2,901,000,000

2,900,000,000 Periods of glaciation  (polar ice caps) have occurred

2,899,000,000 as a consequence of variations in green house gases.

2,898,000,000

2,897,000,000

2,896,000,000

2,895,000,000

2,894,000,000

2,893,000,000

2,892,000,000

2,891,000,000

2,890,000,000

2,889,000,000

2,888,000,000

2,887,000,000

2,886,000,000

2,885,000,000

2,884,000,000

2,883,000,000

2,882,000,000

2,881,000,000

2,880,000,000

2,879,000,000

2,878,000,000

2,877,000,000

2,876,000,000

2,875,000,000

2,874,000,000

2,873,000,000

2,872,000,000

2,871,000,000

2,870,000,000

2,869,000,000

2,868,000,000

2,867,000,000

2,866,000,000

2,865,000,000

2,864,000,000

2,863,000,000

2,862,000,000

2,861,000,000

2,860,000,000

2,859,000,000

2,858,000,000

2,857,000,000

2,856,000,000

2,855,000,000

2,854,000,000

2,853,000,000

2,852,000,000

2,851,000,000

2,850,000,000

2,849,000,000

2,848,000,000

2,847,000,000

2,846,000,000

2,845,000,000

2,844,000,000

2,843,000,000

2,842,000,000

2,841,000,000

2,840,000,000

2,839,000,000

2,838,000,000

2,837,000,000

2,836,000,000

2,835,000,000

2,834,000,000

2,833,000,000

2,832,000,000

2,831,000,000

2,830,000,000

2,829,000,000

2,828,000,000

2,827,000,000

2,826,000,000

2,825,000,000

2,824,000,000

2,823,000,000

2,822,000,000

2,821,000,000

2,820,000,000

2,819,000,000

2,818,000,000

2,817,000,000

2,816,000,000

2,815,000,000

2,814,000,000

2,813,000,000

2,812,000,000

2,811,000,000

2,810,000,000

2,809,000,000

2,808,000,000

2,807,000,000

2,806,000,000

2,805,000,000

2,804,000,000

2,803,000,000

2,802,000,000

2,801,000,000

2,800,000,000

2,799,000,000

2,798,000,000

2,797,000,000

2,796,000,000

2,795,000,000

2,794,000,000

2,793,000,000

2,792,000,000

2,791,000,000

2,790,000,000

2,789,000,000

2,788,000,000

2,787,000,000

2,786,000,000

2,785,000,000

2,784,000,000

2,783,000,000

2,782,000,000

2,781,000,000

2,780,000,000

2,779,000,000

2,778,000,000

2,777,000,000

2,776,000,000

2,775,000,000

2,774,000,000

2,773,000,000

2,772,000,000

2,771,000,000

2,770,000,000

2,769,000,000

2,768,000,000

2,767,000,000

2,766,000,000

2,765,000,000

2,764,000,000

2,763,000,000

2,762,000,000

2,761,000,000

2,760,000,000

2,759,000,000

2,758,000,000

2,757,000,000

2,756,000,000

2,755,000,000

2,754,000,000

2,753,000,000

2,752,000,000

2,751,000,000

2,750,000,000

2,749,000,000

2,748,000,000

2,747,000,000

2,746,000,000

2,745,000,000

2,744,000,000

2,743,000,000

2,742,000,000

2,741,000,000

2,740,000,000

2,739,000,000

2,738,000,000

2,737,000,000

2,736,000,000

2,735,000,000

2,734,000,000

2,733,000,000

2,732,000,000

2,731,000,000

2,730,000,000

2,729,000,000

2,728,000,000

2,727,000,000

2,726,000,000

2,725,000,000

2,724,000,000

2,723,000,000

2,722,000,000

2,721,000,000

2,720,000,000 Microbes (archaea, cyanobacteria) are adapting to living with oxygen.

2,719,000,000

2,718,000,000 The amount of dissolved nickel in the sea is declining. Nickel is a

2,717,000,000 key ingredient in an enzyme archaea need to make methane. Methane

2,716,000,000 production by archaea is declining.

2,715,000,000

2,714,000,000

2,713,000,000

2,712,000,000

2,711,000,000

2,710,000,000

2,709,000,000

2,708,000,000

2,707,000,000

2,706,000,000

2,705,000,000

2,704,000,000

2,703,000,000

2,702,000,000

2,701,000,000

2,700,000,000

2,699,000,000

2,698,000,000

2,697,000,000

2,696,000,000

2,695,000,000

2,694,000,000

2,693,000,000

2,692,000,000

2,691,000,000

2,690,000,000

2,689,000,000

2,688,000,000

2,687,000,000

2,686,000,000

2,685,000,000

2,684,000,000

2,683,000,000

2,682,000,000

2,681,000,000

2,680,000,000

2,679,000,000

2,678,000,000

2,677,000,000

2,676,000,000

2,675,000,000

2,674,000,000

2,673,000,000

2,672,000,000

2,671,000,000

2,670,000,000

2,669,000,000

2,668,000,000

2,667,000,000

2,666,000,000

2,665,000,000

2,664,000,000

2,663,000,000

2,662,000,000

2,661,000,000

2,660,000,000

2,659,000,000

2,658,000,000

2,657,000,000

2,656,000,000

2,655,000,000

2,654,000,000

2,653,000,000

2,652,000,000

2,651,000,000

2,650,000,000

2,649,000,000

2,648,000,000

2,647,000,000

2,646,000,000

2,645,000,000

2,644,000,000

2,643,000,000

2,642,000,000

2,641,000,000

2,640,000,000

2,639,000,000

2,638,000,000

2,637,000,000

2,636,000,000

2,635,000,000

2,634,000,000

2,633,000,000

2,632,000,000

2,631,000,000

2,630,000,000

2,629,000,000

2,628,000,000

2,627,000,000

2,626,000,000

2,625,000,000

2,624,000,000

2,623,000,000

2,622,000,000

2,621,000,000

2,620,000,000

2,619,000,000

2,618,000,000

2,617,000,000

2,616,000,000

2,615,000,000

2,614,000,000

2,613,000,000

2,612,000,000

2,611,000,000

2,610,000,000

2,609,000,000

2,608,000,000

2,607,000,000

2,606,000,000

2,605,000,000

2,604,000,000

2,603,000,000

2,602,000,000

2,601,000,000

2,600,000,000

2,599,000,000

2,598,000,000

2,597,000,000

2,596,000,000

2,595,000,000

2,594,000,000

2,593,000,000

2,592,000,000

2,591,000,000

2,590,000,000

2,589,000,000

2,588,000,000

2,587,000,000

2,586,000,000

2,585,000,000

2,584,000,000

2,583,000,000

2,582,000,000

2,581,000,000

2,580,000,000

2,579,000,000

2,578,000,000

2,577,000,000

2,576,000,000

2,575,000,000

2,574,000,000

2,573,000,000

2,572,000,000

2,571,000,000

2,570,000,000

2,569,000,000

2,568,000,000

2,567,000,000

2,566,000,000

2,565,000,000

2,564,000,000

2,563,000,000

2,562,000,000

2,561,000,000

2,560,000,000

2,559,000,000

2,558,000,000

2,557,000,000

2,556,000,000

2,555,000,000

2,554,000,000

2,553,000,000

2,552,000,000

2,551,000,000

2,550,000,000

2,549,000,000

2,548,000,000

2,547,000,000

2,546,000,000

2,545,000,000

2,544,000,000

2,543,000,000

2,542,000,000

2,541,000,000

2,540,000,000

2,539,000,000

2,538,000,000

2,537,000,000

2,536,000,000

2,535,000,000

2,534,000,000

2,533,000,000

2,532,000,000

2,531,000,000

2,530,000,000

2,529,000,000

2,528,000,000

2,527,000,000

2,526,000,000

2,525,000,000

2,524,000,000

2,523,000,000

2,522,000,000

2,521,000,000

2,520,000,000

2,519,000,000

2,518,000,000

2,517,000,000

2,516,000,000

2,515,000,000

2,514,000,000

2,513,000,000

2,512,000,000 Formation of banded ironstone continue. Cyanobacteria

2,511,000,000 continue to have a good living in the sea for millions

2,510,000,000 of years, followed by millions of bad years. Some

2,509,000,000 of their waste products, oxygen, can be found in the

2,508,000,000 atmosphere, where there is a small (<1%) but significant

2,507,000,000 amount of oxygen in the atmosphere.

2,506,000,000

2,505,000,000 90% of the earth's surface is covered with water.

2,504,000,000

2,503,000,000 The amount of dissolved nickel in the ocean is half of what

2,502,000,000 it used to be. Lower levels of nickel severely cut back the

2,501,000,000 methane production of archaea. Oxygen and methane combine in the

2,500,000,000 atmosphere reducing the amount of both. Oxygen reacted with the

2,499,000,000 methane to produce carbon dioxide and water.  As atmospheric

2,498,000,000 methane declined and cyanobacteria continued to make oxygen,

2,497,000,000 conditions for the rise of oxygen have been set in place.

2,496,000,000 Plate tectonics pushing mountains above the sea.

2,495,000,000 Cracks in the earth's surface forming deep water.

2,494,000,000 More land forming above the sea. Stabilized continental

2,493,000,000 land masses arose and terrestrial volcanoes appeared.

2,492,000,000 Cyanobacteria are adapting to living with oxygen.

2,491,000,000

2,490,000,000

2,489,000,000

2,488,000,000

2,487,000,000

2,486,000,000

2,485,000,000

2,484,000,000

2,483,000,000

2,482,000,000

2,481,000,000

2,480,000,000

2,479,000,000

2,478,000,000

2,477,000,000

2,476,000,000

2,475,000,000

2,474,000,000

2,473,000,000

2,472,000,000

2,471,000,000

2,470,000,000

2,469,000,000

2,468,000,000

2,467,000,000

2,466,000,000

2,465,000,000

2,464,000,000

2,463,000,000

2,462,000,000

2,461,000,000

2,460,000,000

2,459,000,000

2,458,000,000

2,457,000,000

2,456,000,000

2,455,000,000

2,454,000,000

2,453,000,000

2,452,000,000

2,451,000,000

2,450,000,000

2,449,000,000

2,448,000,000

2,447,000,000

2,446,000,000

2,445,000,000

2,444,000,000

2,443,000,000

2,442,000,000

2,441,000,000

2,440,000,000

2,439,000,000

2,438,000,000

2,437,000,000

2,436,000,000

2,435,000,000

2,434,000,000

2,433,000,000

2,432,000,000

2,431,000,000

2,430,000,000

2,429,000,000

2,428,000,000

2,427,000,000

2,426,000,000

2,425,000,000

2,424,000,000

2,423,000,000

2,422,000,000

2,421,000,000

2,420,000,000

2,419,000,000

2,418,000,000

2,417,000,000

2,416,000,000

2,415,000,000

2,414,000,000

2,413,000,000

2,412,000,000

2,411,000,000 The nuclear fires that burn inside the earth's core do

2,410,000,000 not burn at a constant rate. 2.4 billion years ago a

2,409,000,000 lull in the reactor's fire also caused a lull in volcanic

2,408,000,000 activity on the earth's surface. With no new carbon

2,407,000,000 dioxide being spewed from volcanoes, its concentration

2,406,000,000 in the atmosphere declined, leading to global

2,405,000,000 cooling. With the decline in volcanic activity, no iron

2,404,000,000 was being released. Without iron rusting, the seas gave up

2,403,000,000 there oxygen. The oxygen in the atmosphere combined with the

2,402,000,000 methane, causing further reduction in green house gases.

2,401,000,000 Ice could be found nearly to the equator. There were several,

2,400,000,000 million year, cycles of glaciation between 2.45 and 2.2

2,399,000,000 billion years ago, then non for over a billion years.

2,398,000,000

2,397,000,000

2,396,000,000

2,395,000,000

2,394,000,000 The rise in atmospheric oxygen also caused the

2,393,000,000 increase in sulfide minerals on land to break

2,392,000,000 down into sulfates and wash into the oceans

2,391,000,000 where sulfur bacteria gobbled them up.

2,390,000,000

2,389,000,000

2,388,000,000

2,387,000,000

2,386,000,000

2,385,000,000

2,384,000,000

2,383,000,000

2,382,000,000

2,381,000,000

2,380,000,000

2,379,000,000

2,378,000,000

2,377,000,000

2,376,000,000

2,375,000,000

2,374,000,000

2,373,000,000

2,372,000,000

2,371,000,000

2,370,000,000

2,369,000,000

2,368,000,000

2,367,000,000

2,366,000,000

2,365,000,000

2,364,000,000

2,363,000,000

2,362,000,000

2,361,000,000

2,360,000,000

2,359,000,000

2,358,000,000

2,357,000,000

2,356,000,000

2,355,000,000

2,354,000,000

2,353,000,000

2,352,000,000

2,351,000,000

2,350,000,000

2,349,000,000

2,348,000,000

2,347,000,000

2,346,000,000

2,345,000,000

2,344,000,000

2,343,000,000

2,342,000,000

2,341,000,000

2,340,000,000

2,339,000,000

2,338,000,000

2,337,000,000

2,336,000,000

2,335,000,000

2,334,000,000

2,333,000,000

2,332,000,000

2,331,000,000

2,330,000,000

2,329,000,000

2,328,000,000

2,327,000,000

2,326,000,000

2,325,000,000

2,324,000,000

2,323,000,000

2,322,000,000

2,321,000,000

2,320,000,000

2,319,000,000

2,318,000,000

2,317,000,000

2,316,000,000

2,315,000,000

2,314,000,000

2,313,000,000

2,312,000,000

2,311,000,000

2,310,000,000

2,309,000,000

2,308,000,000

2,307,000,000

2,306,000,000

2,305,000,000

2,304,000,000

2,303,000,000

2,302,000,000

2,301,000,000

2,300,000,000

2,299,000,000

2,298,000,000

2,297,000,000

2,296,000,000

2,295,000,000

2,294,000,000

2,293,000,000

2,292,000,000

2,291,000,000

2,290,000,000

2,289,000,000

2,288,000,000

2,287,000,000

2,286,000,000

2,285,000,000

2,284,000,000

2,283,000,000

2,282,000,000

2,281,000,000

2,280,000,000

2,279,000,000

2,278,000,000

2,277,000,000

2,276,000,000

2,275,000,000

2,274,000,000

2,273,000,000

2,272,000,000

2,271,000,000

2,270,000,000

2,269,000,000

2,268,000,000

2,267,000,000

2,266,000,000

2,265,000,000

2,264,000,000

2,263,000,000

2,262,000,000

2,261,000,000

2,260,000,000

2,259,000,000

2,258,000,000

2,257,000,000

2,256,000,000

2,255,000,000

2,254,000,000

2,253,000,000

2,252,000,000

2,251,000,000

2,250,000,000

2,249,000,000

2,248,000,000

2,247,000,000

2,246,000,000

2,245,000,000

2,244,000,000

2,243,000,000

2,242,000,000

2,241,000,000

2,240,000,000

2,239,000,000

2,238,000,000

2,237,000,000

2,236,000,000

2,235,000,000

2,234,000,000

2,233,000,000

2,232,000,000

2,231,000,000

2,230,000,000

2,229,000,000

2,228,000,000

2,227,000,000

2,226,000,000

2,225,000,000

2,224,000,000

2,223,000,000

2,222,000,000

2,221,000,000

2,220,000,000

2,219,000,000

2,218,000,000

2,217,000,000

2,216,000,000

2,215,000,000

2,214,000,000

2,213,000,000

2,212,000,000

2,211,000,000

2,210,000,000

2,209,000,000

2,208,000,000

2,207,000,000

2,206,000,000

2,205,000,000

2,204,000,000

2,203,000,000

2,202,000,000

2,201,000,000

2,200,000,000

2,199,000,000

2,198,000,000

2,197,000,000

2,196,000,000

2,195,000,000

2,194,000,000

2,193,000,000

2,192,000,000

2,191,000,000

2,190,000,000

2,189,000,000

2,188,000,000

2,187,000,000

2,186,000,000

2,185,000,000

2,184,000,000

2,183,000,000

2,182,000,000

2,181,000,000

2,180,000,000

2,179,000,000

2,178,000,000

2,177,000,000

2,176,000,000

2,175,000,000

2,174,000,000

2,173,000,000

2,172,000,000

2,171,000,000

2,170,000,000

2,169,000,000

2,168,000,000

2,167,000,000

2,166,000,000

2,165,000,000

2,164,000,000

2,163,000,000

2,162,000,000

2,161,000,000

2,160,000,000

2,159,000,000

2,158,000,000

2,157,000,000

2,156,000,000

2,155,000,000

2,154,000,000

2,153,000,000

2,152,000,000

2,151,000,000

2,150,000,000

2,149,000,000

2,148,000,000

2,147,000,000

2,146,000,000

2,145,000,000

2,144,000,000

2,143,000,000

2,142,000,000

2,141,000,000

2,140,000,000

2,139,000,000

2,138,000,000

2,137,000,000

2,136,000,000

2,135,000,000

2,134,000,000

2,133,000,000

2,132,000,000

2,131,000,000

2,130,000,000

2,129,000,000

2,128,000,000

2,127,000,000

2,126,000,000

2,125,000,000

2,124,000,000

2,123,000,000

2,122,000,000

2,121,000,000

2,120,000,000

2,119,000,000

2,118,000,000

2,117,000,000

2,116,000,000

2,115,000,000

2,114,000,000

2,113,000,000

2,112,000,000

2,111,000,000

2,110,000,000

2,109,000,000

2,108,000,000

2,107,000,000

2,106,000,000

2,105,000,000

2,104,000,000

2,103,000,000

2,102,000,000

2,101,000,000

2,100,000,000

2,099,000,000

2,098,000,000

2,097,000,000

2,096,000,000

2,095,000,000

2,094,000,000

2,093,000,000

2,092,000,000

2,091,000,000

2,090,000,000

2,089,000,000

2,088,000,000

2,087,000,000

2,086,000,000

2,085,000,000

2,084,000,000

2,083,000,000

2,082,000,000

2,081,000,000

2,080,000,000

2,079,000,000

2,078,000,000

2,077,000,000

2,076,000,000

2,075,000,000

2,074,000,000

2,073,000,000

2,072,000,000

2,071,000,000

2,070,000,000

2,069,000,000

2,068,000,000

2,067,000,000

2,066,000,000

2,065,000,000

2,064,000,000

2,063,000,000

2,062,000,000

2,061,000,000

2,060,000,000

2,059,000,000

2,058,000,000

2,057,000,000

2,056,000,000

2,055,000,000

2,054,000,000

2,053,000,000

2,052,000,000

2,051,000,000

2,050,000,000

2,049,000,000

2,048,000,000

2,047,000,000

2,046,000,000

2,045,000,000

2,044,000,000

2,043,000,000

2,042,000,000

2,041,000,000

2,040,000,000

2,039,000,000

2,038,000,000

2,037,000,000

2,036,000,000

2,035,000,000

2,034,000,000

2,033,000,000

2,032,000,000

2,031,000,000

2,030,000,000

2,029,000,000

2,028,000,000

2,027,000,000

2,026,000,000

2,025,000,000

2,024,000,000

2,023,000,000

2,022,000,000

2,021,000,000

2,020,000,000

2,019,000,000

2,018,000,000

2,017,000,000

2,016,000,000

2,015,000,000

2,014,000,000

2,013,000,000

2,012,000,000

2,011,000,000

2,010,000,000

2,009,000,000 Nitrogen fixing, ammonia producing cyanobacteria permitted

2,008,000,000 the evolution of more advanced, oxygen-breathing organisms.

2,007,000,000 First Kakabekia, a microscopic, ammonia consuming,

2,006,000,000  photosynthetic bacterium that release oxygen.

2,005,000,000 They are umbrella shaped with clubbed stalk. 

2,004,000,000

2,003,000,000

2,002,000,000

2,001,000,000

2,000,000,000 A 10km diameter meteorite hits near what is

1,999,000,000 now Johannesburg at Vredefort.

1,998,000,000

1,997,000,000 The earth takes 800 days to circle the sun (1 year).

1,996,000,000 One earth day (day + night) is about 11 hours.

1,995,000,000 Cyanobacteria (common pond scum) and kakabekia

1,994,000,000 add significant amounts of oxygen to the sea

1,993,000,000 water. Larger quantities of oxygen escape 

1,992,000,000 into the atmosphere.

1,991,000,000

1,990,000,000

1,989,000,000

1,988,000,000

1,987,000,000

1,986,000,000

1,985,000,000

1,984,000,000

1,983,000,000

1,982,000,000

1,981,000,000

1,980,000,000

1,979,000,000

1,978,000,000

1,977,000,000

1,976,000,000

1,975,000,000

1,974,000,000

1,973,000,000

1,972,000,000

1,971,000,000

1,970,000,000

1,969,000,000

1,968,000,000

1,967,000,000

1,966,000,000

1,965,000,000

1,964,000,000

1,963,000,000

1,962,000,000

1,961,000,000

1,960,000,000

1,959,000,000

1,958,000,000

1,957,000,000

1,956,000,000

1,955,000,000

1,954,000,000

1,953,000,000

1,952,000,000

1,951,000,000

1,950,000,000

1,949,000,000

1,948,000,000

1,947,000,000

1,946,000,000

1,945,000,000

1,944,000,000

1,943,000,000

1,942,000,000

1,941,000,000

1,940,000,000

1,939,000,000

1,938,000,000

1,937,000,000

1,936,000,000

1,935,000,000

1,934,000,000

1,933,000,000

1,932,000,000

1,931,000,000

1,930,000,000

1,929,000,000

1,928,000,000

1,927,000,000

1,926,000,000

1,925,000,000

1,924,000,000

1,923,000,000

1,922,000,000

1,921,000,000

1,920,000,000

1,919,000,000

1,918,000,000

1,917,000,000

1,916,000,000

1,915,000,000

1,914,000,000

1,913,000,000

1,912,000,000

1,911,000,000

1,910,000,000

1,909,000,000

1,908,000,000

1,907,000,000

1,906,000,000

1,905,000,000

1,904,000,000

1,903,000,000

1,902,000,000

1,901,000,000

1,900,000,000

1,899,000,000

1,898,000,000

1,897,000,000

1,896,000,000

1,895,000,000

1,894,000,000

1,893,000,000

1,892,000,000

1,891,000,000

1,890,000,000

1,889,000,000

1,888,000,000

1,887,000,000

1,886,000,000

1,885,000,000

1,884,000,000

1,883,000,000

1,882,000,000

1,881,000,000

1,880,000,000

1,879,000,000

1,878,000,000

1,877,000,000

1,876,000,000

1,875,000,000

1,874,000,000

1,873,000,000

1,872,000,000

1,871,000,000

1,870,000,000

1,869,000,000

1,868,000,000

1,867,000,000

1,866,000,000

1,865,000,000

1,864,000,000

1,863,000,000

1,862,000,000

1,861,000,000

1,860,000,000

1,859,000,000

1,858,000,000

1,857,000,000

1,856,000,000

1,855,000,000

1,854,000,000

1,853,000,000

1,852,000,000

1,851,000,000

1,850,000,000 The Sudbury impact, an asteroid about 10 kilometers across hit in the ocean

1,849,000,000

1,848,000,000

1,847,000,000

1,846,000,000

1,845,000,000

1,844,000,000

1,843,000,000

1,842,000,000

1,841,000,000

1,840,000,000

1,839,000,000

1,838,000,000

1,837,000,000

1,836,000,000

1,835,000,000

1,834,000,000

1,833,000,000

1,832,000,000

1,831,000,000

1,830,000,000

1,829,000,000

1,828,000,000

1,827,000,000

1,826,000,000

1,825,000,000

1,824,000,000

1,823,000,000

1,822,000,000

1,821,000,000

1,820,000,000

1,819,000,000

1,818,000,000

1,817,000,000

1,816,000,000

1,815,000,000

1,814,000,000

1,813,000,000

1,812,000,000

1,811,000,000

1,810,000,000 The sea continues to give up some of its oxygen produced by

1,809,000,000 cyanobacteria. Atmospheric oxygen levels were becoming stable

1,808,000,000 and oxygen was greater than 3% and rising.

1,807,000,000 Protists, a single-celled organism blind, brainless, size of a grape,

1,806,000,000 living in the sea, covered with mud and travels  by rolling; trails

1,805,000,000 found dated to this time. They travel about

1,804,000,000 one centimeter a week.

1,803,000,000 Columbia, a supercontinent has formed. (Also called NENA)

1,802,000,000

1,801,000,000 Cyanobacteria were still generating oxygen in the uppermost

1,800,000,000 layer of the oceans, but a toxic layer was forming beneath.

1,799,000,000 Sulfur compounds were being washed into oceans by the weathering of

1,798,000,000 the continents. This sulfur was consumed by sulfur bacteria,

1,797,000,000 increasing their populations. When they died, their decomposition

1,796,000,000 caused the removal of oxygen from the water and as a result:

1,795,000,000 less oxygen escape into the atmosphere. The rise of atmospheric

1,794,000,000 oxygen has slowed and will be slow for the next billion years

1,793,000,000 because it will take sulfur bacteria that long to remove the

1,792,000,000 sulfide in the ocean.

1,791,000,000

1,790,000,000

1,789,000,000

1,788,000,000

1,787,000,000

1,786,000,000

1,785,000,000

1,784,000,000

1,783,000,000

1,782,000,000

1,781,000,000

1,780,000,000

1,779,000,000

1,778,000,000

1,777,000,000

1,776,000,000

1,775,000,000

1,774,000,000

1,773,000,000

1,772,000,000

1,771,000,000

1,770,000,000

1,769,000,000

1,768,000,000

1,767,000,000

1,766,000,000

1,765,000,000

1,764,000,000

1,763,000,000

1,762,000,000

1,761,000,000

1,760,000,000

1,759,000,000

1,758,000,000

1,757,000,000

1,756,000,000

1,755,000,000

1,754,000,000

1,753,000,000

1,752,000,000

1,751,000,000

1,750,000,000

1,749,000,000

1,748,000,000

1,747,000,000

1,746,000,000

1,745,000,000

1,744,000,000

1,743,000,000

1,742,000,000

1,741,000,000

1,740,000,000

1,739,000,000

1,738,000,000

1,737,000,000

1,736,000,000

1,735,000,000

1,734,000,000

1,733,000,000

1,732,000,000

1,731,000,000

1,730,000,000

1,729,000,000

1,728,000,000

1,727,000,000

1,726,000,000

1,725,000,000

1,724,000,000

1,723,000,000

1,722,000,000

1,721,000,000

1,720,000,000

1,719,000,000

1,718,000,000

1,717,000,000

1,716,000,000

1,715,000,000

1,714,000,000

1,713,000,000

1,712,000,000

1,711,000,000

1,710,000,000

1,709,000,000

1,708,000,000

1,707,000,000

1,706,000,000

1,705,000,000

1,704,000,000

1,703,000,000

1,702,000,000

1,701,000,000                                             On the earth's surface

1,700,000,000  fission on earth's surface      16 uranium deposits form

1,699,000,000                                             natural fission reactors

1,698,000,000                                             in Gabon, Africa. The nuclear

1,697,000,000                                             fires lasted 1 million years.

1,696,000,000

1,695,000,000

1,694,000,000

1,693,000,000

1,692,000,000

1,691,000,000

1,690,000,000

1,689,000,000

1,688,000,000

1,687,000,000

1,686,000,000

1,685,000,000

1,684,000,000

1,683,000,000

1,682,000,000

1,681,000,000

1,680,000,000

1,679,000,000

1,678,000,000

1,677,000,000

1,676,000,000

1,675,000,000

1,674,000,000

1,673,000,000

1,672,000,000

1,671,000,000

1,670,000,000

1,669,000,000

1,668,000,000

1,667,000,000

1,666,000,000

1,665,000,000

1,664,000,000

1,663,000,000

1,662,000,000

1,661,000,000

1,660,000,000

1,659,000,000

1,658,000,000

1,657,000,000

1,656,000,000

1,655,000,000

1,654,000,000

1,653,000,000

1,652,000,000

1,651,000,000

1,650,000,000

1,649,000,000

1,648,000,000

1,647,000,000

1,646,000,000

1,645,000,000

1,644,000,000

1,643,000,000

1,642,000,000

1,641,000,000

1,640,000,000

1,639,000,000

1,638,000,000

1,637,000,000

1,636,000,000

1,635,000,000

1,634,000,000

1,633,000,000

1,632,000,000

1,631,000,000

1,630,000,000

1,629,000,000

1,628,000,000

1,627,000,000

1,626,000,000

1,625,000,000

1,624,000,000

1,623,000,000

1,622,000,000

1,621,000,000

1,620,000,000

1,619,000,000

1,618,000,000

1,617,000,000

1,616,000,000

1,615,000,000

1,614,000,000

1,613,000,000

1,612,000,000

1,611,000,000

1,610,000,000

1,609,000,000

1,608,000,000

1,607,000,000

1,606,000,000

1,605,000,000

1,604,000,000

1,603,000,000

1,602,000,000

1,601,000,000

1,600,000,000 90 percent of banded iron formations have been deposited.

1,599,000,000

1,598,000,000

1,597,000,000

1,596,000,000

1,595,000,000

1,594,000,000

1,593,000,000

1,592,000,000

1,591,000,000

1,590,000,000

1,589,000,000

1,588,000,000

1,587,000,000

1,586,000,000

1,585,000,000

1,584,000,000

1,583,000,000

1,582,000,000

1,581,000,000

1,580,000,000

1,579,000,000

1,578,000,000

1,577,000,000

1,576,000,000

1,575,000,000

1,574,000,000

1,573,000,000

1,572,000,000

1,571,000,000

1,570,000,000

1,569,000,000

1,568,000,000

1,567,000,000

1,566,000,000

1,565,000,000

1,564,000,000

1,563,000,000

1,562,000,000

1,561,000,000

1,560,000,000

1,559,000,000

1,558,000,000

1,557,000,000

1,556,000,000

1,555,000,000

1,554,000,000

1,553,000,000

1,552,000,000

1,551,000,000

1,550,000,000

1,549,000,000

1,548,000,000

1,547,000,000

1,546,000,000

1,545,000,000

1,544,000,000

1,543,000,000

1,542,000,000

1,541,000,000

1,540,000,000

1,539,000,000

1,538,000,000

1,537,000,000

1,536,000,000

1,535,000,000

1,534,000,000

1,533,000,000

1,532,000,000

1,531,000,000

1,530,000,000

1,529,000,000

1,528,000,000

1,527,000,000

1,526,000,000

1,525,000,000

1,524,000,000

1,523,000,000

1,522,000,000

1,521,000,000

1,520,000,000

1,519,000,000

1,518,000,000

1,517,000,000

1,516,000,000

1,515,000,000

1,514,000,000

1,513,000,000

1,512,000,000

1,511,000,000

1,510,000,000

1,509,000,000

1,508,000,000

1,507,000,000

1,506,000,000

1,505,000,000

1,504,000,000

1,503,000,000

1,502,000,000

1,501,000,000 80% of the earth's continental crust has formed.

1,500,000,000 Supercontinent Columbia begins to break apart.

1,499,000,000 Volcanoes have run out of pure iron and the oxygen production

1,498,000,000 of cyanobacteria have cleared the oceans of this elemental iron.

1,497,000,000 Only rusted iron remains. Formation of banded ironstone no longer

1,496,000,000 possible. Without iron rusting, the seas began to release

1,495,000,000 more oxygen into the atmosphere.

1,494,000,000

1,493,000,000

1,492,000,000

1,491,000,000

1,490,000,000

1,489,000,000

1,488,000,000

1,487,000,000

1,486,000,000

1,485,000,000

1,484,000,000

1,483,000,000

1,482,000,000

1,481,000,000

1,480,000,000

1,479,000,000

1,478,000,000

1,477,000,000

1,476,000,000

1,475,000,000

1,474,000,000

1,473,000,000

1,472,000,000

1,471,000,000

1,470,000,000

1,469,000,000

1,468,000,000

1,467,000,000

1,466,000,000

1,465,000,000

1,464,000,000

1,463,000,000

1,462,000,000

1,461,000,000

1,460,000,000

1,459,000,000

1,458,000,000 Bacteria and cyanobacteria are primitive prokaryotic life forms

1,457,000,000 having a cell wall which contains a single strand of DNA. They

1,456,000,000 multiply by simple cell division, forming exact copies of themselves.

1,455,000,000 Their offspring share the exact same genetic code as the parent, so

1,454,000,000 their evolution is very slow. Eukaryotic cells reproduce  sexually.

1,453,000,000 Genetic material is mixed between two parents, yielding subtle

1,452,000,000 differences, allowing them to adapt to new environments.

1,451,000,000

1,450,000,000 First Eukaryotes

1,449,000,000 having genetic material in the form of chromosomes

1,448,000,000 enclosed in a membrane within the cell.

1,447,000,000

1,446,000,000

1,445,000,000 Eukaryotes may have formed when

1,444,000,000 prokaryote bacteria were ingested

1,443,000,000 by  another organism  accidentally

1,442,000,000 forming a symbiotic relationship.

1,441,000,000 Instead of digesting the prokaryote,

1,440,000,000 keeping it because it helped deal

1,439,000,000 with the poison, Oxygen.

1,438,000,000

1,437,000,000

1,436,000,000

1,435,000,000

1,434,000,000

1,433,000,000

1,432,000,000

1,431,000,000

1,430,000,000 Subsequent acquisition of internal cyanobacteria gave

1,429,000,000 rise to the first plants when they began to

1,428,000,000 take up residence within certain eukaryote

1,427,000,000 cells, making food for the eukaryote host

1,426,000,000 in return for a home. The cyanobacterium living within

1,425,000,000 the eukaryote allowed this new plant to conduct

1,424,000,000 photosynthesis.

1,423,000,000

1,422,000,000

1,421,000,000 Chloroplasts are the green tissue of plants.

1,420,000,000 We now know from DNA sequencing that chloroplasts

1,419,000,000 evolved from Cyanobacteria. The chloroplast with which plants

1,418,000,000 make food for themselves is actually a cyanobacterium

1,417,000,000 living within the plant's cells.

1,416,000,000

1,415,000,000

1,414,000,000 The eukaryotes have divided into three groups: the ancestors of modern

1,413,000,000 plants, fungi and animals have split into separate lineage's, and

1,412,000,000 now evolve separately. We do not know in what order the

1,411,000,000 three groups broke with each other. At this time they

1,410,000,000 were probably all still single-celled organisms.

1,409,000,000

1,408,000,000

1,407,000,000

1,406,000,000

1,405,000,000

1,404,000,000

1,403,000,000

1,402,000,000

1,401,000,000

1,400,000,000

1,399,000,000

1,398,000,000

1,397,000,000

1,396,000,000

1,395,000,000

1,394,000,000

1,393,000,000

1,392,000,000

1,391,000,000

1,390,000,000

1,389,000,000

1,388,000,000

1,387,000,000

1,386,000,000

1,385,000,000

1,384,000,000

1,383,000,000

1,382,000,000

1,381,000,000

1,380,000,000

1,379,000,000

1,378,000,000

1,377,000,000

1,376,000,000

1,375,000,000

1,374,000,000

1,373,000,000

1,372,000,000

1,371,000,000

1,370,000,000

1,369,000,000

1,368,000,000

1,367,000,000

1,366,000,000

1,365,000,000

1,364,000,000

1,363,000,000

1,362,000,000

1,361,000,000

1,360,000,000

1,359,000,000

1,358,000,000

1,357,000,000

1,356,000,000

1,355,000,000

1,354,000,000

1,353,000,000

1,352,000,000

1,351,000,000

1,350,000,000

1,349,000,000

1,348,000,000

1,347,000,000

1,346,000,000

1,345,000,000

1,344,000,000

1,343,000,000

1,342,000,000

1,341,000,000

1,340,000,000

1,339,000,000

1,338,000,000

1,337,000,000

1,336,000,000

1,335,000,000

1,334,000,000

1,333,000,000

1,332,000,000

1,331,000,000

1,330,000,000

1,329,000,000

1,328,000,000

1,327,000,000

1,326,000,000

1,325,000,000

1,324,000,000

1,323,000,000

1,322,000,000

1,321,000,000

1,320,000,000

1,319,000,000

1,318,000,000

1,317,000,000

1,316,000,000

1,315,000,000

1,314,000,000

1,313,000,000

1,312,000,000

1,311,000,000

1,310,000,000

1,309,000,000

1,308,000,000

1,307,000,000

1,306,000,000

1,305,000,000

1,304,000,000

1,303,000,000

1,302,000,000

1,301,000,000

1,300,000,000 Rodinia began forming about 1.3 billion years ago.

1,299,000,000 Rodinia, a super continent, began forming when

1,298,000,000 three or four small continents began colliding

1,297,000,000 forming a large mountain-building episode.

1,296,000,000

1,295,000,000

1,294,000,000

1,293,000,000

1,292,000,000

1,291,000,000

1,290,000,000

1,289,000,000

1,288,000,000

1,287,000,000

1,286,000,000

1,285,000,000

1,284,000,000

1,283,000,000

1,282,000,000

1,281,000,000

1,280,000,000

1,279,000,000

1,278,000,000

1,277,000,000

1,276,000,000

1,275,000,000

1,274,000,000

1,273,000,000

1,272,000,000

1,271,000,000

1,270,000,000

1,269,000,000

1,268,000,000

1,267,000,000

1,266,000,000

1,265,000,000

1,264,000,000

1,263,000,000

1,262,000,000

1,261,000,000

1,260,000,000

1,259,000,000

1,258,000,000

1,257,000,000

1,256,000,000

1,255,000,000

1,254,000,000

1,253,000,000

1,252,000,000

1,251,000,000

1,250,000,000

1,249,000,000

1,248,000,000

1,247,000,000

1,246,000,000

1,245,000,000

1,244,000,000

1,243,000,000

1,242,000,000

1,241,000,000

1,240,000,000

1,239,000,000

1,238,000,000

1,237,000,000

1,236,000,000

1,235,000,000

1,234,000,000

1,233,000,000

1,232,000,000

1,231,000,000

1,230,000,000

1,229,000,000

1,228,000,000

1,227,000,000

1,226,000,000

1,225,000,000

1,224,000,000

1,223,000,000

1,222,000,000

1,221,000,000

1,220,000,000

1,219,000,000

1,218,000,000

1,217,000,000

1,216,000,000

1,215,000,000

1,214,000,000

1,213,000,000

1,212,000,000

1,211,000,000

1,210,000,000

1,209,000,000

1,208,000,000

1,207,000,000

1,206,000,000

1,205,000,000

1,204,000,000

1,203,000,000

1,202,000,000

1,201,000,000

1,200,000,000

1,199,000,000

1,198,000,000

1,197,000,000

1,196,000,000

1,195,000,000

1,194,000,000

1,193,000,000

1,192,000,000

1,191,000,000

1,190,000,000

1,189,000,000

1,188,000,000

1,187,000,000

1,186,000,000

1,185,000,000

1,184,000,000

1,183,000,000

1,182,000,000

1,181,000,000

1,180,000,000

1,179,000,000

1,178,000,000

1,177,000,000

1,176,000,000

1,175,000,000

1,174,000,000

1,173,000,000

1,172,000,000

1,171,000,000

1,170,000,000

1,169,000,000

1,168,000,000

1,167,000,000

1,166,000,000

1,165,000,000

1,164,000,000

1,163,000,000

1,162,000,000

1,161,000,000

1,160,000,000

1,159,000,000

1,158,000,000

1,157,000,000

1,156,000,000

1,155,000,000

1,154,000,000

1,153,000,000

1,152,000,000

1,151,000,000

1,150,000,000

1,149,000,000

1,148,000,000

1,147,000,000

1,146,000,000

1,145,000,000

1,144,000,000

1,143,000,000

1,142,000,000

1,141,000,000

1,140,000,000

1,139,000,000

1,138,000,000

1,137,000,000

1,136,000,000

1,135,000,000

1,134,000,000

1,133,000,000

1,132,000,000

1,131,000,000

1,130,000,000

1,129,000,000

1,128,000,000

1,127,000,000

1,126,000,000

1,125,000,000

1,124,000,000

1,123,000,000

1,122,000,000

1,121,000,000

1,120,000,000

1,119,000,000

1,118,000,000

1,117,000,000

1,116,000,000

1,115,000,000

1,114,000,000

1,113,000,000

1,112,000,000

1,111,000,000

1,110,000,000

1,109,000,000

1,108,000,000

1,107,000,000

1,106,000,000

1,105,000,000

1,104,000,000

1,103,000,000

1,102,000,000

1,101,000,000

1,100,000,000

1,099,000,000

1,098,000,000

1,097,000,000

1,096,000,000

1,095,000,000

1,094,000,000

1,093,000,000

1,092,000,000

1,091,000,000

1,090,000,000

1,089,000,000

1,088,000,000

1,087,000,000

1,086,000,000

1,085,000,000

1,084,000,000

1,083,000,000

1,082,000,000

1,081,000,000

1,080,000,000

1,079,000,000

1,078,000,000

1,077,000,000

1,076,000,000

1,075,000,000

1,074,000,000

1,073,000,000

1,072,000,000

1,071,000,000

1,070,000,000

1,069,000,000

1,068,000,000

1,067,000,000

1,066,000,000

1,065,000,000

1,064,000,000

1,063,000,000

1,062,000,000

1,061,000,000

1,060,000,000

1,059,000,000

1,058,000,000

1,057,000,000

1,056,000,000

1,055,000,000

1,054,000,000

1,053,000,000

1,052,000,000

1,051,000,000

1,050,000,000

1,049,000,000

1,048,000,000

1,047,000,000

1,046,000,000

1,045,000,000

1,044,000,000

1,043,000,000

1,042,000,000

1,041,000,000

1,040,000,000

1,039,000,000

1,038,000,000

1,037,000,000

1,036,000,000

1,035,000,000

1,034,000,000

1,033,000,000

1,032,000,000

1,031,000,000

1,030,000,000

1,029,000,000

1,028,000,000

1,027,000,000

1,026,000,000

1,025,000,000

1,024,000,000

1,023,000,000

1,022,000,000

1,021,000,000

1,020,000,000

1,019,000,000

1,018,000,000

1,017,000,000

1,016,000,000

1,015,000,000

1,014,000,000

1,013,000,000

1,012,000,000

1,011,000,000

1,010,000,000

1,009,000,000

1,008,000,000

1,007,000,000

1,006,000,000

1,005,000,000

1,004,000,000

1,003,000,000

1,002,000,000 Oxygen near present levels.

1,001,000,000 Rodinia is fully formed and centered at the equator.

1,000,000,000 There are 500 days in one year and 17 hours in one day.

999,000,000    Eukaryotic algae (red algae and green algae) present.

998,000,000

997,000,000

996,000,000

995,000,000

994,000,000

993,000,000

992,000,000

991,000,000

990,000,000

989,000,000

988,000,000

987,000,000

986,000,000

985,000,000

984,000,000

983,000,000

982,000,000

981,000,000

980,000,000

979,000,000

978,000,000

977,000,000

976,000,000

975,000,000

974,000,000

973,000,000

972,000,000

971,000,000

970,000,000

969,000,000

968,000,000

967,000,000

966,000,000

965,000,000

964,000,000

963,000,000

962,000,000

961,000,000

960,000,000

959,000,000

958,000,000

957,000,000

956,000,000

955,000,000

954,000,000

953,000,000

952,000,000

951,000,000

950,000,000

949,000,000

948,000,000

947,000,000

946,000,000

945,000,000

944,000,000

943,000,000

942,000,000

941,000,000

940,000,000

939,000,000

938,000,000

937,000,000

936,000,000

935,000,000

934,000,000

933,000,000

932,000,000

931,000,000

930,000,000

929,000,000

928,000,000

927,000,000

926,000,000

925,000,000

924,000,000

923,000,000

922,000,000

921,000,000

920,000,000

919,000,000

918,000,000

917,000,000

916,000,000

915,000,000

914,000,000

913,000,000

912,000,000

911,000,000

910,000,000

909,000,000

908,000,000

907,000,000

906,000,000

905,000,000

904,000,000

903,000,000

902,000,000

901,000,000

900,000,000

899,000,000

898,000,000

897,000,000

896,000,000

895,000,000

894,000,000

893,000,000

892,000,000

891,000,000

890,000,000

889,000,000

888,000,000

887,000,000

886,000,000

885,000,000

884,000,000

883,000,000

882,000,000

881,000,000

880,000,000

879,000,000

878,000,000

877,000,000

876,000,000

875,000,000

874,000,000

873,000,000

872,000,000

871,000,000

870,000,000

869,000,000

868,000,000

867,000,000

866,000,000

865,000,000

864,000,000

863,000,000

862,000,000

861,000,000

860,000,000

859,000,000

858,000,000

857,000,000

856,000,000

855,000,000

854,000,000

853,000,000

852,000,000

851,000,000

850,000,000

849,000,000

848,000,000

847,000,000

846,000,000

845,000,000

844,000,000

843,000,000

842,000,000

841,000,000

840,000,000

839,000,000

838,000,000

837,000,000

836,000,000

835,000,000

834,000,000

833,000,000

832,000,000

831,000,000

830,000,000

829,000,000

828,000,000

827,000,000

826,000,000

825,000,000

824,000,000

823,000,000

822,000,000

821,000,000

820,000,000

819,000,000

818,000,000

817,000,000

816,000,000

815,000,000

814,000,000

813,000,000

812,000,000

811,000,000

810,000,000 Rain mixed with atmospheric carbon dioxide

809,000,000 form acid rain. This carbonic acid erodes land making

808,000,000 carbonate sediment that would later turn into rock.

807,000,000 Carbon dioxide being removed from the atmosphere in

806,000,000 this way prevents global warming. However, we now have a super continent,

805,000,000 Rodinia, with a very large, dry, interior that receives little rain. 

804,000,000 Massive amounts of carbon dioxide are not being removed from the

803,000,000 atmosphere and we have a very warm planet.

802,000,000

801,000,000

800,000,000 Rodinia begins to break apart.

799,000,000

798,000,000

797,000,000

796,000,000

795,000,000

794,000,000

793,000,000

792,000,000

791,000,000

790,000,000

789,000,000

788,000,000

787,000,000

786,000,000

785,000,000

784,000,000

783,000,000 With the breakup of Rodinia, formerly landlocked areas are now closer to

782,000,000 oceanic sources of moisture. Rain removes carbon dioxide from the

781,000,000 atmosphere, cooling the planet.

780,000,000

779,000,000

778,000,000

777,000,000

776,000,000

775,000,000

774,000,000

773,000,000

772,000,000

771,000,000

770,000,000

769,000,000

768,000,000

767,000,000

766,000,000

765,000,000

764,000,000

763,000,000

762,000,000

761,000,000

760,000,000

759,000,000

758,000,000

757,000,000

756,000,000

755,000,000

754,000,000

753,000,000

752,000,000

751,000,000

750,000,000 Snowball Earth-extreme climate reversal.

749,000,000 There were at least four cycles of brutal ice ages

748,000,000 between 750 mya and 580 mya.

747,000,000 Cyanobacteria are the dominate life form on Earth, releasing

746,000,000 large amounts of oxygen destroying methane. In addition,

745,000,000 rainfall (over millions of years) scrubs more heat-trapping

744,000,000 carbon dioxide out of the air. Global temperatures fall.

743,000,000 Large ice packs form in the polar oceans.

742,000,000 White ice reflects more solar energy than the darker seawater,

741,000,000 driving the temperature even lower and creates an unstoppable

740,000,000 cooling effect that will engulf almost all of the planet in ice.

739,000,000 There is some open water near the equator.

738,000,000 Volcanoes continue to belch out carbon dioxide and methane

737,000,000 seeps up from the bottom sediments.

736,000,000 With no rainfall, the carbon dioxide emitted from the

735,000,000 volcanoes is not removed from the atmosphere and methane is

734,000,000 trapped under the ice. After tens of millions of years there

733,000,000 is enough carbon dioxide to create a greenhouse effect. Cracks in

732,000,000 the glaciers release methane and the ice melts, the earth warms.

731,000,000 Rain not snow begins to fall as the earth gets hotter. Earth,

730,000,000 a hot wet place. Rain removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

729,000,000 and cyanobacteria produce oxygen that removes methane, the earth gets

728,000,000 cooler and the cycle of extreme hot and cold is repeated at

727,000,000 least three more times.

726,000,000 Eukaryotes and cyanobacteria were thriving on Earth,

725,000,000 before and after the big chills. It has always been

724,000,000 mystery why it took so long for these primitive

723,000,000 organisms to diversify into the 11 animal body plans

722,000,000 that show up suddenly during the Cambrian age.

721,000,000 The creatures that survived the glacial episodes may

720,000,000 have taken refuge at hot springs both on the sea floor

719,000,000 and under the ice. Many organisms respond with wholesale

718,000,000 genetic alterations under severe stress. Hot spring communities

717,000,000 widely separated on the icy surface of the planet would accumulate

716,000,000 genetic diversity over millions of years. Repopulations occurring

715,000,000 after each glaciation would favor the emergence of new life forms.

714,000,000

713,000,000

712,000,000

711,000,000

710,000,000

709,000,000

708,000,000

707,000,000

706,000,000

705,000,000

704,000,000

703,000,000

702,000,000

701,000,000 Stromatolites began to decline in abundance and diversity as herbivorous eukaryotes

700,000,000 began feeding extensively on growing stromatolites.

699,000,000

698,000,000

697,000,000

696,000,000

695,000,000

694,000,000

693,000,000

692,000,000

691,000,000

690,000,000

689,000,000

688,000,000

687,000,000

686,000,000

685,000,000

684,000,000

683,000,000

682,000,000

681,000,000

680,000,000

679,000,000

678,000,000

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675,000,000

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673,000,000

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670,000,000

669,000,000

668,000,000

667,000,000

666,000,000

665,000,000

664,000,000

663,000,000

662,000,000

661,000,000

660,000,000

659,000,000

658,000,000

657,000,000

656,000,000

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652,000,000

651,000,000

650,000,000

649,000,000

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647,000,000

646,000,000

645,000,000

644,000,000

643,000,000

642,000,000

641,000,000

640,000,000

639,000,000

638,000,000

637,000,000

636,000,000

635,000,000

634,000,000

633,000,000

632,000,000

631,000,000

630,000,000

629,000,000

628,000,000

627,000,000

626,000,000

625,000,000

624,000,000

623,000,000

622,000,000

621,000,000

620,000,000

619,000,000

618,000,000

617,000,000

616,000,000

615,000,000

614,000,000

613,000,000

612,000,000

611,000,000

610,000,000

609,000,000

608,000,000

607,000,000

606,000,000

605,000,000

604,000,000

603,000,000

602,000,000

601,000,000

600,000,000

599,000,000 (Today (2009), nearly a third of all the life on this planet consists

598,000,000 of microbes living under the sea floor in a dark world without

597,000,000 oxygen. They make vast quantities of methane.) Microbes (archaea)

596,000,000 living deep in the crust convert carbon into methane that

595,000,000 migrates to the surface. When the earth is covered in ice,

594,000,000 methane gas bubbling through sea floor sediments

593,000,000 is trapped under the ice sheet where the methane

592,000,000 forms methane ice.

591,000,000 This methane ice is stable under pressure and/or cold.

590,000,000 Methane is a hot house gas 30 stronger than carbon dioxide.

589,000,000

588,000,000 The cycles of extreme heating an cooling are coming to an end.

587,000,000

586,000,000 Large ice sheets are unstable and crack, releasing the trapped

585,000,000 methane. As the methane builds, the earth becomes warmer, leading

584,000,000 to more instability and more methane being released. The earth

583,000,000 warms rapidly ending the snowball earth. Continental drift

582,000,000 has placed large bodies of water (Atlantic and Pacific ocean) near

581,000,000 the equator keeping the earth from freezing again.(water absorbs

580,000,000 more heat than land)

579,000,000

578,000,000 After three billion years of mostly single-celled evolution,

577,000,000 a prolonged stable oxic environment permitted the emergence

576,000,000 of oxygen breathing life forms.

575,000,000 Poriferans, Cnidarians, Echinoderms, Chordates, Brachiopods,

574,000,000 Platyhelminths, Annelids, Mollusks, Priapulids, Nematodes,

573,000,000 and Arthopods are present. All require oxygen to live.

572,000,000

571,000,000 Paleozoic Era 570 to 240 mya

570,000,000 CAMBRIAN PERIOD 570-500 mya

569,000,000 The evolution of life, from primitive,

568,000,000 multicellular,free-floating forms in

567,000,000 the sea to advanced groups on land

566,000,000 can be traced by fossil remains

565,000,000 in rock strata of the Paleozoic

564,000,000 era.  The steadily increasing

563,000,000 oxygen content of the atmosphere

562,000,000 and oceans had made it possible

561,000,000 for the marine environment

560,000,000 to support new forms of

559,000,000 life that could derive energy

558,000,000 from respiration (oxygen). Although

557,000,000 life had not yet invaded

556,000,000 dry land or the air, the seas

555,000,000 of the Cambrian Period teemed

554,000,000 with a great variety of

553,000,000 marine invertebrates,including

552,000,000 sponges, worms, bryozoans

551,000,000 hydrozoas, brachiopods, mollusks,

550,000,000 primitive arthropods such as the

549,000,000 trilobite, and a few

548,000,000 species of stalked echinoderms.

547,000,000 The only plant life of the

546,000,000 time consisted of marine algae.6

545,000,000

544,000,000

543,000,000

542,000,000 There are 450 days per year and 19 hours per day.

541,000,000

540,000,000

539,000,000

538,000,000

537,000,000

536,000,000

535,000,000

534,000,000

533,000,000

532,000,000

531,000,000

530,000,000

529,000,000

528,000,000

527,000,000

526,000,000

525,000,000

524,000,000

523,000,000

522,000,000

521,000,000

520,000,000

519,000,000

518,000,000

517,000,000

516,000,000

515,000,000

514,000,000

513,000,000

512,000,000

511,000,000

510,000,000 A soft-bodied slug-like animal left trails as it slimmed along on land for

509,000,000 short periods moving from pond to pond.

508,000,000

507,000,000

506,000,000

505,000,000

504,000,000

503,000,000

502,000,000

501,000,000 The large land mass East and West Gondwana combined to form Gondwana.

500,000,000 First vertebrates are fish

499,000,000 breathing oxygen through gills,

498,000,000 without jaws or true fins with

497,000,000 a brain housed in a skull. (2)

496,000,000

495,000,000

494,000,000

493,000,000

492,000,000

491,000,000

490,000,000

489,000,000

488,000,000

487,000,000

486,000,000

485,000,000

484,000,000

483,000,000

482,000,000

481,000,000

480,000,000 ORDOVICIAN PERIOD     On land, a few forms of primitive

479,000,000                                               life may have appeared

478,000,000                                               Marine invertebrates were still

477,000,000                                               the predominant life forms. 6

476,000,000

475,000,000

474,000,000

473,000,000

472,000,000

471,000,000

470,000,000

469,000,000

468,000,000

467,000,000

466,000,000

465,000,000

464,000,000

463,000,000

462,000,000

461,000,000

460,000,000

459,000,000

458,000,000

457,000,000

456,000,000

455,000,000

454,000,000

453,000,000

452,000,000

451,000,000 All known life is found in the seas and oceans.

450,000,000

449,000,000

448,000,000

447,000,000 Ordovician-Silurian extinction: glaciers formed as the Supercontinent Gondwana

446,000,000 drifted over the South Pole. This glaciation caused a lowering of sea levels

445,000,000 worldwide as large amounts of water became tied up in ice sheets. The drop

444,000,000 in sea levels destroyed species habitat around the continental shelves.

443,000,000 The toll: 25 percent of marine families and 60 percent of marine genera. (8)

442,000,000

441,000,000

440,000,000

439,000,000

438,000,000

437,000,000

436,000,000 

435,000,000 SILURIAN PERIOD

434,000,000 Rocks of Silurian age yield the earliest fossils of a group of extinct, primitive,

433,000,000 leafless vascular plants called psilophytes, characterized by a horizontal

432,000,000 stalk that grew beneath the ground and sent up short, vertical stems. The

431,000,000 best known was Cooksonia, a small  plant (2 to 3 cm) with a stem which

430,000,000 was topped with small spheres in which spores were formed. It had

429,000,000 no leaves, no flowers, no seeds, and grew in areas of high humidity.

428,000,000 The first verified land animal was a one-centimeter long myriapod, a

427,000,000 centipede like animal having segmented bodies, one pair of antennae,

426,000,000 and at least nine pairs of legs.

425,000,000

424,000,000

423,000,000

422,000,000 First fish with jaws.

421,000,000

420,000,000

419,000,000

418,000,000

417,000,000

416,000,000

415,000,000 The subterranean nuclear reaction, that powers Earth's

414,000,000 magnetic field, continues to protect the earth from

413,000,000 solar radiation (wind) that would strip off our

412,000,000 atmosphere, and has done so for 4 billion years.

411,000,000 A sign of uranium fuel depletion at the core occurs

410,000,000 when there is a higher ratio of helium-3 to helium-4

409,000,000 being created in the fission products. The high helium ratio

408,000,000 is being observed today in fresh lava in Hawaii and Iceland.

407,000,000 This trend indicates the end of the georeactor's lifetime to

406,000,000 be approaching with less than a billion years left.

405,000,000 DEVONIAN PERIOD (impact 405 mya)

404,000,000

403,000,000 The ozone layer is thick enough to

402,000,000 provide protection on the earth's surface

401,000,000 from ultraviolet radiation

400,000,000 The first air-breathing arthropods, spiders

399,000,000 and mites;appeared on dry land. Plants were

398,000,000 very tiny and primitive, generally lacking

397,000,000 leafs and roots In the seas, coiled

396,000,000 shellfish called ammonoids

395,000,000 (distantly related to

394,000,000 modern squid) were the major

393,000,000 form of invertebrate life.

392,000,000 Devonian fish, considerably

391,000,000 evolved from the armor-plated

390,000,000 species of the preceding 

389,000,000 Ordovician Period, now had 

388,000,000 fins, scales, and jaws. One

387,000,000 group, the lobe-fins, developed

386,000,000 into the first air-breathing 

385,000,000 vertebrates, the amphibians,

384,000,000 which invaded the land at

383,000,000 the end of the Devonian Period and

382,000,000 opened the stage for the advent of

381,000,000 the reptiles in the Carboniferous

380,000,000 Period that followed.

379,000,000

378,000,000

377,000,000

376,000,000

375,000,000

374,000,000

373,000,000

372,000,000

371,000,000

370,000,000 * Early Ray- finned fish with bony rays to help support their fins. (2)

369,000,000

368,000,000

367,000,000 In swampy habitats filled with organic matter, choked with plants

366,000,000 and dense vegetation, evolved tetrapods.

365,000,000

364,000,000 Late Devonian extinction, about 364 million years ago and coming

363,000,000 in waves or cycles for the next 15 million years. At least 70 percent

362,000,000 of marine species went extinct during this time. The evolution of plants

361,000,000 and trees was a contributing factor to the anoxic conditions of the oceans.

360,000,000 After the plants die and decay nutrients were released and ultimately

359,000,000 washed through the freshwater system into the oceans.

358,000,000 Massive blooms of phytoplankton caused widespread oxygen deficiency

357,000,000 affecting shallow warm-water organisms rather than cool-water organisms.

356,000,000

355,000,000

354,000,000

353,000,000 The combined continents of Europe and Africa (Gondwana) collided

352,000,000 with North America beginning to form the supercontinent Pangaea.

351,000,000 The collision exerted enormous stress on what today is eastern

350,000,000 North America, and causing an enormous upward thrusting of the

349,000,000 entire region. The highest peaks of the Appalachian mountains

348,000,000 soared more than four miles into the sky.

347,000,000

346,000,000 Amphibians: first vertebrates with legs.

345,000,000 CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD

344,000,000  (impact 345 mya)

343,000,000

342,000,000

341,000,000

340,000,000

339,000,000

338,000,000

337,000,000

336,000,000

335,000,000

334,000,000

333,000,000

332,000,000

331,000,000

330,000,000

329,000,000

328,000,000

327,000,000

326,000,000

325,000,000

324,000,000

323,000,000

322,000,000

321,000,000

320,000,000 About 2000 species of plants are known, most of them

319,000,000 flowerless, spore-producing plants.

318,000,000 The first true reptiles appeared, developing from

317,000,000 earlier amphibians. Corals, crinoids, and minute

316,000,000 foraminifers were abundant, and there were a few

315,000,000 trilobites and eurypterids. Snails and mollusks,

314,000,000 including cephalopods and nautiloids, were widespread.

313,000,000 Insects were frequent, particularly a giant form of

312,000,000 dragonfly. Polyzoa and  brachiopods were common,

311,000,000 and sharks and primitive, hard-scaled fish were

310,000,000 well represented. 6

309,000,000

308,000,000

307,000,000

306,000,000

305,000,000

304,000,000

303,000,000

302,000,000

301,000,000

300,000,000 Forest swamps were made up of plants which included tree-ferns

299,000,000 which grew to a height of 15 meters (50 feet), and "scale-trees"

298,000,000 which attained a height of about 30 meters (100 feet).

297,000,000 The first flying insects appeared during the Carboniferous period.

296,000,000 Giant dragonflies such as Meganeura, which had a wing span of 70

295,000,000 centimeters (28 inches). An oxygen rich atmosphere allowed for

294,000,000 the development of enormous insects. If more oxygen is available,

293,000,000 the blood may deliver the oxygen further in the body, supporting

292,000,000 larger body structures.

291,000,000

290,000,000 PERMIAN period 290-240 mya

289,000,000 The invertebrate marine life at the beginning of the period was

288,000,000 exceptionally rich, flourishing in the warm, shallow inland seas.

287,000,000

286,000,000

285,000,000

284,000,000  

283,000,000

282,000,000

281,000,000

280,000,000 * impact

279,000,000 flying insects

278,000,000

277,000,000

276,000,000

275,000,000

274,000,000

273,000,000

272,000,000

271,000,000

270,000,000 Algae was plentiful (3)

269,000,000

268,000,000

267,000,000

266,000,000

265,000,000

264,000,000

263,000,000

262,000,000  Forerunners  of the dinosaurs appeared.6                                                                   

261,000,000                                                                    

260,000,000  Massive volcanic eruption in  Emeishan province of south west

259,000,000   China released 1/2 million cubic kilometers of lava.

258,000,000 First seed plants, cone bearing trees appeared.(3) Seed ferns  

257,000,000 were joined by conifers and ginkgoes.                            

256,000,000 Two massive asteroids bigger than Mount Everest slammed into the

255,000,000 earth leaving a 125 mile crater off the north-west coast  of  what

254,000,000 is now Australia and a 300 mile  crater in East Antarctica

253,000,000  at Wilkes Land. The earth split open in Siberia creating a  

252,000,000  lake of lava that pumped massive amounts of carbon 

251,000,000 * impact (Permian-Triassic extinction, about 251 MYA.)     

250,000,000 dioxide into the atmosphere warming the earth. The warmer ocean

249,000,000  interfered with the normal circulation process in

248,000,000 which colder  surface water descends, taking oxygen and nutrients

247,000,000 deep into the ocean. Ocean waters became stratified with little oxygen.

246,000,000 Higher temperatures contributed to the demise of land amimals.                

245,000,000 Earth's worst mass extinction, killing 96 percent of the

244,000,000  life  in the sea, 70 percent of  land vertebrates and  over 50 percent      

243,000,000  of the insects. At this time there was one land mass and one ocean.

242,000,000 Australia and Siberia were part of the same land mass. An     

241,000,000 asteroid  may have triggered the volcanism in what is now Siberia.                   

240,000,000 Mesozoic Era 240-65 mya                      

239,000,000 Traissic Period 240-205mya

238,000,000 Ancestors of angiosperms (Flowering plants) diverged.  

237,000,000 Surviving reptiles, which had  appeared in the preceding period,    

236,000,000 were undergoing a spectacular evolutionary development.

235,000,000

234,000,000

233,000,000

232,000,000

231,000,000

230,000,000

229,000,000

228,000,000

227,000,000

226,000,000

225,000,000

224,000,000

223,000,000

222,000,000

221,000,000

220,000,000 Sauropod-like dinosaurs first appeared.

219,000,000 The general climate was  warm. Plant life was dominated by

218,000,000   evergreen trees, most of them conifers and ginkgoes.

217,000,000   The most important animals  to make their appearance in             

216,000,000  the Triassic were the dinosaurs. They were for the most          

215,000,000  part no more than 10 to 15 feet  long.6  Mammals were

214,000,000 evolving from mammal-like reptiles. Pangaea begins to break 

213,000,000   apart into Laurasia  to the North and  Gondwanaland to the                     

212,000,000  South. (3)                                

211,000,000                                  

210,000,000                                   

209,000,000

208,000,000                                

207,000,000 Triassic Jurassic extinction: roughly  200 million years ago. Half of the

206,000,000  species on earth including large plant-eating dinosaurs died while large

205,000,000   carnivores (dinosaurs) flourished. The extinction event most lkely

204,000,000  was caused by  tectonic forces that caused  hundreds of volcanoes                       

203,000,000   around the world to erupt simultaneously and plunged the

202,000,000 world into darkness for years. The volcanism may have led to

201,000,000   deadly global warming. Rocks from the from eruptions are

200,000,000   found in the eastern United States, eastern Brazil, NorthAfrica and               

199,000,000  Spain.  The death toll:  half of   the species on Earth; including the  

198,000,000 mammal-like reptiles that once roamed the Earth. Small mammals

197,000,000 survived. 

196,000,000                             Toarcian extinction, 183,000,000 years ago. Palm trees grew and

195,000,000                             reptiles roamed in the area how occupied  by northern Canada. The

194,000,000                             ice-free Arctic Ocean was warm (lower 80sF) Steaming rain forests,

193,000,000                             heavy daily rains and violent storms. Heavy erosion, which in turn fed

192,000,000                            more nutrients into the worlds waters. An explosion of life was spurred

191,000,000                            on by the increased nutrients which led to there own demise buy killing

190,000,000                            themselves in there own waste products. The high temperatures dried

189,000,000                            the earth's soil faster than the rain could replace it. Massive forest fires

188,000,000                            occurred creating more carbon dioxide and warming. With no ice at the

187,000,000                            poles, there was no cold water sinking to the bottom of the ocean and

186,000,000                            the oceans currents stopped. The oceans became stagnant. Life in the sea

185,000,000                             died and sank to the bottom of the ocean. Plants and ashes from the

184,000,000                            forest fires was also washed into the oceans where there where no sea

183,000,000 *Toarcian extinction*    life or microbes to consume it. All this un-consumed material sank

182,000,000                             to the bottom forming sludge and with time oil and coal...This event lasted

181,000,000                             1 million years. 182,000,000 years ago things returned to a new normal.

180,000,000 JURASSIC PERIOD

179,000,000 The Jurassic climate was warm and moist, temperate

178,000,000 and had subtropical forests consisting largely of the

177,000,000 gymnosperms(cycads and conifers), ginkgoes, and

176,000,000 seed ferns. Angiosperms (flowering plants) first appeared.

175,000,000 In the mid-Jurassic Period, Reptiles were the dominant

174,000,000 form of animal life. They had adapted to life in the sea

173,000,000 (ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs), in the air (pterosaurs),

172,000,000 and on the land, where  some reached huge sizes. 6

171,000,000

170,000,000 Sauropods are present and  will evolve into  the largest

169,000,000 animals to ever walk the earth.

168,000,000

167,000,000

166,000,000

165,000,000                                                        In the asteroid belt, a massive 105

164,000,000                                                        mile wide asteroid was hit by a 37 mile

163,000,000                                                        wide asteroid, smashing the two  into

162,000,000                                                        many thousands of pieces. 2% of the

161,000,000                                                       debris circle the sun in an earth crossing

160,000,000 Dinosaurs evolved into birds      *    orbit. Some very large pieces strike the

159,000,000      "Anchiornis Huxleyi"                   earth 95 million years after the initial

158,000,000                                                        collision.   One strikes the Yucatan

157,000,000                                                        Peninsula, Mexico 65 mya and the

156,000,000                                                        other strikes the coast of India

155,000,000                                                        300,000 years later.

154,000,000

153,000,000

152,000,000

151,000,000

150,000,000

149,000,000

148,000,000

147,000,000

146,000,000

145,000,000

144,000,000

143,000,000

142,000,000

141,000,000

140,000,000 Early birds with teeth and a long bony tail. (2)

139,000,000

138,000,000  Cretaceous Period 138-65 mya

137,000,000 (Creta is Latin for chalk.

136,000,000 Vast thickness of chalk were laid

135,000,000 down at the end of this period.)                                  

134,000,000                                    

132,000,000                                   

131,000,000                                    

130,000,000                                    

129,000,000

128,000,000

127,000,000 Earliest known flowering plant. (Archaefructus liaoningensis)

126,000,000 Various species of grass are present.

125,000,000 India became geographically isolated from other continents

124,000,000

123,000,000

122,000,000

121,000,000

120,000,000

119,000,000

118,000,000

117,000,000

116,000,000

115,000,000

114,000,000

113,000,000

112,000,000

111,000,000

110,000,000  Sauropod dinosaurs have evolved into the: largest animals ever to walk the earth.

109,000,000

108,000,000

107,000,000

106,000,000

105,000,000

104,000,000

103,000,000

102,000,000

101,000,000

100,000,000 Flowering plants common (3)

99,000,000

98,000,000  Sea levels rose worldwide,submerging about one-third of

97,000,000  the earth's present land area.  This allowed heat from the sun to

96,000,000  be distributed farther poleward by ocean currents, producing

95,000,000  warm, ice-free Arctic water, a mild global climate with

94,000,000  temperatures of 14 C (58 F) or higher. 

93,000,000 Under the ocean, volcanic activity striped the oceans of oxygen,

92,000,000 triggering a mass extinction of marine life.

91,000,000      

90,000,000

89,000,000   On land, cold-blooded reptiles could

88,000,000   exist even in northern latitudes. The

87,000,000   flora had taken on a modern appearance of

86,000,000  trees such as the oak, beech, and maple.6

85,000,000

84,000,000

83,000,000

82,000,000                                                  Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and

81,000,000                                                  Neptune give off more energy

80,000,000                                                  than they receive from the sun

79,000,000                                                  and may have subterranean

78,000,000                                                  nuclear reactions going in        

77,000,000                                                  their core. 

76,000,000 Rocks, two larger and heavier than Mt. Everest, hurdle toward earth.

75,000,000 One, 15 km across, strikes the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; causing

74,000,000 dust to block sunlight, cooling the planet (2) causing world wide

73,000,000 devastation and creating stress on every living thing 65 mya.

72,000,000 Then 300,000 years later, a larger asteroid (40 km across) strikes

71,000,000 off the West coast of India intensifying massive volcanic eruptions

70,000,000 in the Deccan Traps, changing the climate and killing the dinosaurs.

69,000,000 This volcanism released prodigious amounts of the green house gas

68,000,000 carbon dioxide, causing climatic warming, melting of polar ice, sea

67,000,000 level rise, elevated body temperatures and plant and animal migrations,

66,000,000 acidification of the ocean along with death on a massive scale.

65,000,000 * impact     (There were at least six asteroid impacts. Impacts

64,000,000                    caused the Chicxulub crater in Mexico, Shiva

63,000,000                   crater in India, the Boltysh crater in The Ukraine,

62,000,000                   Silverpit crater in the North Sea, the Eagle Butte

61,000,000                   crater in Canada, and the Vista Alegre crater in Brazil)

60,000,000 Boa snakes over grew over 40 feet.

59,000,000 first primates

58,000,000 Asteroid's impact created a 1 mile deep crater 60 miles SE of Waco, Texas.

57,000,000 Many stony-iron and achondritic meteorites survive today in Earth-crossing orbits. 

56,000,000

55,000,000 -Eocene- Hot house earth. North pole 74 degrees.

54,000,000 Australia and Antarctica  are connected. Warm equatorial currents mixed with

53,000,000 colder Antarctic waters distributing the heat around the planet   keeping

52,000,000 global temperatures high.

51,000,000

50,000,000 bats

49,000,000

48,000,000

47,000,000

46,000,000

45,000,000 Australia split from Antarctica and the warm  equatorial currents now circled Australia

44,000,000 alone, isolating the cold water in the Antarctic. Antarctica began to cool.

43,000,000

42,000,000

41,000,000

40,000,000 Whales

39,000,000

38,000,000 -Oligocene-

37,000,000 A shower of comets impact in northern Italy, Siberia and Chesapeake Bay.

36,000,000     Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have been slowly falling and are now

35,000,000    about 400 parts per million. Earth warmer than today. Trees and grass

34,000,000    cover Greenland. Ice sheets first started to grow on Greenland as

33,000,000    carbon dioxide levels declined and ice has been there ever since. Pre-industrial

32,000,000    atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will continue to drop until about 1850 with

31,000,000    280 parts per million of carbon dioxide. By the year 2007, mans industrial activities

30,000,000    will have caused carbon dioxide levels to rise to 380 parts per million.

29,000,000 Early primates developing a repertoire of sounds that have specific functions

28,000,000 such as alerting to the presence of predators or emotional states.

27,000,000 La Garita Caldera, Colorado, erupted 1200 cubic miles of ash.

26,000,000

25,000,000

24,000,000

23,000,000

22,000,000

21,000,000

20,000,000

19,000,000

18,000,000

17,000,000

16,000,000

15,000,000

14,000,000

13,000,000 * impact

12,000,000

11,000,000

10,000,000 * Modern carnivores

9,000,000

8,000,000

7,000,000 -Pleistocene-

6,000,000 A large asteroid explodes 3.6 mya  giving rise to many of today's      

5,000,000 small  earth-crossing asteroids.                                                                                 

4,000,000 Humans and chimps diverged (Ardipithecus)              

3,000,000 Lucy: bipedal, small brain, long arms, short legs.       

2,000,000 Early man (stone tools)

1,000,000 * impact

0         All of human's written history has occurred  

           in the most recent 10,000 years, or 1% of

           the time in this last million year increment.

 

Home    


This article presents the complex ideas of many different people, if you have an issue with any of them or wish to make a comment or suggestion, please write to: troys_email@yahoo.com 


 

Notes of interest

Tardigrades (water-dwelling, segmented animals with eight legs) were taken into low Earth orbit on the FOTON-M3 mission and for 10 days were exposed to the vacuum of space.   After they were returned to Earth, it was discovered that many of them survived and laid eggs that hatched normally, making these the only animals shown to be able to survive the vacuum of space.

A comet or asteroid exploded above Michigan some 13,000 years ago, causing temperatures to plunge for the next 1000 years. The American Clovis culture disappears and large mammals, including  woolly mammoths, American lions, and the saber tooth tiger became extinct.

Researchers revived bacterial spores found in the belly of a bee frozen in amber some 25 million years ago.

Glaciologist Lonnie Thompson believes that 5,200 years ago, solar output first dropped precipitously and then surged over a short period causing extreme climatic disruption.

1908 A twenty foot in diameter asteroid explodes over Tunguska, Russia. Devastating more than 800 square miles and flattening an estimated 80 million trees.

Three unknown species of bacteria found in the earth's upper stratosphere raise the prospect of life in space.

Bacteria can survive a hypervelocity impact and subsequently grow.

Current estimates of methane hydrates are on the order of 1 to 2 million trillion cubic feet.

Silicon and oxygen, make up 70% of the earth's crust.


 

JonBenet Ramsey

Cutthroat: A Card Game

Vision for the Elementary School

 

Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis were brothers

 

Other articles you might like to read.


(1)The Search For The Past

L.B. Halstead

Doubleday & Co.

Garden City N.Y., N.Y., 1982

(2)The Great Extinction

Michael Allaby and

Jame Lovelock

Doubleday & Co.

Garden City, N.Y. N.Y. 1983

(3) World Book Encyclopedia

Scott Feltzer Co. 1984

(4) NSF Mosaic Reader

EVOLUTION New Perspectives

Avery Publishing Group

(5) http://www.metaresearch.org/mrb/cydonia/

(6) Encarta 98

(8) WWW.Space.com

(9) Scientific American (January 2000)

10) Mass Extinctions and their Aftermath, A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall, Oxford Press, 1996

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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