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Beginning XHTML

HTML Quick Reference
Document Structure
<html></html> start and end of HTML document
<head></head> document meta-information start and end
<body></body> content of document displayed by browser
Body Tag Attributes
<body background="URL"> sets background texture to image at URL
<body bgcolor="#rrggbb"> sets background to color with red, green, blue values given by hexadecimal rr, gg, bb
<body text="#rrggbb"> sets text color
<body link="#rrggbb"> sets unvisited links color
<body vlink="#rrggbb"> sets visited links color
<body alink="#rrggbb"> sets active links color
Document Title
<title></title> document title; goes in head
Comments
<!-- comment --> comment; not displayed by browser
Text Separators
<h1></h1>... <h6></h6> headings from level 1 (major) to 6 (minor)
<hr /> horizontal rule
<hr size="thickness" /> horizontal rule that is thickness pixels high
<br /> line break
<p></p> paragraph start and end
<p align="left|center|right"></p> paragraph start and end, with text aligned left, center, or right
Text formatting
<b></b> bold
<i></i> italic
<tt></tt> typewriter
<pre></pre>
preformatted text; 
preserves line breaks
<sup></sup> superscript
<sub></sub> subscript
<center></center> centers text
<blink></blink> rendered as blinking text
<font size="size"></font> font set to size, ranging from 1 to 7
<font size="+|-step"></font> font size stepped up (+) or down (-) by step
<font color="#rrggbb"></font> font set to color given by hexadecimal red, green, and blue values, RRGGBB
Lists and Blocks of Text
<ul></ul> unordered list (items marked with <Li>)
<ol></ol> ordered list (items marked with <Li>)
<dl></dl> definition list (terms marked with <dt>, definitions marked with <dd>)
<blockquote></blockquote> extended quotation
<address></address> address; often used for document author identification
Link Anchors
<a href="URL">Hotspot</a> anchor linking Hotspot text to document URL
<a name="Jump">Text</a> anchor with name Jump associated with Text
<a href="URL#Jump">Hotspot</a> anchor with jump from Hotspot to anchor named Jump in document URL
Images
<img src="URL" /> inserts image at URL into document
<img src="URL" alt="string" /> displays string for non-graphical browsers instead of image
<img src="URL" align="top|bottom|middle" /> sets alignment of text after image
<img src="URLi" href="URLm" ismap /> makes image at URL given by URLi a map, defined by a map file given at URLm
<img src="URL" width="width" height="height" /> sets image to be width pixels wide by height pixels high
Forms
<form action="URL" method="get|post"></form> a form with a gateway program at URL and using a method
<input name="name" type="checkbox |hidden |image |password |radio |reset |submit |text" /> Input element with a specific type and symbolic name, name
<textarea name="name" rows="R" cols="C"></textarea> Text area (lines of editable text) with symbolic name, name and R rows and C columns visible at a time
<select name="name" size="N" multiple></select> Select element with symbolic name, name, N selections visible at a time; and multiple selections possible; selections defined using "option"
<option value="string"></option> Option element used with select; with returned value string
Tables
<table border></table> start and stop of a Table with a border
<caption align="top|bottom"></caption> start and stop of the caption, placed on the top or bottom of the table
<tr></tr> start and stop of a row
<th colspan="C" rowspan="R"></th> start and stop of a header cell spanning C columns and R rows
<td colspan="C" rowspan="R"></td> start and stop of a data cell spanning C columns and R rows
<th|td align="left|right|center"></th|td> sets horizontal alignment of item in header or data cell
<th|td valign="top|middle|bottom"></th|td> sets vertical alignment of item in header or data cell
<th|td width="width"></th|td> sets the horizontal width of header or data cell by width, in pixels
Frames
<frameset rows="number[ | % | *] | *,..." cols="number[ | % | *] | *,..."></frameset> brackets frame elements in an HTML document substituting for the body element; with the list of comma-separated values defining each column or row size: number in pixels, or just * to fill in rest, or number followed by % or * to share the rest of the space;
<frame src="URL" name="text" marginwidth="value" marginheight="value" scrolling="yes|no|auto" noresize /> defines frames with document at URL and with name text
<noframes></noframes> brackets content to be rendered in browsers which do not render frames
<a target="frame_name|_self|_parent|_top|_blank"></a> additional attribute of anchor element to define in which frame anchor content will be displayed










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