Allegheny Outdoor Adventures Bradford, PA


From the Summer/Fall 2001

Caves as Shelter

By John Stoneman

Caves as Shelter

Today, many people enjoy going into, and exploring local caves for recreation or scientific study. Our forefathers used caves as an important tool for survival. The cave offered shelter from wind, rain, and cold as well as  a place to hide and be secure from attacking enemies.  All the caves around here have evidence of usage by Native Americans, up until the "White Man" moved in and "claimed" the land.  What most people,  don't  realize, is that most of our local caves have  evidence of the "mound builders" living near them.  The "mound builders" are "Native Residents" that are reputed to have been here as long a 3000 years ago, way before our "modern" day Indians of the seventeen and eighteen hundreds.  We think of the seventeen hundreds of being a long time ago, but just try to imagine three thousand years ago!

First a little geological history! The caves around this area are called "tectonic caves". Tectonic caves are formed when the thick solid rock "plates" of the crust of the earth moved into place. Actually, the plates are continuing to move, but at a pace so slow it's nothing for you or I to worry about. Millions of years ago, the many different pieces of the rock plate moved around and collided. The hills and mountains were formed where the plates "buckled" as they heaved hundreds and thousands of feet into the air. This also caused cracks and void areas that are now our present "tectonic" caves. The caves were formed by the tectonic movement of the rock "plates" of the earth. Hence, the name "tectonic caves".  The "other" major form or type of cave, is the "limestone cave" that was eroded out of limesone by water. There are no limestone caves around here.

Our "bedrock" if you will, the rock that comes to the surface in spots around here, is called "sandstone". It's this "sandstone" that forms our caves. The sandstone that we have here came from a beach in an area where Brazil is today. Our sandstone was formed over 300 MILLION years ago! To be more specific, a lot of the rock around here has quartz pebbles in it and is called "quartz conglomerate".  Sometimes you will see "veins" of a certain size pebble, or distinct layers of different sized pebbles. It sometimes looks like concrete.  To get even more specific, our "field" of quartz conglomerate rock is part of a "field"  that is called "Olean Conglomerate".  Good examples of Olean Conglomerate can  be seen at "Rock City Park" between Olean NY and Bradford PA, or at "Little Rock City" in Salamanca NY. Just as a side note, the Olean Conglomerate field is  the largest "piece" of quartz conglomerate in the world. It goes (approximately) from Franklinville NY in the north to beyond McKean county PA in the south, and from Portville NY in the east, to Jamestown NY in the west. Quite a large beach!

When disguising our rock formations around here, it's important to mention the last ice age.  The last Glacier that moved through this part of north america, ten thousand years ago, did NOT pass over our region entirely. There are spots around Olean and Bradford that were not touched by the glacier.  I believe that the lack of glacial activity in this particular region, is the reason that we have so many "tectonic" caves that are intact, not filled in by glacial debris or soil from erosion. 

Caves, the perfect shelter!

Well, maybe not for you or I, but how about our predecessors?  The caves around here have a year round temperature (10'-15' underground) of about 52 degrees.  I have measured one that has the unusual temperature of sixty five degrees year round!  Wouldn't that be nice in the middle of the winter, say on a cold day in February when it was 10 BELOW zero? A cave that was dry, and 52 degrees WITHOUT building a fire? Or how about in the middle of the summer, on a day, or week, when the temperature is over 90? Wouldn't sitting in a fifty two degree cave, even just for a few minutes be quite the luxury?

Not only would the caves be a welcome relief from the temperature, but also a great shelter from the enemy. The relatively small opening, and  rock walls several hundreds of feet thick, would have  provided not only a secure shelter back then, but how about today? The small opening that is common for our local caves were/are easy to block off or guard, providing the "state of the art" protection against an aggressor. Some of the cave openings, such as our many "pit caves",  are very well hidden and  may have been hiding places, as well as shelters,  undetected by enemy tribes.

Some of our caves are old enough that they may have provided early man, not only shelter from other humans, but animal as well. What better way to escape a charging bear than to squeeze into a small cave opening that you can block with a rock or log door? The caves were also perfect places to get out of a rain, or snow storm.

I have a very old map of the Allegheny River area that shows the "Modern Indian" sites (the most recent Native American inhabitants of the area) as well as the ancient "Mound Builders" sites, some or perhaps all, dating back three thousand years. All the sites are in the "valley" below, or near cave sites. The low land or bottom land in this particular area is at about 1300' elevation (above sea level) and the caves are all located at  about 1900' or above (1900'-2300'). I believe it's no coincidence that we have found evidence that man, from the earliest we can find, right up to the modern day indians, lived in close proximity to the tectonic caves of this area. My belief is that just as the Senica Indians, and more specifically the "Cornplanter Indians" did, was live in the lowlands below the caves in the warm weather, to hunt, fish,  and to farm, and use the caves for shelter in the inclement and winter weather.  Also living in close proximity to the caves, gave them the added security of  quickly going the the caves when attacked by enemy tribes.

Since the Native Americans have vacated the caves, most  have been rarely visited. However there is a small cave in the Marshberg area where a man back in the 1930's or 1940's lived. I'm told that the man lived in the cave for about 10 years. There are two heavy  steel bars sticking out of one of the flat cave walls. The story is that this is where he hung a "hammock" that he slept in. They are about seven feet apart and have an "L" shaped end on them. There are names and dates carved outside the entrance, but it's very worn and hard to read.

I, as many people do, enjoy exploring these "homes" of  Native American and early man, and it's nice to know they are there, if ever we need the shelter of 200' of solid rock!

Stony
 

John "Stony" Stoneman,  is a local  cave explorer, and  author of a guide map of the "large rock, and cave areas" of the Bradford, Olean and Allegheny Reservoir area


Here are all the links to "Caves In Pennsylvania" you will ever need!


US Show Caves Directory: Pennsylvania
... At Hellertown, turn one half mile east. (610) 838-8767. PENN'S CAVE. About five
miles east of Centre Hall on State Hwy. 192. (814) 364-1664. WOODWARD CAVE. ...
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Common Types of Caves in Pennsylvania
Common Types of Caves in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania caves are a variety
of rock formation make-up, slope, water lengths, etc. In ...
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Troop 33 Caving Page
... PENNSYLVANIA Laurel Caverns. ... American Cave Conservation Association A nonprofit
organization dedicated to conserving America's caves and karstlands. ...
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MAR -Annual Business Meeting Minutes: Feb 27, 1999
... Cave Conservation: Judi Stack reported "The Caves of Pennsylvania" slide show is
99.9% complete; she still needs to write a script for 2 parts. ...
www.caves.org/region/mar/minutes_feb99.htm - 14k - Cached - Similar pages

Bulletin of the National Speleological Society Volume 15
... Caves of Pennsylvania Special Issue Ralph W. Stone. Article Geology of Pennsylvania
Caves William E. Davies. Article Bone Caves in Pennsylvania John Dyas Parker ...
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Caves in Our Backyard
... There are over 1500 known caves in Pennsylvania. ... Hosterman's Pit, one of the most
important caves in Pennsylvania, was recently quarried away. ...
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Ohnmach
... Ohnmacht Cave was not mentioned in Ralph Stoneís 1953 Caves of Pennsylvania.6 The
cave was first described in 1957 in the Netherworld News by Paul D. Fisher ...
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Pennsylvania Trivia, Quizzes, Quiz Questions, Fun Facts ...
... Difficult, 41, Jul 29 03, routesixtysix. 7, Caves of Pennsylvania This quiz is
about caves in Pennsylvania. Difficult, 50, Jul 23 02, almach. ...
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Caves and Caverns, Pennsylvania (Natural Features)
Online Highways > Pennsylvania Caves and Caverns. Caves. Kutztown, Crystal Cave. ...
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Indian Caverns Spruce Creek, Pennsylvania (Caves)
... Location, Hwy 45 Spruce Creek Pennsylvania. Phone, 814-632-7578. Search. ... User reviews
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Pennsylvania Game Commission - MAR bat cave controversy
... PGC and MAR "A long and fruitless debate". The purpose of this area is to provide
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Pennsylvania Information
... The Ultimate Collection of News Links - PA newspaper links United States Weather
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The Cave Man Homepage is undergoing a complete update, and is currently
unavailable. Please check back in a few weeks.
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States of the United States: Pennsylvania
... Kevin Joseph Patrick (2004): Pennsylvania Caves and Other Rocky Roadside Wonders,
paperback, 224 pp, Stackpole Books, September 2004, ISBN: 0811726320. ...
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States of the United States
... Mine | Indian Echo Caverns | Indian Caverns | Lackawanna Coal Mine Tour | Laurel
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Camping PA - Going Underground - October 98
Region: Statewide. National Caves Association - Pennsylvania Show Caves: Crystal
Cave, Pennsylvania RD 3 Box 416 Kutztown, PA 19530 (610) 683-6765. ...
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... Penn's Cave 222 Penns Cave Road Centre Hall, PA 16828 (814) 364-1664 website. Woodward
Cave PO Box 175 Woodward, PA 16882 (814) 349-9800 website.
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Wild Resource Conservation Program
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Centre County, Pennsylvania
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Pennsylvania Cave Protection Act
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Bald Eagle Grotto - INBB
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Google Directory - Recreation > Outdoors > Speleology > Show Caves ...
... Gift shop on premises. Located near Hershey Park. Penn's Cave - http://pennscave.
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... com/Yosemite/3766/ Central Pennsylvania chapter of the National Speleological Society
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Amazon.com: Books: Pennsylvania Caves and Other Rocky Roadside ...
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Caves & Caverns
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... Click Here. Recreation in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. ... Caves: Indian Caverns -
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... Laurel Caverns; Lincoln Caverns; Lost River Caverns; Penn's Cave; Woodward Cave.
Rhode Island [RI]; South Carolina [SC]; South Dakota [SD ...
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... National Speleological Society: Pennsylvania Grottos http://www.caves.org/info/grotto/
pennsylvania.shtml A directory to grottos within the state of Pennsylvania ...
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Pennsylvania Indoor Climbing Gyms
... Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania 570-824-7633 http://www.wbcg.net > "Two bouldering caves,
The Buddah!, 20 top ropes, lots more climbs, lead routes, color code graded ...
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VisitPA :: Things To Do :: Outdoors
... You can get a free guide to Pennsylvania's caves by calling the Pennsylvania Cave
Association at (voice) 814-643-0268. Find Caves & Caverns Near A City: ...
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VisitPA :: Things To Do Search Results
... PA Experience the spectacular Woodward Cave, known as "The Big One" by generations
of visitors. One of the largest caverns in Pennsylvania, Woodward is home to ...
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[DOC] Geographical Information
File Format: Microsoft Word 6 - View as HTML
... Most caves in Pennsylvania occur in limestone and it is the limestone caves that
achieve the largest sizes and contain the most interesting and attractive ...
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Links & Information at Lost River Caverns, Lehigh Valley ...
... www.readingpa.com - The City of Reading's Home Page www.lvcg.org - Lehigh Valley
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Poor Richard Web Press Books : Pennsylvania Caves and Other Rocky ...
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[PDF] 1611PC for pdf
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... Nine show caves in Pennsylvania are open to the public, with three tunneling through
electric cooperative service terri- tories.Indian Caverns and Lincoln ...
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PCN - Pennsylvania Cable Network - Books
... 19th, Pennsylvania Caves and Other Rocky Roadside Wonders by Kevin Patrick Stackpole
Books, 5067 Ritter Road, Mechanicsburg, PA 17055-6921. ...
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Rock Climbing and Caving in Western PA - Pittsburgh Climbing Info ...
... Cool off underground in one of Western Pennsylvania's two commercial caves -
each with a number of distinctly unusual features. ...
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Pennsylvania Photo Index
... a ledge above water, One of the most popular Pennsylvania caves is reached by climbing
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Caves
... and ask each of your students (or, have them work in pairs) to choose a cave to
learn about, from the Sea Lion Cave in Oregon to Crystal Cave in Pennsylvania. ...
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Pennsylvania Cave Law
... Pennsylvania Cave Protection Act (1990). No 1990 -133, SB 867, Signed into
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Cave Conservation Groups
... Pennsylvania Cave Conservancy (PCC) ... Contact: Kim Kehs edandkim@easy-pages.com
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Accommodation in Pennsylvania and Cheap Travel to Pennsylvania ...
... Plant tour, Hershey, home of chocolate and Hersheypark, Dorneypark, Crayola Plant,
Philadelphia, Grand Canyon of Pennsylvania, Crystal Caves, Penns Caves ...
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and shipping. Compare our prices. ... Penn Plax Cliffs and Caves Master. ...
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... Small Penn Plax Cascade Canister Filter 1000 Penn Plax Cascade Canister Filter 700
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... Local Area Attractions. Pennís Cave. Americaís only all water cavern and wild life
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Indiana University of Pennsylvania
... Patrick, a professor in IUPís geography and regional planning department since 1993,
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... Faculty in the News. Dr. Kevin Patrick's book "Pennsylvania Caves and other Rocky
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About Knight Ridder:: Company Profiles: Centre Daily Times
... Bryce Jordan Center, which hosts sporting and big-name entertainment events; 13
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LookSmart - Directory - Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania
... Huntingdon County Cave Hunters Pennsylvania group presents its history and philosophy,
along with legal info concerning caves. Contains other related links. ...
search.looksmart.com/p/browse/us1/ us1154713/us1154751/us10063850/us10104583/us10086071/ - 13k - Cached - Similar pages

PamRotella.com Caverns Gallery - Crystal Cave 001
... Wisconsin [Photo taken 3 October 2002] There are "Crystal Caves" in Pennsylvania,
Virginia, and Wisconsin, and probably every other state in the nation. ...
www.pamrotella.com/gallery/caves001.html - 10k - Cached - Similar pages

Browse by State
... With eight commercial caves, each with a number of distinctly unusual features,
there's plenty going on below the surface in Pennsylvania. ...
www.nlgsolutions.com/packages/ show_state.asp?countryId=US&state=PA - 28k - Cached - Similar pages

ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA Database /All Locations
... dwellers. Cave. Warren, Robert Penn,; BOOK 1959 Thieves' hole. Howarth,
David Armine,; BOOK 1954 8 Caves and caverns. : BOOK BOOK ...
205.247.101.11:90/kids/10,340,356/search/d?caves - 27k - Jan 18, 2005 - Cached - Similar pages

Directory of Caves and Caverns
... Lost River Caverns PO Box M Hellertown, PA 180565 610-838-8767. Penn's Cave RD 2,
Box 165A Centre Hall, PA 16828 814-364-1664. Woodward Cave Rt. ...
www.fabuloustravel.com/tips/caves/caves.html - 37k - Cached - Similar pages

6-Day, 5-Night Bat Conservation and Management Field Workshops
... The rolling hills and mixed agricultural fields in Central Pennsylvania gives us
a ... Nearby mines and caves also provide ideal hibernation sites, critical for ...
www.batcon.org/trips/workshops03.html - 9k - Cached - Similar pages

GORP - Top Ten US Caves
... Do you have a favorite cave we did not include? ... British Columbia // California //
Colorado // Idaho // Montana // New York // Pennsylvania // Utah // Vermont ...
gorp.away.com/gorp/activity/caving/topten.htm - 89k - Cached - Similar pages

[PDF] PENNSYLVANIA CAVE PROTECTION LAW
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Page 1. PENNSYLVANIA CAVE PROTECTION LAW (1989 effective 1990) THE GENERAL
ASSEMBLY OF PENNSYLVANIA SENATE BILL NO. 867 Session of 1989 ...
www.delrioabogados.com/ Espeleolex/lexpdf/Pennsylvania.PDF - Similar pages

Inside Going Underground
... 4. New York Natural Stone Bridge and Caves Howe Cave Caverns Secret Caverns Ice
Caves Mountain 5. Pennsylvania Lost River Caverns Crystal Cave Indian Echo ...
www.caminobooks.com/under-in.html - 5k - Cached - Similar pages

Show Caves
Pennsylvania Caves & Other Rocky Roadside Wonders A very thoughtful and informative
review of past and current show caves in this state. ...
www.speleobooks.com/show.html - 6k - Cached - Similar pages

Caves and Caving
... Society. I have done survey and mapping of several caves in Pennsylvania
and West Virginia as well as cave photography. Click here ...
www.hhs.net/jbrown/cave.htm - 9k - Cached - Similar pages

Pennsylvania Bed and Breakfast Inns - Attractions
... Deep canyon surrounded by two state parks. Pennís Cave Americaís only all water
cavern and wildlife park 85 miles from Inn. www.pennscave.com. NEW BERLIN. ...
pennsylvania.selectregistry.com/attractions.asp - 52k - Cached - Similar pages

CocLibrary < Main < TWiki
... CV_C004, Cave Descriptions - Pennsylvania, CV_D001, Caves of Virginia, Henry Douglas,
MISSING. ... CV_S003, Pennsylvania Caves (1930), Ralph Stone, MISSING. ...
coc.astro.cornell.edu/bin/view/Main/CocLibrary - 101k - Cached - Similar pages

Seclusion - The Pennsylvania Hermit
... calls. I knew "Willy", as I began to call him, had lived in Pennsylvania,
thus I got out an atlas and searched for caves. Any cave. ...
www.seclusion.com/pn/modules. php?name=News&file=article&sid=9 - 22k - Cached - Similar pages

WPSU-FM Online
... By Cindi Deutschman. Pennsylvania has about 1500 catalogued caves, but most
caves remain forever hidden. In Huntingdon County about ...
wpsu.psu.edu/Legacies/leg-dec30.html - 14k - Cached - Similar pages

Maryland Geological Survey: Caves in Maryland
... USGS's Exploring Caves, HTML. Cavernet, HTML. Find Nearby Caves, Pennsylvania Caves,
HTML. Virginia Caves, HTML. US Show Caves, HTML. West Virginia Caves, HTML. ...
www.mgs.md.gov/esic/features/caves.html - 20k - Cached - Similar pages

SUNY Cortland - Geology Department
... Spring 2001 - Central Pennsylvania Caves and Karst Geomorphology. Leader: Dr. Dave
Barclay. Freling Wallenbeck examines some flowstone in McAlisterville Cave. ...
www.cortland.edu/geology/fieldtrips/spr2001_pa.html - 8k - Cached - Similar pages

PSLA, The Pennsylvania School Librarians Association
... Which book will be the favorite in Pennsylvania? ... Gerard has haunted the hills, forests,
and caves above Aunt Josephine's farmhouse since he and his fellow ...
www.psla.org/grantsandawards/script20006-8.php3 - 69k - Cached - Similar pages

[PDF] K is for Keystone A Pennsylvania Alphabet
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
... Page 22. Pennsylvania Word Search Pennsylvania Philadelphia Williamsport Harrisburg
caves Gettysburg Pittsburgh milk Punxsutawney Fallingwater hemlock Hershey ...
www.gale.com/pdf/TeachersGuides/PAGuide.pdf - Similar pages

Authors examine Pennsylvania of 1700s
... Kevin Patrick, author of "Pennsylvania Caves & Other Rocky Roadside Wonders" (Stackpole
Books, $19.95), is the guest on "PA Books" at 9 pm today on the ...
pennlive.com/books/patriotnews/ index.ssf?/base/living/1103365211295350.xml - 27k - Cached - Similar pages

Books about Caves
... Rappellers by Bruce Smith; On Station by George R. Dasher; Pennsylvania Caves
and Other Rocky Roadside Wonders by Kevin Joseph Patrick; ...
home.att.net/~newbooks/cavebooks.html - 52k - Jan 18, 2005 - Cached - Similar pages

Camp Nuhop - "Where Friends are Made"
... Our final adventures will be in Kentucky, where we will explore the hidden
environment of caves. Pennsylvania Backpack Camp (Ages 12 Ė 18). ...
www.campnuhop.org/programs/national.html - 19k - Cached - Similar pages

Catholicism, Catholics, Cats, Caverns & Caves Postcards & Post ...
... "AN INTERIOR VIEW OF PENN'S CAVE." B&W Albertype, unused, LTB, good edges. $3.25
pac. ... "STRAIT OF GIBRALTAR -- PENN'S CAVE." B&W Albertype, unused, good edges. ...
www.judnick.com/CatholicismToCaves.htm - 62k - Cached - Similar pages

Cleveland Grotto - About Us
... While Ohio has relatively few caves, the surrounding states of Indiana, Kentucky,
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Virginia make up one of the most highly ...
www.clevelandgrotto.org/about.html - 17k - Cached - Similar pages

[IP] More on: Rendell caves and signs HB30 - Verizon can prevent ...
... To: dave@farber.net Subject: Re: [IP] More on: Rendell caves and signs ... Gerry Faulhaber
Wharton School, Univ of Pennsylvania currently on leave, Penn Law School ...
www.interesting-people.org/archives/ interesting-people/200412/msg00015.html - 7k - Cached - Similar pages

USGS Pennsylvania -- Digital Datasets
... PA District Map FAQ; Emap PA - Online viewable map of Pennsylvania -- includes
watersheds, flood plains, mining, caves, and sinkholes; ...
pa.water.usgs.gov/pa_digit.v2.html - 9k - Jan 18, 2005 - Cached - Similar pages

Brookville Society of Natural History
... Cope has been reported from Wyandotte and Bradford caves, Indiana, Carter and Zwingler
caves, Kentucky, and numerous small caves in Pennsylvania and Virginia. ...
www.indiana.edu/~libgeol/brookville/b3mcneil.html - 59k - Cached - Similar pages


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