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Dr. Mark Mraz

Hist.106 United States History to 1865

Reading Guide

John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes, The American Nation: A History of the United States, 10th edition (New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 2000),

Chapter 1 Europe Discovers America
Ancestors of Native Americans came from northeastern Asia to Alaska
Leif Ericson
Amerigo Vespucci
economic motivation for Columbusís expedition
Prince Henry the Navigator
Treaty of Tordesillas (a.k.a. Papal Demarcation Line)
Balboa, Cortez, Magellan, Pizzaro, Ponce de Leon, Navarez, de Vaca, de Soto, Coronado; see map, p. 7 and 8
Spanish colonization was a record of aggression, expropriation, enslavement, conquest and extermination.
Inca and Aztec civilizations
3 common traits of Native Americans and Europeans
the attitude of racial superiority of Europeans toward Native Americans
The concept of property ownership was alien to Native Americans.
What was the difference between Indians and Europeans in warfare?
an American holocaust, genocide
Spanish, French, and English needs for the Indians
Small pox and measles decimated the indigenous population.
John Cabot, Verrazano, Cartier
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Newfoundland
Raleigh, Virginia, Roanoke Island (the Lost Colony)
Richard Hakluyt: 4 reasons for British colonization
Virginia, London Co., Jamestown, joint stock company
malaria, Indian attacks, arduous work, indentured service
Captain Smith and Pocahontas had a very mad affair. When her daddy tried to kill him she said,
"Daddy now donít you dare."
a cash crop: tobacco
The House of Burgesses and representative government
Edwin Sandys, mismanagement, loss of charter
Puritans wanted to purify the Church of England.
The Pilgrims who went to Plymouth Plantation under William Bradford believed that the Church
of England was irreformable and advocated separation from the Church of England.
Mayflower Compact
Massachusetts Bay Co.
William Laud pressured the Puritans.
Puritans of Massachusetts Bay Co. who went to Boston under John Winthrop were not
The colony was to be "a Citty upon a 'Hill," a holy commonwealth, a "modelle of Christian
Voting rights were restricted to male church members.
Roger Williams
Anne Hutchinson

Henry Hudson
proprietors; George Calvert (a.k.a. Lord Baltimore)
Maryland Toleration Act
The British took over New Amsterdam.
Berkeley and Carteret: New Jersey
Quakers, William Penn, "The Holy Experiment"
Interaction of Europeans with Native Americans
the fur trade
Europeans considered themselves superior to the Indian "savages."

Chapter 2 American Society in the Making
3 difficulties in settling Chesapeake Bay

land ownership: the headright system
land tax: the quitrent
indentured servants
Explain class struggle in Virginia between landowners and squatters.
2 reasons why there was prejudice against Africans
4 reasons why slaves became a more common source of labor than indentured servants
the advantages of plantations
Baconís Rebellion
3 consequences of Baconís Rebellion .
Since the south could trade produce for manufactured goods it did not industrialize, whereas the north had to develop manufacturing.
Slave Codes in South Carolina in 1740. 3 restrictions on enslaved persons.
As English speaking and skilled enslaved persons became more valuable they also became more
Some Quakers opposed slavery from the beginning.
the life of southern women
The Anglican Church was the established religion in Virginia.
Scotch-Irish and German immigrants populated the backcountry in the 1770ís.
In Puritan New England the nuclear family was the basic unit in society. The father was boss and was responsible for the support and behavior of all family members.
the role of Puritan women ; and children
The Halfway Covenant of the 1660's; its relationship to voting; its reflection of religious
the role of government in supporting religion in New England
town meetings and local government
The charter given to the Massachusetts Bay Co. was revoked in 1684, and Massachusetts became a royal colony under Edmund Andros.
the Salem witch trials
Harvard College was established in 1636 to train clergymen.
The literacy of white males in New England was almost universal.
The geography prevented New Englanders from raising a cash crop and so they turned to
banking, fishing, and ship building.
triangular trade,map on p. 62
The middle colonies kept livestock and grew wheat for local consumption and export.
the diverse population of the middle colonies
Leislerís Rebellion
John Peter Zenger and freedom of the press
the Paxton Boys and results of their uprising
rebellious women: Anne Hutchinson, women of Salem, Quaker women, Baconís Rebellion
In politics there was a shift from monarchism to equality. There was not this shift in family life.

Chapter 3 America in the British Empire
The colonies were the king's to do with as he wished.
the rights of Englishmen everywhere in the colonies
the economic importance of the colonies to Britain
Navigation Acts
effects of mercantilism
salutary neglect
The interests of the colonists were primarily local, but there was a growing consciousness of being American.
George Whitefield ; and his opponents
Jonathan Edwards
"The Great Awakening was the first truly national event in American history."
Unitarianism; Benjamin Franklin was a deist.
Ben Franklin, a son of the Enlightenment
The French and English clashed over the fur trade. The French, allied with the Algonquins and the Hurons, clashed with the English and the Iroquois Confederation.
G. Washington was sent to the Pennsylvania frontier.
Braddockís defeat
Wolfe defeated Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham, and France lost Canada to England.
Peace of Paris, 1763. Half a continent changed hands. See map, 89.
Economic conditions had changed.
Americans wanted to expand westward.
Franklinís Albany Plan (of Union) was rejected.
Garratyís opinion: King George III was not a tyrant; a jerk, maybe, but not a tyrant.
The British looked down on the Americans during the war.
Garratyís opinion: Harsh British measures following the French and Indian War led to the
American Revolution.
Homes in Massachusetts were searched for contraband without a court order.
Pontiacís Rebellion
Proclamation Line; see map 93
the Grenville Acts; Smugglers would be tried in British, not colonial, courts.
Taxation without representation; James Otis; Locke said that property cannot be taken without consent.
"virtual" representation
The colonists would not be satisfied with representation in Parliament.
the Stamp Act
a direct tax
the Stamp Act Congress
the Sons of Liberty
Britain had to make its defiant children obey.
The British did not think of the colonists as their equals.
The boycott hurt British merchants who pressured Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act.
the Declaratory Act
the Townshend Acts
Circular Letters from the Massachusetts General Court (i.e. the legislature)
John Dickinsonís Letters from a Farmer: Parliament had no right to tax the colonists.
the Boston Massacre
The Townshend Acts, except the tea tax, were repealed.
the burning of the Gaspee
the Committees of Correspondence
the British East India Tea Company
Lord Northís plan
The colonists had to pay a small tax on imported tea.
the Boston Tea Party
Britainís hard-headed response
3 Coercive Acts
Most colonists were willing to accept some regulation by the British Empire, but Parliament nsisted on its unlimited authority over the colonies.
the First Continental Congress; the Galloway Plan

Chapter 4 The American Revolution
"The New England governments are in a state of rebellion. Blows must decide whether they are to be subject to this country or independent." (King George III)
Redcoats occupied Boston, and the minuteman mobilized.
Lexington and Concord
the Olive Branch Petition
4 reasons why many colonists were reluctant to break away from England
Tom Paine wrote Common Sense. He called for independence. The king is a brute and a tyrant.
4 (out of 27) "injuries and usurpations"
4 advantages of the Americans
4 advantages of the British
3 weaknesses of the Americans
John Adams said that 1/3 of the colonists fought for independence, 1/3 were loyal to Britain, 1/3 were fence straddlers.
Garraty says that two-fifths were patriots; one-fifth was loyal to Britain.
4 motivations for remaining loyal to Britain
Washington crossing the Delaware, boost in morale, Trenton, Princeton
Saratoga changed the course of the war.
It led to an alliance with France.
Valley Forge, Lafayette
victory at Yorktown
terms of the Treaty of Paris

State constitutions created weak governors and strong legislatures.
Who will rule America?
the end of primogeniture, quitrents and established churches in some places
property requirement for voting
4 effects of the Revolution on women
In the American Revolution the desire for independence came before the creation of a national government. National unity was necessary to win the war for independence.
some pre-Revolutionary nationalism
Land Ordinance of 1785
Land Ordinance of 1785; steps to statehood

Chapter 5 The Federalist Era: Nationalism Triumphant
3 significant accomplishments that show that the government under the Articles of Confederation was not totally chaotic
The British still occupied the frontier.
The British stirred up the Indians against the Americans.
Many states did not pay debts owed to Britain nor did they restore property to loyalists.
Spain closed the lower Mississippi River to commerce.
Britain still tried to enforce mercantilism on America.
4 problems in economic hard times
The Articles of Confederation did not authorize Congress to impose tariffs.
inflation and debt
Shaysís Rebellion
the Annapolis Convention
Hamilton proposed a convention in Philadelphia to reform the Articles.
The Roman Republic and the ideals of Locke, Hobbes, and Montesquieu were models for the US Constitution.
2 widely held principles
powers of the national government
the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan
the Great Compromise
the percentage of Founding Fathers who were lawyers, businessmen and farmers
(Facts about the Framers 144-145)
the Three-fifths Compromise
The government was created by the people through representative elected specifically to ratify the Constitution. It was not ratified by state legislatures.
2 points of contrast between Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Beardís thesis (Garraty disagrees with it.)
Civil liberties and statesís rights would be added by later amendments.
The Federalist Papers
4 characteristics of G. Washington as president
5the Bill of Rights; Name 7 rights contained therein.
the Tenth Amendment, the statesís rights amendment
problems of the new government
Hamiltonís opinion of democracy
Hamilton's opinion of statesís rights
Hamilton wanted the federal government to redeem bonds at face value and to assume state debts.
Bond speculators made a killing.
3 functions of the National Bank
Was the Bank constitutional? What were Hamiltonís reasons for and Jeffersonís reasons against constitutionality?
the elastic clause
loose constructionism and strict constructionism in interpreting the Constitution
The British incited Native Americans to attack settlers.
Hamilton wanted a federal tax on whiskey.
Resistance to the tax on whiskey was intense in Pennsylvania.
President G. Washington did not honor a treaty obligation and issued his Proclamation of
Citizen Genet
The British seized US ships.
The Constitution made no provision for political parties. What two functions did political parties serve?
Hamilton and the Federalists supported the Bank, assumption of state debts, a protective tariff, Britain and the rich and the well born. Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans supported statesís rights, civil liberties, the French, farmers and debtors.
the Whiskey Rebellion
the Jay Treaty
the Pinckney Treaty with Spain
In his Farewell Address President G. Washington warned against the rivalry and divisiveness of political parties and against entangling alliances with foreign nations.
the X Y Z Affair
the Alien and Sedition Acts: Naturalization Act, Alien Enemies Act, Alien Act and Sedition Act
the Kentucky and Virginia Resolves: the Compact Theory
Convention of 1800 abrogated the Franco-American Alliance of 1778
Chapter 6 Jeffersonian Democracy
The election of 1800 showed the necessity to amend the Constitution so that each elector could cast one vote for president and one vote for vice-president.
3 accomplishments of the Federalists
Was "the Revolution of 1800" a revolution?
For Jefferson the ideal America was a nation of farmers.
He preferred a rural America to an urban culture that was prone to regulation, vice and ignorance. 3 of Jeffersonís goals
Marbury v Madison: The Marshall court declared an act of Congress unconstitutional (judicial review).
"The shores of Tripoli;" Stephen Decatur
the slave revolt led by Toussaint Louverture; (see picture, 177)
The Louisiana Purchase; Jeffersonís scruple that the Constitution did not empower the president to acquire new territory ; (see map of the Louisiana Purchase, 181)
The Essex Junto; The Northern Confederacy
Burr shuts Hamiltonís mouth in Weehawken, NJ.
4 accomplishments of the Lewis and Clark expedition
Zebulon Pike (Pikeís Peak)
the Burr conspiracy
the impressment of American naval personnel
the British ship Leopard boarded and then fired upon the US ship Chesapeake.
The Embargo Act; its effects

Chapter 7 National Growing Pains
Maconís Bill #2, "nonintercourse"
William Henry Harrisonís mistreatment of the Indians
Tecumseh was anti-white; his brother "The Prophet"; defeated by Harrison at the Battle of
the War Hawks
USS Constitution (Old Ironsides), Stephen Decatur
Oliver Hazard Perry: "We have met the enemy and they are ours."
the British torched the White House.
the Treaty of Ghent
the Hartford Convention
Andrew Jackson, the Old Hero of New Orleans
Russia and the Quadruple Alliance were threats to the US.
4 assertions of the Monroe Doctrine
the Era of Good Feelings
In 1816 infant industries, farmers and even southerners and westerners favored the protective tariff. The New England shipping trade opposed it.
3 reasons why Jeffersonians opposed the national bank
sectional attitudes on slavery
John Quincy Adams was open to the tariff, favored internal improvements and opposed slavery. Daniel Webster usually supported New England businessmen. At first he opposed the tariff and the Bank. Later he changed his stand on these two issues. He opposed cheap land, internal improvements and slavery.
3 provisions of the Missouri Compromise
The election of 1824 had to be decided in the House of Representatives.
Garratyís harsh evaluation of J.Q. Adams; the corrupt bargain
Calhounís South Carolina Exposition and Protest; compact theory; state interposition;
nullification the meaning of sectionalism: sectional differences could be mutually beneficial. Americans were patriotic. The nation was growing. God smiled on the American experiment.

Chapter 8 Toward a National Economy
Eli Whitney: interchangeable parts, assembly line
John Fitch: steamboat; Eli Whitney: cotton gin
Lowell system: water powered textile manufacturing
The gap widened between owners and workers.
There were some efforts to organize labor, 1830-1850 (during the Jackson years), but they were largely unsuccessful.
3 reasons why the organization of labor was not strong .
The Waltham System; young women work in textile mills and live in boarding houses; motives for working; protests against low wages
Southern cotton supplied northern textile factories.

The cotton gin transformed southern agriculture.
The revolutionary generation prized property more than the liberty of African-Americans.
colonization: Quakers attempted to relocate freed, former enslaved persons in Africa.
The American Colonization Society is largely unsuccessful.
The growth of the cotton industry required more laborers.
4 restrictions in the north on free, former enslaved persons
the transportation revolution: turnpikes, internal improvements the National Road, Robert
Fultonís steamboat, Erie Canal
John Marshallís decisions favored business.

Chapter 9 Jacksonian Democracy
4 developments that promoted more democracy
The purpose of political parties was to win elections.
the election of 1824: electoral deadlock; president was selected by the House of Representatives; "the corrupt bargain"
3 reasons for Jacksonís popular appeal
rotation in office; Jacksonís attitude on qualifications for holding public office
kitchen cabinet
Websterís national theory of union
2 objections to Biddleís policies
Webster and Clay wanted an issue with which to defeat Jackson in the 1832 election.
3 reasons for Jacksonís opposition to the bank
"pet banks"
animosity between Jackson, and Calhoun; "Our federal union: it must be preserved.";
the Eaton Affair; clash over statesís rights
Jacksonís attitude toward Native Americans: They were savages incapable of self government;
the policy of Indian removal
the Trail of Tears ; map, 259; picture, 261
abolitionism: slave uprisings of Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner
Jacksonís attitude toward Calhoun and nullification
Jacksonís specie circular and its effects
2 of Jacksonís accomplishments in foreign policy
3 types of people who joined the Whigs
one thing on which all Whigs agreed

Chapter 10 The Making of Middle Class America
deToqueville on equality and wealth in America
Garratyís critique of deToqueville
urban growth deToqueville: equality reigns around the hearth; women are placed on a pedestal; new power of mothers; objections to the cult of motherhood; Catherine Beecher; Sarah Hale; smaller families
Lydia Child
The Second Great Awakening opposed the Calvinist doctrines of the depravity of man and
the revival preaching of Charles Grandison Finney
the Oneida Community
the Mormons

Robert Owen at New Harmony, Indiana
Charles Fourier
Dorothea Dix 287A
extent of drinking in the 1820ís
the American Temperance Union
Charles Grandison Finney: alcoholism is a barrier to religious conversion.
Neal Dow
3 humanitarian antislavery arguments
Benjamin Lundy: persuasion, colonization
William Lloyd Garrison: immediate abolition, The Liberator,
Frederick Douglass in his early years demanded social, political and economic equality.
Douglass later became more moderate and favored gradual emancipation and working within the system.
womenís consciousness raising
Margaret Fuller, the Grimke sisters, Lucretia Mott, Lydia Child
Elizabeth Cady Stanton; Seneca Falls Convention


Chapter 11 A Democratic Culture
4 tenets of romanticism
5 tenets of transcendentalism
3 beliefs of Emerson as found in the "American Scholar" address at Harvard
Emerson on government
Thoreau on wealth and government
Thoreau on social behavior, the Mexican War, taxation, and participation in reform movements
Poeís writings
Hawthorne on Puritanism
Melville on optimism, European ties, the inherent good of people, transcendentalism
Moby Dick
Walt Whitman, a transcendentalist, "Leaves of Grass"
the Hudson River School of artists
Horace Mann; 3 motives for public education

Chapter 12 Expansion and Slavery
The Aroostook War, The Franklin map, The Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Why did Jackson hesitate to annex Texas?
Manifest Destiny
the life of women on the frontier
the life of Native Americans in California
the Oregon Trail
3 things that Polk favored or opposed
3 of Polkís accomplishments
2 reasons for protesting "Mr. Polk's War"
John C. Fremont
3 terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
The San Francisco `49ers
slavery in the territories, a moral issue
The Wilmot Proviso
Lewis Cassís theory of "popular sovereignty"
the negative attitude of the `49ers toward Hispanics, Native Americans and African
terms of the Compromise of 1850

Chapter 13 The Sections Go Their Ways
Cotton was king. Railroads, westward movement, immigration, industrialization
the price and extent of slavery ; chart 235
Northerners made a profit on southern cotton.
literacy among whites and blacks, north and south
plantation life
the life of enslaved persons
Denmark Vesey; Nat Turnerís Revolt and its consequences
Importing slaves was outlawed in 1808, but about 54,000 were brought in illegally.

the corrosive effect of slavery
4 white stereotypes of slaves
manufacturing in the south
manufacturing in the north ; chart 360

American laborers resented immigrants, and the Irish immigrants down on the blacks.
living conditions of immigrants
the labor movement, 1830-50; Commonwealth v. Hunt
The Age of Sail
The Erie Canal
railroads, 1848-1852
John Deere (plows)
Cyrus McCormick (reaper)

Chapter 14 The Coming of the War
disobedience of the Fugitive Slave Law
Uncle Tomís Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe made public the plight of enslaved
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Ostend Manifesto
Commodore Matthew Perry; Townsend Harris
Stephen A. Douglas embraced the doctrine of popular sovereignty. Slavery was a curse
but not a moral issue.
The Whig Party was torn apart by pro-slave "Cotton Whigs" and anti slave "Conscience
President Pierce was weak (blundering generation interpretation)
Gadsden Purchase
Stephen Douglas supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act:
Abolish the 36o 30í line
Divide the region into two territories: Kansas and Nebraska.
Admit them as slave or free states according to the principle of popular sovereignty.
Many northerners left the Democratic Party.
The Know Nothing Party (a.k.a. The American Party)
The formation of the Republican Party and the dissolution of the Whig Party. The
Republican Party was not abolitionist, but abolitionists joined it. The party was
founded to oppose the extension of slavery in the territories.
Bleeding Kansas: The New England Emigrant Society, border ruffians, John Brown
Brooks wuped Sumner; its effect
The Dred Scott Decision:Blacks are not citizens, and so Scott cannot sue in court.
Slaves are property, and Congress cannot deprive citizens of property.
The Missouri Compromise, which forbade slavery north of the 36o 30í line, is
unconstitutional.(judicial review)
The Lecompton Constitution was pro-slavery.
President Buchanan wanted Congress to accept the Lecompton Constitution and admit Kansas
to the union as a slave state.
A referendum in Kansas rejected the Lecompton Constitution.
Lincoln was not an abolitionist. He opposed the extension of slavery in the territories.
He accepted slavery in state where the state constitution and law protected it.
Lincoln opposed the social and political equality of blacks and whites. He supported upholding the Fugitive Slave Act.

Stephen A. Douglas's Freeport Doctrine
the purpose of John Brownís raid
Garraty says that Brown was a fanatic and "mentally unstable".
northern and southern reaction to John Brown
Hinton Helper of North Carolina said that slavery was ruining the southís economy and
social structure.
The south felt trapped (by what 3 things).
The Democratic Party nominated Stephen Douglas, and Southerners who bolted the party
nominated John Breckinridge.
4 elements in the Republican platform in 1860
The Constitutional Union Party made up of former Whigs and Know Nothings nominated
John Bell
After Lincoln was elected South Carolina seceded and was followed by six other states.
the Crittenden Compromise

Chapter 15 The War to Save the Union
2 points in Lincolnís first inaugural address
Fort Sumter: The south spared Lincoln the decision to attack. Lincoln called up 75,000
volunteers. Four more states seceded. 404B.4-6
Many southerners saw secession as exercising the right of self-determination.
Lincoln on secession: "Secession is anarchy."
Garratyís opinion on the basic cause of the Civil War
3 advantages of the north
4 advantages of the south
Jefferson Davis
Gen. McClellan was popular but indecisive. Lincoln finally fired him.
The increased demand and reduced labor force required that industry become more
the positions of radicals, moderates and copperheads
Ex Parte Merryman; Ex Parte Milligan
Britainís attitude toward the Civil War
The Trent Affair
Grant won in the west: Fort Donelson and Shiloh
The Monitor and the Merrimack
Robert E. Lee
Leeís war plan
Antietam, the bloodiest day in American history. Lee suffered heavy losses. McClellan
allowed Lee to retreat.
background to emancipation: "victory" at Antietam; fear of alienating border states; hurt
plantation owners; abolition; slave revolt
2 of Lincolnís reasons for emancipation
2 areas where Emancipation would not apply
Lincolnís justification for emancipation: "military necessity"
draft riots in New York City
Lincoln did not believe in the equality of blacks and whites.
some reactions of African-Americans to emancipation
African-American soldiers
Burnside (USA) was defeated at Fredericksburg
Stonewall Jackson outflanked Joe Hooker at Chancellorsville.
Grant took Vicksburg and with it control of the Mississippi River.
The south was hurting economically.
the Homestead Act; the Morrill Land Grant Act
women in wartime: Elizabeth Blackwell, Dorothea Dix, Clara Barton, Sally Tompkins.
Women managed farms, worked in factories and government offices, worked in
hospitals as nurses.
the Wilderness
"As we go marching through Georgia"; total war
Lincolnís second inaugural address: toleration and mercy
Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House