1893 Westinghouse Stopper
This is the type of lamp used at at the 1893 Worlds Fair in Chicago. It was invented in 1892 by George Westinghouse to avoid infringing Edison patents. Instead of using an all glass structure, The lamp uses a glass stopper that is glued into the end. The filanment is made of a carbonized gun cottom material similar to the Weston Tamedine filament. The lamp also uses Iron lead in wires, which caused leakage. The lamps were only produced for one year, as in 1894, the Edison patents expired.
1893 New Beacon Stopper Lamp
During the early 1890's, Edison held the patenst for a lamp with an all glass enclosure to hold a vacume. Many companies were taken to court for patent infringment, others went out of buisness. A few companies, such as Westinghouse, Sawyer Man, Packard, and New Beacon, produced lamps that avoided an all glass enclosure. Such "Stopper" lamps had either a two piece stem and envelope, or no stem at all. The New Beacon Stopper was sealed off by filling the bottom of the lamp with an imperviouse cement. The lead in wires ran through the cement and had two brass radiators attached to each lead in, as well as a mice sheild to help keep the cement cool. There is no real stem structure. The "Stopper" lamps had poorly sealed vacumes, and didnt sell very well, and in 1894, when the Edison patents expired, all companies went bacl to all glass enclosures.
1893 Packard Pollard Lamp
The Pollard lamp, along with several other lamps, such as the Novac and Westinghouse stopper were made in 1893 to go around infringing the Edison patents. The method of avoiding these patenst used on the pollard was avoiding the use of platinum lead in wires through the stem press. Insteda, two thin filams of powdered Silver were embeded in the glass, with am Iron wire extending from the stem press, as can be seen in the picture. All this resulted in a complicated manufacturing process. The lamps with the same "Pollard Press" were also made by the Buckeye Company.
1892 United States Based Perkins Lamp
This lamp was made on January 20th 1892 as is stated on a label mounted on the glass inside of the base. The base is a United States type, and is quite scarce. The bulb was made by the Perkins/Mather company
1895 Ft. Wayne Tipless lamp
This lamp was intoduced by Ft. Wayne in 1895, and was produced with no tip, by exausting in the tubulated method, which, the tip can be seen in the stem well.
1894 Tubular New Type Edison
1890 Edison Lamp
Thompson Houston Based Hairpin Lamp
lamp has a hairpin filament and is secured in the base with plaster.
Westinghouse based Incandescent Lamp
This lamp, circa 1899 has a straight sided envelope and a plaster insulated base. it also had a supported two loop filament and is plaster secured.
New Type Edison
This early Edison lamp has an extremely early straight sided envelope. The skirted Edison base is plaster insulated. It features a double stem press and a carbon hairpin filament.