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Atomic Bomb:

     For centuries world leaders dreamed of the perfect bomb.  After decades of research and experimentation, the perfect bomb was created. It was the atom bomb.  It was only known to work through theory.   The atom bomb was finally tested at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945.  After the first successful test, its existence was released, but how it worked was still kept a secret.
     The atomic bomb is an explosive nuclear weapon that is fueled by the fusion of specific isotopes of uranium or plutonium.  European scientists such as Albert Einstein invented the atomic bomb.  The atom bomb was very dangerous.  It had the strength of thousands of tons of TNT.   The atom bomb weighed over 9000 pounds. The atom bomb was successfully dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 3, 1945, and on August 6, 1945.   The Japanese surrendered, and the war was ended.
     In this present time, several nations still hold nuclear arms.  They are the U.S., Russia, the U.K., France, China, India, and Pakistan.  South Africa has also admitted to constructing, yet dismantling the bombs later.  Other nations are still suspected of having secret arms.  Although some countries develop atomic bombs, new prototypes are still being tested.  Due to the conquest of power, enough atomic bombs, small and large, have been developed to destroy the whole earth.


     Before the development of the transistor, electronics  developed on the use of thermionic vacuum tubes, magnetic amplifiers, specialized rotary machinery, and special capacitors that were used as amplifiers.  American physicists
Walter Houser Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Bradford Shockley of Bell Telephone Companies developed the transistor.  The invention of the transistor led to the 1956 Nobel Prize in physics.  This was a humongous step in electronics.  Even though the transistor was invented a couple decades ago, it is still in use.
     Transistors are still used in such electronics as computers, phones, radios, and any other type of electronic device.  The circuit was later invented about a decade after the transistor.  As one can see, the transistor has paved a way for many revolutionary improvements.  The transistor will probably continue to be used into the 21st century and beyond.


     Laser stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.  Arthur Leonard Schawlow and
Charles Hard Townes, both American physicists, on their 1958 patent application, outlined the principles of lasers.  The patent was granted, but later the American physicist and engineer Gordon Gould challenged it.  In 1960 Theodore Maiman observed the first experiment of laser action in a solid ruby.  In 1961, Iranian-born American physicist, Ali Javan, developed the helium-neon gas laser.  Then in 1966, American physicist Peter Sorokin, developed the liquid laser.  The construction of the laser was completed.
     Lasers are still used.  They are used in such areas as industries, medicine, communication, scientific research, the military, and in the arts.  It is a very useful instrument, and it will continue to be used for centuries to come.