Site hosted by Angelfire.com: Build your free website today!

The Republic of Hawaii was given formal diplomatic recognition as the rightful government of Hawaii by at least 19 other nations from July 1894 through January 1895. Liliuokalani herself proclaimed the Kingdom was finished and swore her oath of loyalty to the Republic. Also Japan, in April 1897, raised the status of its office in Honolulu from Consulate to Legation (a status not previously accorded during the Kingdom period).


(c) Copyright 2000 - 2008 Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved

SUMMARY

The Republic of Hawaii was given formal diplomatic recognition as the rightful government of Hawaii by at least 19 other nations from July 1894 through January 1895. In alphabetical order they are: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Britain, Chile, China, France, Germany(Prussia), Guatemala, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway-Sweden, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United States. A letter of recognition from a 20th nation, Japan, cannot be found; however in April 1897 Japan raised its Honolulu office from Consulate to the status of Legation through a personally signed letter from the Emperor, indicating not only that diplomatic recognition was already in place but granting to the Republic government a status higher than the Kingdom government had ever enjoyed. In addition the Kingdom of Hawaii gave recognition to the Republic as the rightful government, in the form of a letter of abdication and an oath of loyalty signed by ex-queen Liliuokalani under advice of and witnessed by her personal attorney and former cabinet ministers. No nation ever protested the revolution of 1893 or the annexation of 1898. Instead, every nation which spoke on this topic granted full diplomatic recognition de jure to the successor government of the Republic of Hawaii. Thus, the family of nations condoned the revolution of 1893 as having been legal under international law, and granted the Republic the right to offer a treaty of annexation to the United States and to make a deal ceding Hawaii's public lands in return for the U.S. paying off Hawaii's national debt.

===============

ORDER OF TOPICS

INTRODUCTION

LETTERS OF DE FACTO RECOGNITION OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT PROVIDED BY LOCAL CONSULS IN HONOLULU, mostly dated January 18, 1893 (the day after the revolution).

WHY FORMAL DE JURE DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII WAS IMPORTANT -- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND CURRENT ISSUES RELATED TO HAWAIIAN SOVEREIGNTY.

EXAMPLE OF A SERIOUS ASSERTION OF THE FRAUDULENT CLAIM THAT THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII WAS NEVER INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED. THIS CLAIM WAS ASSERTED BY HAWAIIAN SOVEREIGNTY ACTIVIST KEANU SAI BEFORE A PANEL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW EXPERTS AT THE PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION AT THE HAGUE. AFTER THE CASE WAS DISMISSED MR. SAI AND HIS LEGION OF FOLLOWERS WIDELY PROCLAIMED THAT THE "WORLD COURT" HAD CONFIRMED THAT THE KINGDOM OF HAWAII CONTINUES TO EXIST AND IS THE LAWFUL GOVERNMENT OF HAWAII TODAY.

THE ACTUAL LETTERS OF FULL DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION DE JURE FROM 19 FOREIGN NATIONS (Photographs of the originals personally signed by heads of government, and of some English translations, plus plain-text explanations and analyses)

EXCERPTS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE MEETINGS OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII, RELATED TO DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION

LETTER OF ABDICATION BY EX-QUEEN LILIUOKALANI, AND HER OATH OF LOYALTY TO THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII, BOTH PERSONALLY SIGNED BY HER AND DATED JANUARY 24, 1895, WITNESSED BY HER PERSONAL ATTORNEY AND FORMER CABINET MINISTERS, AND NOTARIZED.

CONCLUSION

THE ARCHIVES OF THE STATE OF HAWAII; AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS OF WHO HELPED WITH THIS PROJECT TO UNCOVER THE LETTERS OF RECOGNITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII.

=================

INTRODUCTION

Do historical facts matter in current debates about the apology resolution, Akaka bill, and ceded lands?

At least nineteen nations sent formal letters to President Sanford B. Dole granting full-fledged (de jure) diplomatic recognition to the Republic as the legitimate government of Hawaii. These were not the tentative de facto recognitions given by local consuls in Honolulu in January 1893 to the temporary Provisional Government. These letters in late 1894 were personally signed by emperors, kings, queens, princes, and presidents. The letters, in eleven languages, were sent from national capitols in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America, to His Excellency President Sanford B. Dole, welcoming the permanent government of the Republic of Hawaii into the family of nations.

The letters were personally signed by Queen Victoria, President Grover Cleveland, Tsar Alexander III, two princes on behalf of Emperor Kuangsu (China), President Casimir Perier (France), King Don Alfonso XIII and Queen Dona Maria Christina (Spain), President Porfirio Diaz (Mexico), and 12 others.

Photographs of the original letters, including some English translations, were taken in the Archives of the State of Hawaii. The photos can be seen at

Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

A 23-page booklet includes a cover, table of contents, and a one-page montage of photos for each of 20 nations, plus a montage of photos of Liliuokalani's letter of abdication and loyalty oath. The booklet can be downloaded in pdf format suitable for printing (caution: 18 megabytes) by clicking here:

http://historymystery.grassrootinstitute.org/roh.recognition.pdf

The Kingdom of Hawaii recognized the Republic in the same way as those other nineteen nations. Ex-queen Liliuokalani personally signed a five-page letter of abdication, and a one-page oath of loyalty to the Republic of Hawaii, on January 24, 1895; in consultation with and witnessed by her personal attorney and former cabinet members she had appointed. Photographs are on the same webpage as the other letters of recognition, or can also be found at their own individual webpage at
http://historymystery.grassrootinstitute.org/2008/04/04/liliuokalanis-abdication-and-loyalty-oath/
The printed text of her abdication and loyalty oath (capable of being copy/pasted), as copied from a book, are available here:
http://www.angelfire.com/planet/big60/LiliuAbdication.html

Among other things, Liliuokalani says:

"I hereby do fully and unequivocally admit and declare that the Government of the Republic of Hawaii is the only lawful Government of the Hawaiian Islands ... I hereby declare to [everyone] that I consider them as bound in duty and honor henceforth to support and sustain the Government of the Republic of Hawaii."

Consensus among nations determined what was "international law" in 1893-1898. No nation ever protested the Hawaiian revolution of 1893 nor the annexation of 1898. No nation ever refused to do business with the Provisional Government, Republic of Hawaii, or United States as having sovereignty in Hawaii. Every local consul in Honolulu in January 1893 gave immediate de facto recognition to the Provisional Government. At least 19 nations sent formal letters of de jure recognition from their head of state to Republic of Hawaii President Sanford B. Dole.

So what?

Thanks to recognition the Republic had standing under international law to offer treaties, including a treaty of annexation to the United States. The Republic had the right to make a deal ceding the public lands of Hawaii in exchange for payment of Hawaii's national debt. Never again can Hawaiian secessionists say that the Republic of Hawaii was illegal, had only de facto recognition, or was merely a U.S. puppet regime.

By never protesting the overthrow and by recognizing the successor Republic, those nations condoned the revolution of 1893 as legal, thus disdrediting the 1993 apology resolution which referred to "the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy." The Akaka bill is undermined because it relies on the apology resolution and repeatedly cites it. Discrediting the apology resolution also eliminates the primary reason given by the Hawaii Supreme Court for prohibiting the State of Hawaii from selling any ceded lands without first reaching a "settlement" with a racial group.

The time has come for Hawaii politicians to stop playing with the fires of racial separatism and ethnic nationalism. Let's boldly make policy decisions based on facts: the revolution that overthrew the monarchy was a good thing condoned as legitimate by the international community; Hawaii is rightfully a state of the United States; the ceded lands belong to all Hawaii's people without racial distinction; the unity and equality of Hawaii's people are worth defending and nurturing.

==============

LETTERS OF DE FACTO RECOGNITION OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT PROVIDED BY LOCAL CONSULS IN HONOLULU, mostly dated January 18, 1893 (the day after the revolution).

The first tentative recognition by the family of nations that a revolution had occurred took place during the first two days after the revolution. Letters of recognition were sent to President Sanford B. Dole on January 18 and January 19, 1893 by the Honolulu consuls representing Chile, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Mexico, Russia, Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Spain, Japan, Italy, Portugal, Britain, United States, Denmark, Belgium, China, Peru, France. (that's the order in which their contents were copied into the Morgan Report).

A local consul normally has very little authority to speak on behalf of his government, but is the highest-ranking diplomat in town authorized to handle routine matters for the nation he represents. Some of the local consuls were businessmen who represented several different nations on a part-time basis, whenever their services were needed to help Hawaii residents or foreign travelers get visas, export-import licenses, or legal representation in case of arrest. It must be remembered that there was no internet, no telegraph or telephone communication between Hawaii and the rest of the world, and no airplanes; thus it would take a long time before news of the revolution could travel abroad and before letters seeking and granting full diplomatic recognition could be sent by ship around the world. During the first two days after the revolution of January 17, 1893, the local consuls in Honolulu of every foreign nation having diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Hawaii sent letters of de facto recognition to President Dole, acknowledging that the Provisional Government now held power and that the foreign nation would do business with the new Provisional Government until such time as further instructions regarding full-fledged (de jure) recognition could be gotten from the foreign capitols. The text of those initial letters of de facto recognition were published in the Honolulu newspapers during the first few days after the revolution, and were also published in the Morgan Report (an official document of the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs) in February 1894 on pp. 1103-1111. Full text of those letters can be seen at:

http://morganreport.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=DIPLOMATIC_RECOGNITION_OF_THE_PROVISIONAL_GOVERNMENT

=============

WHY FORMAL DE JURE DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII WAS IMPORTANT -- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND CURRENT ISSUES RELATED TO HAWAIIAN SOVEREIGNTY.

Later on this webpage the indisputable evidence of de jure recognition is provided, including photographs of the letters of formal recognition signed by emperors, kings, queens, princes, and presidents (some were written in French, German, Italian, Latin, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, or Spanish; some were accompanied by English translations). In addition, there are excerpts from the minutes of the Executive Council of the Republic of Hawaii, handwritten by its secretary William O. Smith, as found in the Archives of the State of Hawaii -- the minutes include specific dates when some of the more important letters of recognition were received, and who delivered them.

Here's why the international recognition of the Republic of Hawaii is extremely important. Today's secessionist Hawaiian sovereignty activists like to say the overthrow of the monarchy was illegal under international law; that the Provisional Government and Republic of Hawaii were merely a U.S. puppet regime for the belligerent military occupation of Hawaii by the U.S.; that the annexation of Hawaii to the U.S. in 1898 was contrary to international law; and that the ceding of the public lands of Hawaii to the United States was therefore illegal. Here are some of the main points asserted by both sides, providing the context showing why it is important to prove that the Republic of Hawaii was indeed the internationally recognized lawful government of the continuing independent nation of Hawaii. Thus the Republic of Hawaii enjoyed full rights under international law to offer Hawaii for annexation to the United States, and to make the bargain of ceding the public lands of Hawaii in return for payment by the U.S. of the national debt of Hawaii.

Secessionists say: On January 16, 1893 the U.S. staged an armed invasion of Hawaii and overthrew the legitimate government of Queen Liliuokalani. During the remainder of 1893, an investigation by James Blount, "minister plenipotentiary with paramount powers" given to him by newly elected U.S. President Grover Cleveland, conducted an investigation which gathered evidence proving that the U.S. instigated and carried out the overthrow of the monarchy. President Cleveland declared that U.S. actions had been an act of war against a weak and friendly nation, contrary to international law. Cleveland presented the Blount Report to Congress as justification for withdrawing from the Senate the Treaty of Annexation proposed by the Provisional Government of Hawaii, and as justification for demanding restoration of Liliuokalani to the throne. In 1993, the U.S. Congress passed and President Clinton signed a formal apology to Native Hawaiians for overthrowing the monarchy -- the apology is what lawyers call a "statement against interest" and constitutes a confession of a crime. Under international law the Kingdom of Hawaii remains the rightful government. The U.S. is obligated to withdraw its ongoing belligerent military occupation of Hawaii and pay enormous reparations.

Patriotic Americans reply: In January 1893, following a period of tremendous government instability and corruption, the Queen dismissed the Legislature and then immediately tried to unilaterally proclaim a new Constitution seizing dictatorial powers for herself. The revolution of January 1893 that overthrew the monarchy was done by a local armed militia responding to the Queen's attempted coup against the existing Constitution she had sworn to uphold. The Kingdom government for all practical purposes had ceased to exist, because it lacked the strength to maintain law and order. There were mass meetings of 1500 revolutionaries at the Armory (many of them carrying guns), and 500 royalists on the grounds of the Palace only a few blocks away, competing for attention on the same day. There were credible threats of violence against Europeans and Americans, and arson against their homes and businesses, because native royalists perceived that most of the revolutionaries were Caucasians with business interests. The U.S. was the only nation at that moment which had a military ship in Honolulu harbor capable of sending peacekeepers ashore to protect lives and property. At the request of numerous local residents, businessmen, and representatives of European governments, and by order of the U.S. diplomat Minister Stevens, the U.S. landed 162 armed peacekeepers sent ashore from the U.S.S. Boston which had just returned to Honolulu harbor from a training cruise to two other islands. Some of the peacekeepers guarded the U.S. legation and ambassador's house, while most remained inside the grounds of a building down a sidestreet away from the Palace and the government building. The U.S. peacekeepers were never actually sent into action because the revolutionary Provisional Government was strong enough to maintain law and order; and because the Queen surrendered without a fight. The peacekeepers never took over any buildings, never patrolled the streets, did not provide any materials or assistance to the revolutionists, and maintained strict neutraility. (At first some of the royalists thought the peacekeepers had been sent ashore to protect the government, as had been done in 1889 to protect the Kalakaua government against an armed insurrection against Kalakaua led by Robert Wilcox on behalf of Liliuokalani, and as had also been done in 1874 to stop the riots following Kalakaua's election victory over dowager Queen Emma). As conditions calmed down following the revolution the peacekeepers gradually returned to their ship under orders from outgoing U.S. Minister Stevens (appointed by Republican President Harrison), until the last ones were removed on April 1 by order of incoming U.S. Minister Blount (appointed by incoming Democrat President Cleveland). The U.S. flag, which had been raised next to the Hawaiian flag on the Hawaiian government building as a sign of peace and stability to reassure residents and businesses, by request of the Provisional Government, was also removed on April 1 by Minister Blount. Incoming U.S. President Grover Cleveland was a personal friend of Queen Liliuokalani, and was also an isolationist opposed to U.S. expansion such as annexation of Hawaii. Cleveland sent Blount to Hawaii on his 6th day as President, without Senate confirmation, under secret orders to destabilize the provisional Government, to restore the Queen, and to write a political report which Cleveland probably intended to use to persuade Congress to send troops to restore the Queen in case diplomatic efforts and destabilization of the Provisional Government failed. During the Spring and Summer Blount lived at the royalist hotel, taking statements from royalists presenting their side of the story. He wrote a highly biased report for President Cleveland. U.S. officials repeatedly tried to destabilize the Provisional Government, even talking with Liliuokalani over ways to restore her to the throne. Secret U.S. discussions (conspiracy!) with the ex-queen broke down due to her insistence she would behead the revolutionaries. In a last-ditch effort to put Liliuokalani back on the throne anyway, the new U.S. diplomat Albert Willis sent a strongly-worded letter to Hawaii President Sanford Dole in December 1893, under the authority of Grover Cleveland, arrogantly ordering Dole to step down and restore the Queen. In conclusion: from the moment incoming Minister Blount arrived on April 1, 1893 and throughout the 4 years of the Presidency of Grover Cleveland, there were no U.S. troops in Hawaii, no possibility of U.S. annexation, and no way anyone could imagine the Provisional Government or Republic of Hawaii were U.S. puppet regimes.

Secessionists say: The Blount Report, made public at the end of 1893, shows the U.S. illegally overthrew the Hawaiian nation.

Patriotic Americans reply: The Morgan Report shows that the U.S. did nothing wrong, and that the Blount Report was biased and contains many falsehoods. In January and February, 1894 the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, whose chairman was Senator Morgan (a Democrat just like President Cleveland) responded to the Blount Report by holding two months of hearings, taking testimony under oath in open session under cross-examination. The 808-page report, now available on the internet, includes testimony from both Minister Stevens and Minister Blount, as well as some of the U.S. military personnel at all levels of authority who had participated in the peacekeeping mission, plus testimony from some former department heads of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Some witnesses swore that Blount had lied or incorrectly reported what they had told to Blount the previous summer at the royalist hotel in Honolulu. As a result of the Morgan report the Senate passed two resolutions demanding that the U.S. government, and also foreign governments, keep hands off Hawaii and respect Hawaii's independence. In effect, Congress (with Democrats in the majority) rebuked President Cleveland (a Democrat) for interfering in Hawaii and for trying to use U.S. power to undo the local revolution and to restore his friend Liliuokalani.

Secessionists say: The revolutionary Provisional Government, and ensuing Republic of Hawaii, were a U.S. puppet regime propped up by the armed U.S. invasion.

Partiotic Americans reply: The Morgan Report shows the 162 U.S. peacekeepers were scrupulously neutral, did not take over any buildings, did not patrol the streets, and did not provide any help to either side. Furthermore, U.S. President Cleveland withdrew the few remaining U.S. peacekeepers as soon as his newly appointed representative arrived in Honolulu. Cleveland, a friend of the Queen, did everything he could to put her back on the throne but failed because the revolutionists were too strong and refused to knuckle under to U.S. threats. Cleveland refused to allow annexation of Hawaii. There is no way the provisional Government or Republic were a U.S. puppet regime. The Republic, all by itself, defeated an armed attempted counter-revolution by Robert Wilcox in January 1895, thus showing it stood on its own.

Secessionists say: The overthrow of the monarchy was illegal, and the revolutionary Provisional Government had no authority under international law.

Patriotic Americans reply: Within the first two days after the revolution of January 17, 1893, every foreign nation which had a local consulate in Honolulu had delivered letters to PG President Sanford B. Dole recognizing the Dole government. The letters were published in the Honolulu newspapers and the text of the letters can also be found in the Morgan Report.

Secessionists say: The letters of recognition given to the Dole regime were only "de facto" recognition but not "de jure." The de facto recognition merely says that the new government has seized power and therefore the foreign government will do business with it, but most of the letters of recognition included a disclaimer that permanent recognition must await a decision from the foreign capitol.

Patriotic Americans reply: Yes, of course the initial letters were only "de facto" recognitions. Remember that there was no internet, nor even telegraph. Each consul of a foreign government, living in Honolulu, knew that he was acting entirely on his own and would need to wait a long time before news of the revolution could reach other nations and before those nations would have time to make decisions about their policy toward Hawaii's new government. Remember also that Hawaii's new government was explicitly labeled as merely temporary. Its name was "Provisional Government" because its official policy was to seek immediate annexation to the United States. At this point there was no effort to create a long-term permanent government for Hawaii, and therefore no need to seek formal diplomatic recognition "de jure."

Secessionists say: After it became clear that the U.S. administration of Grover Cleveland was hostile toward the Dole government and would never allow annexation, then the provisional Government changed into the Republic of Hawaii just to make itself look legitimate. But there were no more recognitions from foreign governments, and so the Republic of Hawaii was only a de facto regime and never had either de facto or de jure recognition from other nations as the legitimate government of Hawaii under international law.

Patriotic Americans, with the evidence provided below, can now reply: That is a lie. The Provisional Government went through the same process as any revolutionary government seeking to establish itself as permanent. After consolidating its hold on power, it held a constitutional convention, produced a Constitution, ratified it, held elections, and formed a permanent government. That permanent government received formal letters of de jure recognition from the heads of government from the capitols of at least 19 foreign nations during the second half of 1894. There were at least five full-blooded native Hawaiians who participated in the constitutional convention; and a full-blooded native Hawaiian served as Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Republic of Hawaii. The Constitution of the Republic, and names of the delegates to the constitutional convention who certified it, can be seen at

http://www.angelfire.com/planet/big60/RepubHawConst1894.html

The new Constitution of the Republic of Hawaii was proclaimed on July 4, 1894 (that date was chosen for its political symbolism, because the leaders of the Republic still hoped for eventual annexation to the United States, despite Grover Cleveland's opposition). During the second half of 1894, the heads of state of at least 19 foreign nations sent formal letters to President Sanford B. Dole giving full diplomatic recognition de jure to the Republic of Hawaii. Letters were received from at least all the following nations: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Britain, Chile, China, France, Germany(Prussia), Guatemala, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway-Sweden, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United States. Even Grover Cleveland, who continued to oppose annexation, nevertheless changed his mind about the revolution's legitimacy under pressure from Congress and the Morgan Report, and sent a letter of de jure recognition on August 7, 1894. Thus the Republic was recognized internationally as the legitimate government of the still-independent nation of Hawaii. Here's a webpage explaining why Grover Cleveland changed his mind about the revolution: See "The Rest of the Rest of the Story" at

http://morganreport.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=The_Rest_of_The_Rest_of_The_Story

==================

EXAMPLE OF A SERIOUS ASSERTION OF THE FRAUDULENT CLAIM THAT THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII WAS NEVER INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED. THIS CLAIM WAS ASSERTED BY HAWAIIAN SOVEREIGNTY ACTIVIST KEANU SAI BEFORE A PANEL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW EXPERTS AT THE PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION AT THE HAGUE. AFTER THE CASE WAS DISMISSED MR. SAI AND HIS LEGION OF FOLLOWERS WIDELY PROCLAIMED THAT THE "WORLD COURT" HAD CONFIRMED THAT THE KINGDOM OF HAWAII CONTINUES TO EXIST AND IS THE LAWFUL GOVERNMENT OF HAWAII TODAY.

David Keanu Sai might appropriately be described as a sovereignty scam artist. He has had a high profile in the Hawaiian independence movement for about 20 years, claiming at various times to be Regent Pro-Tem of the Hawaiian Kingdom, or Acting Minister of the Interior, or Ambassador.

His first large-scale scam was a real estate title company known as "Perfect Title." Sai's company collected large fees from numerous clients for research showing that the title to any particular parcel of land was not valid because at some point the title had been transferred and recorded at a Bureau of Conveyances that lacked legitimacy from 1893 to the present due to the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom. But Keanu Sai as Regent Pro-Tem had the authority to retroactively condone and certify the transfer if that's what his client wanted; or else he could file a document challenging the existing title and asserting a claim to it for his clients on the grounds of their "native tenant rights." Perfect Title company collected at least $600,000 in fees for title searches and document filings which in the end were recognized to be bogus. The documents filed at the Bureau of Conveyances caused financial problems and needless anxiety to the legitimate owners of properties whose titles were clouded by the bogus filings. Although the scam certainly enriched its perpetrators, its primary purpose was to cause confusion in the real estate industry in order to call attention to claims about the alleged illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, illegal annexation, and illegal statehood vote. For a large webpage explaining the theory of the scam and providing dozens of news reports and commentaries, see:
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/fraudperfecttitle.html

Mr. Sai's next large scale sovereignty scam was to convene a panel of three experts in international law to hold hearings at the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague (Netherlands) regarding a trumped-up "dispute" between Keanu Sai, Regent Pro-Tem of the Hawaiian Kingdom, and Lance Larsen, a "subject" of the Kingdom. Larsen had been thrown in jail for repeatedly driving a car without State of Hawaii license plates, and demanded compensation from the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii for failing to protect him against illegal imprisonment by an illegitimate puppet regime of the United States. Sai and Larsen filed hundreds of pages of arguments about Hawaiian history and international law, in which they agreed with each other on all important issues. Since the three arbitrators (to each of whom they paid $10,000) were obligated to assume the correctness of every point not in dispute, Sai and Larsen hoped the arbitrators would issue a ruling that the Kingdom still exists as the rightful government of Hawaii under international law; and would then limit themselves to deciding whether Sai owed Larsen any money for Sai's failure to protect Larsen from being imprisoned by the illegal State of Hawaii operating as a puppet regime for the belligerent military occupation of Hawaii by the U.S. To read some news reports and analysis of this history scam, see:
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/fraudhague.html

A major argument necessary to show that the State of Hawaii has no rightful jurisdiction is the claim that the Republic of Hawaii was never recognized under international law as the legitimate (de jure) government of Hawaii. Here is the relevant portion of one of the documents filed by Keanu Sai with the Permanent Court of Arbitration. The entire document can be found at
http://www.alohaquest.com/arbitration/memorial_government.htm#One4

MEMORIAL OF THE
HAWAIIAN KINGDOM GOVERNMENT

presented to

The Permanent Court of Arbitration
at the Hague, the Netherlands

CHAPTER IV. The Unsuccessful Revolution of 1893.

B. Failed Revolutionists declare themselves the Republic of Hawai'i.
[This section B is copied in full, consisting of paragraphs 189 through 193. Comments by Ken Conklin follow those 4 paragraphs]

189. Unable to succeed at this first attempt of annexation, the self-proclaimed provisional government declared itself by contitutional convention to be the Republic of Hawai'i on July 4, 1894. [n320] This self-proclaimed Republic of Hawai'i maintained its opposition to the restoration of the Hawaiian Kingdom Government as called for by United States President Grover Cleveland. On the day of the Republic's proclamation, its so-called Minister of Foreign Affairs, Francis M. Hatch, sent a dispatch to U.S. Minister, Albert S. Willis, who was assigned to the Hawaiian Islands. [n321] Mr. Hatch apprised the U.S. Minister of the re-formation of the provisional government into the Republic of Hawai'i and the naming of its President and cabinet. Mr. Hatch also requested that the U.S. Minister Willis bestow recognition to the self-proclaimed Republic of Hawai'i.

190. The next day, U.S. Minister Willis responded by acknowledging the receipt of Hatch's dispatch and concluded that it could not offer any more recognition to the self-proclaimed Republic of Hawai'i than the U.S. President gave to the provisional government. The Arbitral Tribunal is requested to take judicial notice of this July 5, 1894 letter of correspondence to the self-proclaimed Republic of Hawai'i. The letter read that in:

"...reply to your note reciting the foregoing facts, I have the honor to inform you that I hereby, as far as I have the right so to do, extend to the Republic of Hawai'i the recognition accorded its predecessor, the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands. I do this in the belief that I represent the President of the United States, to whom, as the Executive Chief of the Government, my action in the premises will be promptly submitted for his necessary approval." n322]

191. Since President Cleveland made no subsequent approval of U.S. Minister Willis' conditional response to Mr. Hatch, the July 5th letter could not be construed to be diplomatically sanctioned. Futhermore, U.S. Minister Willis, in his letter, afforded the Republic of Hawai'i no more recognition than the provisional government held, which was neither de facto nor de jure. [n323]

192. On January 7, 1895, the Republic of Hawai'i declared martial law. [n324] This declaration was the self-proclaimed Republic's attempt to gain international recognition as the legitimate government of Hawai'i. On January 16, 1895, the self-proclaimed Republic of Hawai'i then arrested Her Majesty Queen Lili'uokalani and charged her with treason. [n325] These charges were later changed to "misprision of treason." On January 17, 1895, the self-proclaimed Republic convened a military commission to carry out the court martial of Her Majesty and her supporters. [n326] On January 24, 1895, while in prison, Her Majesty was forced to sign a document "abdicating the throne." [n327] She signed this document because the self-proclaimed Republic had threatened to execute the supporters if the Her Majesty did not sign. Sadly, on February 5, 1895, Her Majesty was arraigned before this so-called military tribunal. [n328] Her so-called trial began thereafter.

193. The above actions of the self-proclaimed Republic of Hawai'i clearly showed that it was not internationally recognized as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands. First and foremost, it was evident that the United States recognized that the Constitutional Government headed by Queen Lili'uokalani remained the de jure government after the unsuccessful revolution of January 17, 1893. [n329] Secondly, in accordance with Chapter III of the Hawaiian Penal Code, it was the Hawaiian Kingdom that possessed the "prosecutorial" authority to criminally try persons within the Kingdom, and not the self-proclaimed Republic of Hawai'i. [330] Thirdly, only the Queen, as head of state, by and with the advise of her Privy Council, could suspend the writ of habeas corpus and declare martial law. [331] And, finally, because there was no Minister of Her Majesty's Cabinet Council to counter-sign the Queen's so-called "abdication," which is mandated by Article 42 of the 1864 Constitution, it had no effect of law. [332]

** Comments by Ken Conklin regarding paragraphs 189-193.

Re Paragraph 189: President Cleveland had indeed tried to destabilize the provisional Government and restore the monarchy, from March through December 1893. However, when his efforts failed, he submitted the matter to Congress, which issued the Morgan Report on February 26, 1894. The Morgan Report repudiated the earlier report by Cleveland's hatchet-man James Blount, and concluded that the U.S. was not responsible for the revolution that overthrew the monarchy. As a result of the Morgan Report the Senate passed two resolutions demanding that the U.S. and other nations keep hands off Hawaii, in effect rebuking Cleveland for his efforts to restore the monarchy. Thereafter President Cleveland stopped interfering in Hawaii. The Republic of Hawaii was established on July 4, 1894, about 20 weeks after the Morgan Report was published and President Cleveland stopped interfering in Hawaii.

Re Paragraph 190: The very next day, on July 5, 1894, U.S. Minister Willis did indeed give a letter in reply to Mr. Hatch's request for recognition. But Paragraph 190 tries to cast a negative light on what was actually a very positive response. Minister Willis did all he was empowered to do on that occasion, giving immediately to the Republic of Hawaii the same recognition de facto which had been given to the provisional Government on January 18, 1893. Minister Willis made clear he would submit a request to President Cleveland for full recognition (see the photographs of the United States documents).

Re Paragraph 191: There are two outright lies here, and both are easily refuted by the facts.

(1) Sai says: "Since President Cleveland made no subsequent approval of U.S. Minister Willis' conditional response to Mr. Hatch, the July 5th letter could not be construed to be diplomatically sanctioned." But on the contrary, President Cleveland responded very favorably, and as quickly as possible (keeping in mind that mail had to be sent from Honolulu to Washington and back again by ship and train). On August 7 U.S. Secretary of State Gresham wrote a letter to Hawaii Minister Hatch informing him that President Cleveland had received President Dole's letter seeking recognition, and that a reply would be forthcoming. President Cleveland's letter dated August 7 was delivered to the Republic of Hawaii Executive Council on August 25. Also on August 25 the Executive Council received "a communication from U.S. Minister Willis of this day enclosing office copies of letters [dated August 7] from President Cleveland and Secretary Gresham recognising the Republic of Hawaii, and asking for an appointment with President Dole to present the originals." Then on August 27, 1894 "Mr. A.S. Willis, U.S. Minister came in at 11 a.m. by appointment and presented a letter from President Cleveland, [signed and sealed] recognising the Hawaiian Republic." (See minutes of the Executive Council, copied below.)

(2) Sai says in Paragraph 191: "Futhermore, U.S. Minister Willis, in his letter, afforded the Republic of Hawai'i no more recognition than the provisional government held, which was neither de facto nor de jure." As stated earlier, without authorization from President Cleveland, Minister Willis was only able to give de facto recognition. But Sai is lying when he says the Provisional Government had not been given de facto recognition. The letter of de facto recognition dated January 18, 1893 was published in the Honolulu newspapers at that time and its text can be found in the Morgan Report.

Re Paragraph 192: Sai says "On January 7, 1895, the Republic of Hawai'i declared martial law. This declaration was the self-proclaimed Republic's attempt to gain international recognition as the legitimate government of Hawai'i." But that's absurd. Sai makes it seem martial law was declared as soon as the Republic was created; or that the purpose of declaring martial law was to get international recognition. But January 7, 1895 was a full 6 months after the Republic was established, and after at least 19 nations had already given full diplomatic recognition. The reason the Republic of Hawaii declared martial law was in response to the bloody attempted counter-revolution by Robert Wilcox, in which Liliuokalani was a co-conspirator. Indeed the ex-queen was charged with treason, for very good reason. Indeed she did write a five-page letter of abdication, and also an oath of loyalty to the Republic of Hawaii, both dated January 24, 1895. The text of those documents is made available below. She had private advice and counsel from her personal attorney and from members of her former cabinet before executing those documents; as they swore in a notarized document. Her abdication and loyalty oath were as free and voluntary as the confession of any criminal today who is held in jail awaiting trial and who signs a confession on advice of his attorney either out of remorse or as part of a plea-bargain.

Re Paragraph 193: Sai says: "The above actions of the self-proclaimed Republic of Hawai'i clearly showed that it was not internationally recognized as the de facto government of the Hawaiian Islands." But that's a boldfaced lie. There is indisputable evidence that at least 19 nations gave formal letters of recognition de jure to the Republic of Hawaii between July and December of 1894. Sai says "First and foremost, it was evident that the United States recognized that the Constitutional Government headed by Queen Lili'uokalani remained the de jure government after the unsuccessful revolution of January 17, 1893." But that's absurd. U.S. President Cleveland gave full recognition to the Republic on August 7, 1894. And the revolution of January 17, 1893 was very successful indeed. The remainder of paragraph 193 is completely ridiculous, because there was no longer any Kingdom of Hawaii nor any Queen nor any Queen's cabinet ministers.

The "Memorial of the Hawaiian Kingdom Government" written by Keanu Sai is a good example of outright historical fraud. The letters from foreign governments recognizing the Republic of Hawaii are easily found in the state Archives. By starting with the lie that the Republic was never recognized, Keanu Sai and his legion of zealous followers build a tangled web of fanciful falsehoods -- a fairy-tale castle in the air of a still-living Kingdom of Hawaii. As Sir Walter Scott said, "Oh what a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive."

==============

THE ACTUAL LETTERS OF FULL DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION DE JURE FROM 19 FOREIGN NATIONS (Photographs of the originals personally signed by heads of government, and of some English translations, plus plain-text explanations and analyses)

Letters of formal de jure recognition of the Republic of Hawaii were received from August 1894 through at least January 1895, from the monarchs and/or heads of government of at least the following 19 nations (in alphabetical order): Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Britain, Chile, China, France, Germany(Prussia), Guatemala, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway-Sweden, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United States. In addition the Kingdom of Hawaii gave formal recognition to the Republic as the rightful government, in the form of a letter of abdication and an oath of loyalty signed by ex-queen Liliuokalani under advice of and witnessed by her personal attorney and former cabinet ministers.

The letters of formal de jure recognition are kept in the archives of the State of Hawaii, in box FO&EX-44, in the folder entitled "Republic, Recognition of the" and in another larger "flat" folder.

On Tuesday March 25, 2008 photographer Sandra Puanani Burgess and her assistant Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D., spent most of the day in the archives photographing the original letters of recognition personally signed by the emperors, kings, queens, princes, and presidents of 19 foreign nations; and the accompanying English translations of some of them, and the accompanying cover letters from the various ministers of foreign affairs. In addition, the original letter of abdication and original oath of loyalty to the Republic personally signed by ex-queen Liliuokalani were also photographed, because those documents were, in effect, a letter from the head of the Kingdom of Hawaii giving formal recognition to the Republic of Hawaii as the legitimate government, just as the heads of other nations were also doing.

The entire collection of photographs, nicely organized by nation, can be found at

Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

For readers who might be interested only in one particular nation's letter(s), here is a link to the Liliuokalani documents followed by links to all 19 foreign nations, in alphabetical order. Readers looking for documents that are visually spectacular should see the ones from China and Russia. The letter from Britain (Queen Victoria) is especially significant because of the very important role Britain played throughout the history of the Hawaiian Kingdom and the special relationship between Queen Victoria and ex-queen Liliuokalani. And of course the documents from the United States are important because of President Grover Cleveland's nine-month-long attempt to destroy the Provisional Government; and the abusive treatment previously given to Hawaii President Dole by U.S. Secretary of State Gresham and U.S. Minister to Hawaii Albert Willis (Willis personally handed President Cleveland's letter of recognition to President Dole, and made a pretty speech whose contents are included in the U.S. documents).

Kingdom of Hawaii (Liliuokalani abdication and loyalty oath, original personally signed documents)

Austria-Hungary

Belgium

Brazil

Britain

Chile

China

France

Germany/Prussia

Guatemala

Italy

Mexico

Netherlands

Sweden-Norway

Peru

Portugal

Russia

Spain

Switzerland

United States

=============

EXCERPTS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE MEETINGS OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII, RELATED TO DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION

Sanford B. Dole was President of the Republic of Hawaii. The Executive Council was comparable to the Privy Council of the Kingdom of Hawaii, or comparable to what today in the United States would be called the inner Cabinet. The Executive Council held meetings every few days, as needed. William O. Smith, Attorney General of the Republic, acted as secretary of the Executive Council and wrote official "minutes" of each meeting in his own handwriting, which he then signed on each occason. The original books of "Minutes of the Executive Council" are available in the Archives of the State of Hawaii. Below are excerpts taken from those minutes, in chronological order, which are relevant to the letters of diplomatic recognition of the Republic. There might be a small number of spelling errors or incorrect copying because the handwriting of William O. Smith is somewhat different from today's handwriting, and because the letter "s" was then used where we today would use "z", and because some pages are faded or spotted.

The letter of recognition from U.S. President Grover Cleveland, and its delivery by Minister Willis, must have been especially gratifying to President Dole for two reasons. First, remember that President Cleveland had done everything in his power to destabilize the Provisional Government and put Liliuokalani back on the throne, throughout 1893. Second, the man who delivered President Cleveland's letter of recognition to President Dole was Mr. Albert S. Willis, U. S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary -- the same Minister Willis who only a few months previously, on December 19, 1893, had delivered an official letter to President Dole on behalf of Grover Cleveland ordering Dole to step down and restore the ex-queen. That letter from Willis to Dole can be seen at
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/doleusdemandrestorequeen12191893.html
Dole's blistering reply, delivered to Willis at midnight of December 23, 1893 can be seen at
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/dolerefusal12231893.html

** Excerpts from the Minutes of the Executive Council of the Republic of Hawaii, handwritten by W.O. Smith and signed by him:

p.73; July 6, 1894
"Mr. Hatch presented a letter from A.S. Willis, U.S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, under date of July 5, received by him on yesterday, recognising the Republic."

pp.91-92; August 25, 1894 [the entire entry for that date is copied here]
"Present Ministers Hatch, King, Damon, and Smith
Mr. Hatch presented a communication from Secretary of State, W.G. Gresham of Aug 7th 1894 informing him that President Cleveland had received President Dole's letter informing him of the establishment of the Republic of Hawaii, and stating that President Cleveland's reply would be forwarded through the U.S. Minister. Also informing him of the recognition of ThP Hastings as Hawaiian Secretary of Legation.
Also a communication from U.S. Minister Willis of this day enclosing office copies of letters from
[start pg. 92]
President Cleveland and Secretary Gresham recognising the Republic of Hawaii, and asking for an appointment with President Dole to present the originals.
Mr. Hatch said he would acknowledge receipt of the communication, and state that President Dole is expected back tomorrow and an appointment would be made.
Adjourned
[signed] William O. Smith"

p.92; Aug 27, 1894
"Present President Dole and Ministers Hatch, King, Damon, and Smith also L.A. Thurston
Mr. A.S. Willis, U.S. Minister came in at 11 a.m. by appointment and presented a letter from President Cleveland, recognising the Hawaiian Republic"

[note from webpage editor Ken Conklin: minutes page 92 then continues without any break to other matters, which clearly prove that many ethnic Hawaiians held important positions in the Republic government:]

"On Minister Willis retiring the Council proceeded to consider other matters. It was voted to appoint the following District Magistrates, commissions to date from Sept. 1st 1894.

G.W.A. Hapai South Hilo Hawaii
Wm Kamau Puna "
J.H. Waipuilani E.W. Kau "
D. Kahaulilio Lahaina Maui
J.H.S. Kaleo Hana " "
[and many more, mostly Hawaiian names]

p.101; Sept. 10, 1894
"Mr. Hatch stated that Mons Verliye had called at the Foreign Office this morning and stated that he had received and stated that he had received [duplicated!] a communication from his (French) Government informing him that the Republic of Hawaii would be recognised and papers to that effect would be forwarded by mail."

p.123; Oct. 26, 1894
"Mr. Hatch stated that Mr. Hawes (British Commissioner etc) had just called to state that he had received a letter from the British Government to Pres. Dole conveying recognition from the Swiss Confederation.
...
It was voted to take steps at once to present to the British Government, through Mr. Hawes, the matter of removing the restrictions upon the immigration of Chinese from Hong Kong to Hawaii. Recognition having been given there remains no cause for delay in moving in the matter."

p.127; Nov 15, 1894
"Present President Dole and Ministers Hatch, King, Damon and Smith. Also by invitation Mr. Justice Bickerton (in absence of the Chief Justice), Mr. M Allen, Chairman of the Councils and Staff officers.
Capt. A.G.S Hawes, British Commissioner and Consul General called and presented an Autograph Letter from Queen Victoria recognizing the Republic"

p.129; Nov 20, 1894
"Mr. Dole asked Mr. Damon why the proceedings against the ex-queen for sale of land at Hilo, on execution, for non payment of taxes, were discontinued. Mr. Damon stated that the proceedings were stayed because the taxes were paid"

p.130; Nov 20, 1894
"Mr. Dole presented an autograph letter from the Emperor of Germany dated Oct 4, 1894 recognizing the Republic of Hawaii"

p.136; Dec. 13, 1894
"Mr. Dole presented a letter of recognition from the Republic of Chile under date of Oct 5, 1894
Mr. Hatch presented a telegram from L.A. Thurston dated Lisbon, Dec. 3rd Preliminary Draft treaty agreed upon probably shipment immigrants thirtieth December"
[Note from webpage editor Ken Conklin: Portugal and Hawaii were clearly negotiating a treaty regarding immigration from Portugal. Governments negotiate treaties with other governments that they recognize]

p.141; Dec 31, 1894
"Mr Hatch presented a note from Minister Willis dated Dec--1894 enclosing a reply from the Emperor of China acknowledging the Republic of Hawaii dated Oct--1894."
[Conklin's note: both dates indicated only with a dash]

[On pages 161-165 William O. Smith copied into the Minutes of the Executive Council in his own handwriting the entirety of ex-queen Liliuokalani's letter of abdication and her oath of loyalty to the Republic]

================

LETTER OF ABDICATION BY EX-QUEEN LILIUOKALANI, AND HER OATH OF LOYALTY TO THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII, BOTH PERSONALLY SIGNED BY HER AND DATED JANUARY 24, 1895, WITNESSED BY HER PERSONAL ATTORNEY AND FORMER CABINET MINISTERS, AND NOTARIZED.

In January 1895 there was an attempted royalist counter-revolution led by Robert Wilcox, which was defeated by the military forces of the Republic (no U.S. military forces had been present in the islands for nearly two years). Guns and bombs were found in the flower bed of the ex-queen's private home (Washington Place), and she was arrested on charges of conspiracy in treason (officially the charge was "misprision of treason"). Also found among Liliuokalani's personal papers in her home were documents she had signed appointing cabinet ministers and other officials for her anticipated new government, thus clearly proving she had conspired in the Wilcox counter-revolution attempt. Liliuokalani was placed on trial along with numerous co-conspirators, facing a possible death penalty. She then made the decision to formally abdicate the throne, and swore an oath of allegiance to the Republic of Hawaii.

The originals of Liliuokalani's personally signed letter of abdication and oath of loyalty to the Republic of Hawaii are kept locked in a safe in the Archives of the State of Hawaii. Photographs of those originals were taken by Sandra Puanani Burgess, assisted by Ken Conklin, on March 25, 2008, and can be seen here:

Liliuokalani abdication and loyalty oath, original personally signed documents

The printed text of her abdication and loyalty oath (capable of being copy/pasted), as copied from a book, are available here:

http://www.angelfire.com/planet/big60/LiliuAbdication.html

Liliuokalani's statements are very strong. Among other things, she says:

"I hereby do fully and unequivocally admit and declare that the Government of the Republic of Hawaii is the only lawful Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that the late Hawaiian monarchy is finally and forever ended, and no longer of any legal or actual validity, force or effect whatsoever; and I do hereby forever absolve all persons whomsoever, whether in the Hawaiian Islands or elsewhere, from all and every manner of allegiance, or official obligation or duty, to me and my heirs and successors forever, and I hereby declare to all such persons in the Hawaiian Islands that I consider them as bound in duty and honor henceforth to support and sustain the Government of the Republic of Hawaii."

Some may say that Liliuokalani's abdication and loyalty oath were obtained under duress and are therefore not valid. But following her arrest for conspiracy in the Wilcox attempted counter-revolution, Liliuokalani had constant free contact with and advice from close friends and Kingdom government officials whom she herself had previously appointed and personally trusted. She also freely consulted in private with her personal attorney Paul Neumann, a citizen of Germany who at her request had drafted her proposed new Constitution which precipitated the revolution of 1893. Thus her abdication and loyalty oath would stand up to scrutiny even under today's very generous standards for judging whether a prisoner's confession was given freely and voluntarily, and under advice of counsel.

===============

CONCLUSION

The revolution that overthrew the monarchy in January 1893 was perfectly legitimate. It was done entirely by a heavily armed local militia following a mass meeting attended by 1500 men, which took over government buildings, disarmed the royal guard, and placed the ex-queen under house arrest (President Dole's new government paid the ex-queen's former royal guard to provide friendly protection for her). The U.S. sent in 162 peacekeepers to protect lives and property and prevent rioting and arson. But the U.S. peacekeepers were never actually used, because the revolutionists were strong enough not only to take over the government but also to maintain law and order afterward.

Within two days, every nation which had diplomatic relations with the Kingdom gave de facto recognition to the new Provisional Government. The Provisional Government held power on its own, with zero assistance from the U.S. After April 1 1894, throughout the 4 years of Grover Cleveland's presidency, there were no U.S. troops "occupying" Hawaii.

The Provisional Government adopted a constitution, held elections, and became the Republic of Hawaii. The Republic was internationally recognized, receiving formal letters of full de jure recognition from at least 19 nations during the second half of 1894. No nation ever filed any protest against the revolution with either the Provisional Government of Hawaii or the Republic of Hawaii, nor any protest with the government of the United States.

Thus, in 1898 when a new U.S. administration under a more friendly President William McKinley came into office, the Republic of Hawaii had a four year history as the internationally recognized de jure government of Hawaii with full authority to speak on behalf of Hawaii and to offer a treaty of annexation to the United States.

The Republic struck a hard bargain with the U.S., ceding control of the public lands to the U.S. to be held in trust for the people of Hawaii (not to be kept permanently by the U.S.), with revenue to be used solely for all the people of Hawaii "for education and other public purposes." And in return the U.S. paid off all the debts of Hawaii, most of which had been accumulated during the monarchy to pay for the construction of Iolani Palace and for King Kalakaua's trip around the world, his coronation, and other lavish lifestyle expenditures. The Hawaii public debt paid by the U.S. was larger than the market value of all the ceded lands; thus, in effect, the U.S. purchased the ceded lands but held them in trust for Hawaii rather than simply adding them to the U.S. land bank.

Today's Hawaiian sovereignty activists are lying when they say the Kingdom remains the rightful government of Hawaii under international law. They are lying when they say that the public lands of Hawaii were "stolen" without the consent of nor compensation to the Hawaiians. Of course there were people who did not like the new government of Hawaii. There are always people who do not like any particular government. But an internationally recognized government has full authority under international law to speak on behalf of the nation, including the right to offer itself for annexation and to place its lands under the trusteeship of the annexing government.

Whatever fanciful theories of "international law" might be conjured up today, the fact remains that during the period 1893-1898 there was no League of Nations, no United Nations, no International Court of Justice, etc. "International law" was whatever the consensus of the nations of the world considered it to be. No nation ever protested the Hawaiian revolution of 1893 nor the annexation of 1898. No nation ever refused to do business with first the Provisional Government, then the Republic of Hawaii, and then the United States as being the government of Hawaii. Every local consul in Honolulu in 1893 gave immediate de facto recognition to the Provisional Government. At least 19 nations sent formal letters of de jure recognition from their head of state to Republic of Hawaii President Sanford Dole during the last half of 1894, including the Tsar of Russia, Queen Victoria of Britain, the Emperor of Germany, the Emperor of China, President Cleveland of the United States, etc.

===============

THE ARCHIVES OF THE STATE OF HAWAII; AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS OF WHO HELPED WITH THIS PROJECT TO UNCOVER THE LETTERS OF RECOGNITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII.

The letters of recognition of the Republic of Hawaii have been "hidden in plain sight", as one might say, for more than a century. They were treasured possessions of the Republic of Hawaii. They were placed in the Archives building of the Territory of Hawaii after that building was constructed on the grounds of Iolani Palace in 1906 (for the research needs of the Territorial Legislature which met in the former throne room of the Palace from 1900 to 1968). This "old" Archives building was named the Kanaina Building in honor of the high chief who was the father of King Lunalilo.

When the new archives building was completed in 1953 (also on the Palace grounds), the older building became the headquarters of the Friends of Iolani Palace. The new Archives building was named the Kekauluohi Building in honor of the chiefess who was the mother of King Lunalilo and who served as Kuhina Nui under King Kauikeaouli Kamehameha III. According to an article in the Honolulu Star-Bulletin of September 19, 2006, the new building "was quite modern for the time, even if it did feature an oil-fired boiler and smokestack to power the air-conditioning system. It also featured a construction-grade floor slab twice as thick as usually poured, bank-vault-type security doors and an industrial elevator. Plus a basement. ... records were moved from the old archives to the new via a plywood chute or slide ... Today, it's all about preservation and climate control. It may be the only building in Hawaii that's insect-free."

The letters of recognition are so easy to find in the Archives that Hawaiian sovereignty activists who spend lots of time doing research must surely have stumbled across them; yet those activists have consistently failed to mention them and have repeatedly made a point of denying that the Republic ever had full diplomatic recognition from even one other nation. One sovereignty activist even presented statements to an international "court" at the Hague (Netherlands), intended to be taken very seriously, explicitly stating that the Republic of Hawaii was never recognized by other nations. Thus the activists have twisted history and committed historical malpractice to serve their own political purposes. Finding the letters of recognition required only a few hours in the Archives by Ken Conklin, and the cooperation of the reference librarian and an archivist who brought some materials out of the safe. Several more hours were spent on a different day by Sandra Puanani Burgess, with assistance from Ken Conklin, to take approximately 100 photographs of the letters of recognition and related materials. So now the truth finally comes out that the Republic of Hawaii was indeed formally recognized by at least nineteen other nations as the legitimate de jure (lawful) government of Hawaii.

This project was done by the following people:

Sandra Puanani Burgess, photographer.
spburgess@hawaii.rr.com

Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D., researcher, organizer of the project, writer of photograph narratives and webpage analyses; and photographer's assistant.
Ken_Conklin@yahoo.com

Jere Krischel, website and internet expert who organized the placement of over 200 megabytes of photographs, narratives and analyses on a website.
jere@krischel.org

Luella H. Kurkjian, Archivist
luella.h.kurkjian@hawaii.gov
Special thanks to Ms. Kurkjian who discovered some letters we did not know were there, confirmed that some things we hoped were there are not there, and reorganized some chaotic files to make life easier for future researchers. Her professionalism reassures us that these treasures are well protected, and her pleasant demeanor eased the pain of working within the limitations of security rules which are restrictive but clearly necessary.

Thanks also to some people at the Center for Chinese Studies at the University of Hawaii (Manoa) who provided historical, cultural, and linguistic assistance regarding China's five-panel accordion-folded Mandarin-language letter of recognition. They humbly prefer to remain anonymous, for reasons which will remain unspoken.

Below are photos of Sandra Puanani Burgess and Ken Conklin on March 25, 2008 when they took over a hundred photographs of the letters of recognition.
(1) Looking at documents in a folder (only one folder allowed at a time);
(2) Showing the letter of recognition from China;
(3) On the steps of the Kanaina Building (old archives);
(4) At the entrance to the Kekauluohi Building (new archives) where the documents are now stored.






==================

Send comments or questions to:
Ken_Conklin@yahoo.com

You may now

See the compilation of webpages about Historical Issues Related to Hawaiian Sovereignty -- Revolution (Overthrow of monarchy), Annexation, Statehood, Indigenous Status, Hawaiian Language Ban, Ceded Lands, Etc.

or

Read about the man to whom emperors, kings, queens, princes, and presidents sent letters of recognition: Sanford Ballard Dole -- Elected Legislator and Appointed Supreme Court Justice of the Kingdom of Hawai'i; President of the Provisional Government and of the Republic of Hawai'i; Governor of the Territory of Hawai'i, and Presiding Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Territory of Hawai'i

or

Get a free preview of the book "Hawaiian Apartheid: Racial Separatism and Ethnic Nationalism in the Aloha State"

or

GO BACK TO OTHER TOPICS ON THIS WEBSITE