RUSSIAN FUNDAMENTAL LAWS
~ 1906 ~

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Tsar Nicholas II's opening speech before the two chambers in the Throne Room of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg (1906).
On April 23, 1906 (O.S.), the Tsar issued the Fundamental Laws, which gave him the title of "supreme autocrat".

These pages are maintained by Royal Russia and Gilbert's Royal Books.
© 2004-2010. All Rights Reserved.


THE RUSSIAN FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF 1906

The Fundamental State Laws of the Russian Empire comprise the first part of the Digest of Laws of the Russian Empire and contain articles on the constitutional basis of the existence of the state in Russia prior to 1917. They are reprinted from the last official edition of the Laws of the Russian Empire in 1906.

INTRODUCTION

1. 1. The Russian State is one and indivisible.

2. The Grand Duchy of Finland, while comprising as inseparable part of the Russian State, is governed in its internal affairs by special decrees based on special legislation.

3. The Russian language is the common language of the state, and its use is compulsory in the army, in the navy and in all state and public institutions. The use of local (regional) languages and dialects in state and public institutions are determined by special legislation.

CHAPTER I
The Essence of the Supreme Autocratic Power

4. 4. The Emperor of All the Russias possesses Supreme Sovereign Power. Obedience to His authority, not only out of fear, but in good conscience, is ordained by God Himself.

5. The person of the Lord Emperor is sacrosanct and inviolable.

6. The same Supreme Sovereign Power belongs to the Sovereign Empress when succession to the Throne, in the order thereunto established, reaches a female person; but her consort is not regarded as Sovereign; he enjoys the same honors and privileges as the spouses of emperors, except for the title.

7. The Sovereign Emperor exercises legislative power in conjunction with the State Council and State Duma.

8. The initiative in all legislative matters belongs to the Sovereign Emperor. Only upon His initiative may the Fundamental Laws be subject to revision by (in) the State Council and the State Duma.

9. The Sovereign Emperor ratifies laws and without His ratification (approval) no laws can go into effect.

10. Total administrative power belongs to the Sovereign Emperor throughout the entire Russian State. At the highest level of administration His authority is direct; at subordinate levels of administration He entrusts a certain degree of power, in conformity with the law, to the proper agencies or officials, who act in His name and in accordance with His orders.

11. As supreme administrator, the Sovereign Emperor, in conformity with the laws, issues decrees for the organization and functioning of various departments of state administration as well as directives essential for the execution of the laws.

12. The Sovereign Emperor is in charge of all external relations of the Russian Government with foreign powers. He determines the direction of the Russian Government's foreign policy.

13. The Sovereign Emperor declares war, concludes peace, and negotiates treaties with foreign states.

14. The Sovereign Emperor is the Supreme Commander of the Russian army and navy. He is Commander-in-Chief of all the land and sea armed forces of the Russian Government. He determines the organization of the army and navy and issues decrees and orders concerning: the displacement of troops, the mobilization of troops, their training, the performance of duties of the various ranks of army and navy personnel and, in general, everything connected to the organization of the armed forces and defense of the Russian Government. As the Supreme Commander the Sovereign Emperor sets forth limitations on the rights to reside and acquire property (real estate) in zones that comprise military installations and maintenance areas for the army and navy.

15. The Sovereign Emperor declares areas to be under martial law or in a state of emergency.

16. The Sovereign Emperor has the right to coin money and to determine its physical appearance.

17. The Sovereign Emperor appoints and dismisses the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Ministers, and Chief Administrators of various departments, as well as other officials, unless the procedure of appointing and dismissing the latter, has been determined by law.

18. As supreme administrator the Sovereign Emperor determines the scope of activities for all state officials in accordance with the needs of the State.

19. The Sovereign Emperor grants titles, medals and other state distinctions, as well as property rights. He also determines the conditions and procedures for granting titles, medals and distinctions.

20. The Sovereign Emperor directly issues decrees and instructions on matters of property that belong to Him personally, as well as on so-called State properties that always belong to the ruling Emperor. The latter cannot be bequeathed or divided and are subject to a different form of alienation. Those, as well as the other properties are not subject to taxation or levy.

21. As Head of the Imperial House, the Sovereign Emperor, in accordance with the Statute on the Imperial Family, has the right to administer princely properties. He also determines the organization and the administrative procedures of institutions and establishments managed by the Minister of the Imperial Court.

22. Judicial power is implemented through legally constituted courts in the name of the Sovereign Emperor. Their decisions are carried out in the name of His Imperial Majesty.

23. The Sovereign Emperor has the right to pardon the accused, to mitigate sentences and to generally forgive transgressors; to terminate court actions and to release from trial and punishment. Exercising royal mercy, He has the right to commute official penalties and to grant clemency in exceptional cases that are not subject to general laws, provided such actions do not infringe upon civil rights or the legally protected interests of others.

24. Decrees and commands that are issued directly or indirectly by the Sovereign Emperor, as supreme administrator, are sealed by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers or by an appropriate minister or by a department head, and are promulgated by the Governing Senate.

CHAPTER II
On the order of succession to the Throne

25. The Imperial Throne of All the Russias is hereditary within the Imperial House presently reigning.

26. Inseparable from the Imperial Throne of All the Russias are the Thrones of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Grand Duchy of Finland.

27. Both sexes have the right of succession to the Throne; but this right belongs by preference to the male sex according to the principle of primogeniture; with the extinction of the last male issue, succession to the Throne passes to the female issue by right of substitution.

28. Accordingly, succession to the Throne belongs in the first place to the eldest son of the reigning Emperor, and after him to all his male issue.

29. With the extinction of this male issue, succession passes to the branch of the second son of the Emperor and his male issue; with the extinction of the second male issue, succession passes to the branch of the third son, and so forth.

30. When the last male issue of the Emperor's sons is extinct, succession remains in the same branch, but in the female issue of the last reigning Emperor, as being nearest to the Throne, and therein it follows the same order, with preference to a male over the female person; but the female person from whom this right directly proceeds never loses this right.

31. With the extinction of this branch the succession passes to the female issue of the branch of the eldest son of the Emperor-Progenitor, wherein the nearest relative of the last reigning Emperor in the branch of this son succeeds, the eldest in this descending line, or if unavailable, in a collateral line, and if this relative is lacking, then the male or female person who takes her place by substitution, with preference, as above, for a male over a female person.

32. When these branches too are extinct, succession passes to the female issue of the other sons of the Emperor-Progenitor, following the same order, and after that to the male issue of the eldest daughter of the Emperor-Progenitor; and when that too is extinct, to her female issue, following the order established for the female issue of the Emperor's sons.

33. With the extinction of the male and female issue of the eldest daughter of the Emperor-Progenitor, succession passes first to the male and then to the female issue of the second daughter of the Emperor-Progenitor, and so forth.

34. A younger sister, even if she has sons, does not deprive her elder sister of her right, even if the latter is unmarried; but a younger brother succeeds before his elder sisters.

35. When the succession reaches a female branch which is already reigning on another throne, it is left to the person who succeeds to make a choice of faith and throne and, together with that person's heir, to renounce the other faith and throne, if such a throne is tied by Law (with a religious denomination); if there is no renunciation of faith, the succession passes to the person next in order.

36. Children born of a marriage between a person of the Imperial Family and a person not of corresponding dignity, that is not belonging to any royal or sovereign house, have no right of succession to the Throne.

37. As the rules on the order of succession, enunciated above, take effect, a person who has a right to succeed is free to abdicate this right in those circumstances in which an abdication does not create any difficulty in the following succession to the Throne.

38. Such an abdication, when it has been made public and becomes law, is henceforth considered irrevocable.

39. An Emperor or Empress succeeding to the Throne undertakes, at accession and anointment, to solemnly observe the aforesaid laws on succession to the Throne.

CHAPTER III
On the attainment of Majority of the Sovereign Emperor, on Regency and Guardianship

40. Sovereigns of both sexes and the Heir to the Imperial Throne reach their majority at the age of sixteen.

41. When an Emperor younger than this age ascends to the Throne, a Regency and a Guardianship are instituted to function until this majority is attained.

42. The Regency and the Guardianship are instituted jointly in one person or separately, in which case one person is entrusted with the Regency and the other with the Guardianship.

43. The appointment of Regent and Guardian, either jointly in one person or separately in two persons, depends on the will and discretion of the reigning Emperor who should make this choice, for greater security, in the event of His demise.

44. If no such appointment was made during the lifetime of the Emperor, upon His demise, the Regency of the State and the Guardianship of the Emperor who is under age, belong to the father and mother; but the step-father and step-mother are excluded.

45. When there is no father or mother, then the Regency and Guardianship belong to the nearest in succession to the Throne among the underage Emperor’s relatives, of both sexes who have reached majority.

46. Lawful reasons barring tenure of the Regency and Guardianship are the following: 1) insanity, even if temporary; 2) the remarriage of widowed persons during tenure of the Regency and Guardianship.

47. A Regent of the State must have a Regency Council; there can be neither a Regent without a Council nor a Council without a Regent.

48. The Council consists of six persons of the first two classes selected by the Regent, who will also appoint others as changes arise.

49. Male dynasts of the Imperial Family selected by the Regent, may attend sessions of this Council but not before reaching their majority and are not included in the number of the six persons constituting the Council.

50. The Regency Council deals with all matters without exception, which are subject to the decisions of the Emperor Himself and with all matters that are submitted to Him and to His Council; but the Council is not concerned with the Guardianship.

51. The Regent has the decisive vote.

52. The appointment of the Council and the selection of the members thereof are provided for in case of the absence of other directives from the deceased Sovereign, to whom the circumstances and the persons should have been known.

CHAPTER IV
On Accession to the Throne and Oath of Allegiance

53. Upon the demise of an Emperor, His Heir accedes to the Throne by virtue of the law of succession itself, which confers this right upon Him. The accession of the Emperor to the Throne is reckoned from the day of the demise of His Predecessor.

54. In the Decree on the accession to the Throne, the Rightful Heir to the Throne is also announced, if the person to whom lawful succession belongs, exists.

55. Allegiance to the newly acceded Emperor and to His Rightful Heir, even if the Heir is not named in the Decree, is confirmed by a nationwide oath.

56. Everyone pledges an oath according to his faith and law.

Explanatory Note 1

Upon printing the oath of allegiance according to established form (appendix V), the Governing Senate sends it out in the required number of copies to everyone in general, both to military and to civil authorities, and also informs the Most Holy Synod for disposition on its part. Every person pledges the oath before his superior in cathedrals, monasteries or parish churches, wherever it is convenient; those held in custody, but not yet convicted and deprived of rights, pledge the oath before the authorities of their place of confinement. Persons of a different faith, when there is no church of their confession, pledge the oath of allegiance at a place of assembly before the members thereof. Everyone who has taken the oath of allegiance, if he is able to write, signs the document by which he has pledged. Subsequently, all authorities and departments deliver these documents to the Governing Senate.

Explanatory Note 2

In general, all male subjects of every rank and calling, having reached twenty years of age, must pledge the oath of allegiance.

Chapter V
On the Sacred Coronation and Anointment

57. Upon accession to the Throne, the sacred coronation and anointment are performed according to the rite of the Greco-Russian Orthodox Church. The date for this solemn ritual is set at the discretion of the Emperor and is given nationwide publicity in advance.

58. If the Emperor so deigns, His August Spouse joins Him in partaking of these sacred rites. But if the coronation of the Emperor precedes His entry into matrimony, the coronation of His Spouse occurs afterwards, solely with His specific assent.

Explanatory Note 1

The holy ceremony of coronation and anointment takes place in the Cathedral of the Assumption in Moscow in the presence of high government officials and classes, appointed by the Emperor, to be summoned for the occasion. The coronation of Emperors of All the Russias as Kings of Poland is contained in one and the same holy ceremony; delegates from the Kingdom of Poland are called upon to participate in this celebration together with the delegates from other parts of the Empire.

Explanatory Note 2

Before the conclusion of this holy ceremony, according to custom practiced by ancient Christian Monarchs and Their God-Anointed Ancestors, the Emperor recites before His loyal subjects the Creed of the Orthodox ( -- Catholic) Faith, and then upon being vested in porphyry, upon placing the crown on His head and upon receiving the scepter and imperial orb, on bent knees He calls upon the King of Kings in the prescribed prayer: to guide, enlighten and make Him fit for the great service, as Tsar and Judge of the Realm of All the Russias, that there may be with Him the Wisdom which belongs to the Divine Throne, that His heart may be in God’s hand, to accomplish all that is to the profit of the people committed to His charge and to the glory of God, so that on the day of Judgment He may give account of His stewardship without blame.

Nicholas II, as sovereign emperor presides over a meeting of the State Council in the Mariinsky Palace
Painting by Ilya Repin, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg

Chapter VI
On the Title of His Imperial Majesty and the State Coat of Arms

59. The full title of His Imperial Majesty is the following: “By the Grace (and aid) of God, We NN, Emperor and Sovereign of All the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod; Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Taurian Khersones, Tsar of Georgia; Sovereign of Pskov and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland; Duke of Estland, Lifland, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Bielostok, Korelia, Tver, Yugria, Permia, Vyatka, Bolgary and others; Sovereign and Grand Duke of Nizhni Novgorod, Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Jaroslavl, Bielo-ozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislav, and Ruler of all Northern territories; Sovereign of Iberia, Kartalinia, the Kabardinian lands and Armenian province: hereditary Sovereign and Ruler of the Circassian and Mountain Princes and of others; Sovereign of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dietmarsen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.”

60. In certain cases, determined by law, the title of His Imperial Majesty appears in an abridged form: “By the Grace (and aid) of God, We NN, Emperor and Sovereign of All the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Taurian Khersones, Tsar of Georgia, Grand Duke of Finland, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.” In other cases, also determined by law, the following brief version of the title of His Imperial Majesty is used: “By the Grace of God, We NN, Emperor and Sovereign of All the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.”

61. The Russian State Coat of Arms is a black double-headed eagle on a gold shield, crowned by two imperial crowns, above which there is a third, bigger crown, of similar appearance, with two undulating ends of ribbon of the Order of St. Andrew, the First-Called. The State eagle is holding a gold scepter and a gold orb. On the breast of the eagle is the Moscow Coat of Arms: a scarlet escutcheon with an image of St. George the Great Martyr and Victory-bearer on horseback, smiting a dragon with a golden spear.

The great State seal contains the escutcheon with the double-headed eagle described above, crowned by the helmet of Grand Duke Saint Alexander Nevsky and encircled by the chain of the Order of St. Andrew, the First-Called; on either side -- depictions of Archangel Michael and Archangel Gabriel; above all -- a gold pavilion studded with two-headed eagles and lined with ermine bearing the inscription: “God is with us”; above the pavilion -- the Imperial crown and State gonfalon. Around the escutcheon are depicted the ancestral coat of arms of His Imperial Majesty and the coat of arms belonging to the Realms of Kazan, Astrakhan, Poland, Siberia, Taurian Khersones and Georgia, the Grand Duchies of Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod and Finland; above the pavilion -- combined on six shields the coat of arms of the other Principalities and Provinces, named in the full Imperial title (article 59). This full title of His Imperial Majesty is placed along the rim of the seal.

The medium State seal contains the same depictions as on the great seal except for the State gonfalon and the six shields with the combined coat of arms of Principalities and Provinces located above the pavilion. Along the rim -- the abridged version of the Imperial title (article 60, paragraph 1).

The small State seal is in general similar to the medium seal but lacks the images of the Holy Archangels and the ancestral Coat of Arms of His Imperial Majesty, and the coat of arms of the Kingdoms and Principalities encircling the main escutcheon are situated on the wings of the eagle. Along the rim of the seal -- the brief version of the Imperial title (article 60, paragraph 2).

Explanatory Note

The full blazon of the State coat of arms and of the State seal, in all versions, and the rules for applying them are found in a special appendix (appendix 1).

Chapter VII
On the Faith

62. The primary and predominant Faith in the Russian Empire is the Christian Orthodox Catholic Faith of the Eastern Confession.

63. The Emperor who occupies the Throne of All the Russias cannot profess any Faith other than the Orthodox.

64. The Emperor, as a Christian Sovereign, is the Supreme Defender and Guardian of the dogmas of the predominant Faith and is the Keeper of the purity of the Faith and all good order within the Holy Church.

65. In the administration of the Church, Sovereign Power acts through the Most Holy Governing Synod, which It has instituted.

66. All native and naturalized subjects of the Russian Empire who do not belong to the predominant Church, as well as foreigners working or temporarily residing in Russia, are everywhere free to observe their own faith and worship in accordance with its rites.

67. Freedom of religion is granted not only to Christians of foreign denominations, but also to Jews, Muslims and heathens; so that all peoples residing in Russia may glorify Almighty God in various tongues according to the laws and confessions of their ancestors, blessing the reign of Russian Monarchs and beseeching the Creator of the universe to increase the (nation's) well-being and to strengthen the might of the Empire.

68. Church matters of foreign Christian denominations and of other confessions in the Russian Empire are managed by their spiritual leaders and by administrators specifically designated by the Supreme Power.

Explanatory Note

The rules for safeguarding religious tolerance and its limitations are described in detail in the Charters of the different confessions.

Chapter VIII
On the Rights and Obligations of Russian Subjects

69. Conditions for acquiring the rights of Russian citizenship, as well as the loss thereof, are determined by law.

70. The defense of the Throne and of the Fatherland is a sacred obligation of every Russian subject. The male population, irrespective of social status, is subject to military service in accordance with lawful decrees.

71. Russian subjects are obliged to pay legally instituted taxes and dues, and also to perform other duties in accordance with lawful decrees.

72. No one can be subject to prosecution for a criminal act, except by procedures determined by law.

73. No one can be arrested, except in circumstances determined by law.

74. No one can be tried and punished except for criminal acts, governed by criminal laws in force during the perpetration of these acts, provided newly enacted laws do not exclude the perpetrated acts from the list of crimes.

75. The dwelling of every individual is inviolable. Conducting searches and seizures without the consent of the owner is permissible only in circumstances and by procedures defined by law.

76. Every Russian subject has the right freely to select his place of dwelling and profession, to acquire and dispose of property, and to travel abroad without any hindrance. Specific laws place limitations on these rights.

77. Private property is inviolable. Forcible expropriation of immovable property, when it is required for State or public use is permissible only upon just and proper compensation.

78. Russian subjects have the right to organize meetings for purposes that are not contrary to law, that are peaceful and unarmed. The law defines the conditions under which meetings take place, the procedures for concluding them, as well as the limitations on venues.

79. Within the limits established by law everyone can express his thoughts verbally or in writing, and can also promulgate them through publications or other means.

80. Russian subjects have the right to organize associations and unions for purposes not contrary to laws. The conditions for organizing associations and unions, the manner of their activities, the terms and rules for acquiring legal status, as well as the procedure for terminating associations and unions, are defined by law.

81. Russian subjects enjoy religious freedom. The conditions for making use of this freedom are defined by law.

82. Foreigners residing in Russia enjoy the rights of Russian subjects within limitations established by law.

83. Specific laws define exceptions to the rules expounded in this chapter regarding localities under martial law or under exceptional circumstances.

Chapter IX
On Laws

84. The government of the Russian Empire is established upon a firm foundation of laws that have been properly enacted.

85. Laws are equally applicable, without exception, to all Russian subjects and foreigners residing within the Russian State.

86. No new law can be enacted without the ratification of the State Council and the State Duma, and cannot go into effect without being approved by the Sovereign Emperor.

87. If extraordinary circumstances necessitate the introduction of a measure which requires legislative action when the State Duma is in recess, the Council of Ministers submits the measure directly to the Sovereign Emperor. Such a measure, however, cannot introduce changes into the Fundamental State Laws, or the Institutions of the State Council and State Duma, or in the Regulations on elections to the Council or the Duma. The force of such a measure will cease if the responsible minister or department head fails to introduce appropriate legislation in the State Duma during the first two months of its session upon reconvening, or if the State Duma or State Council refuse to enact it into law.

88. Laws specifically enacted for certain localities or segments of the population are not repealed by a new, general law unless precisely such a repeal is specified.

89. Every law becomes effective only in the future, except in those cases when the law itself specifies that it is in force retroactively or when it exists only to confirm and clarify the meaning of a previous law.

90. The Governing Senate is the general depository of laws. Therefore, all laws must be submitted in the original or in duly certified copies to the Governing Senate.

91. To inform the general public, laws are promulgated by the Governing Senate according to established procedures and do not take effect before their promulgation.

92. Legislative decrees are not subject to promulgation if they were not enacted according to the procedures set in these Fundamental Laws.

93. Upon promulgation, the law becomes effective from the time specified by the law itself, if such a period of time is not specified -- from the day on which the Senate publication containing the printed law is received locally. The law being published may itself indicate that by means of telegraph or courier it be transmitted for execution before its publication.

94. A law cannot be repealed otherwise than by the force of another law. Therefore, until an active law is effectively repealed by a new law, it retains its full force.

95. No one can plead ignorance of a law once it has been duly promulgated.

96. Regulations concerning regimental, engineering and quartermaster corps, as well as provisions and orders to institutions and authorized personnel in the departments of the Army and Navy are submitted directly to the Sovereign Emperor upon review by the Military and Admiralty Councils, as long as these regulations, provisions and orders, in fact pertain only to the above-mentioned establishments, and do not concern matters of general laws and do not call for new expenditures from the treasury or if they do call for new expenditures, these are covered by expected surpluses in the financial budgets of the War or Naval Ministries. In case a new expenditure cannot be covered by the expected surplus, the submission of such regulations, provisions and orders for the Emperor’s approval are permitted only after petitioning, in the prescribed manner, for the necessary allocation.

97. Regulations concerning military and naval courts are issued according to procedures established in the Codes of Military and Naval Regulations.

Chapter X
On the State Council and State Duma and their modus operandi

98. The State Council and the State Duma are convened annually by decree of the Sovereign Emperor.

99. Duration of the annual session of the State Council and State Duma and the lengths of recess during the year are determined by decrees of the Sovereign Emperor.

100. The State Council consists of members appointed by the Sovereign Emperor and of elected members. The total number of appointed members of the Council summoned by the Sovereign Emperor to deliberate in the Council must not exceed the total number of the elected members of the Council.

101. The State Duma consists of members, elected by the population of the Russian Empire for a five-year term according to the statutes on election to the Duma.

102. The State Council verifies the credentials of its elected members. Likewise, the State Duma verifies the credentials of its members.

103. The same person cannot serve simultaneously as a member of the State Council and as a member of the State Duma.

104. Before its term of office expires, the elected membership of the State Council may be replaced by a new membership by a decree of the Sovereign Emperor in which new elections of Council members are scheduled.

105. Before the five-year term of office expires, the State Duma can be dissolved by decree of the Sovereign Emperor. The same decree sets new elections to the Duma and the time for it to convene.

106. The State Council and the State Duma possess equal rights in legislative matters.

107. The State Council and the State Duma are authorized to initiate legislative proposals according to the procedures they have established in order to enact new laws and to repeal and modify existing laws, with the exception of the Fundamental State Laws that are subject to revision solely upon the initiative of the Sovereign Emperor.

108. The State Council and the State Duma are authorized to interpellate, according to procedures they have established, ministers and chief administrators of various departments under the legal jurisdiction of the Governing Senate, concerning actions taken by them or subordinate persons and agencies, which seem to be unlawful.

109. The Statutes of the State Council and the State Duma indicate which matters are under the auspices of the Council and Duma and may be open for discussion according to procedures that they have established.

110. Legislative proposals that are considered and approved in the State Duma, are submitted to the State Council. Legislative proposals that are initiated in the State Council are considered by the Council, and upon approval, are submitted to the Duma.

111. Legislative proposals that have not been adopted in either the State Council or in the State Duma are considered rejected.

112. Legislative proposals initiated in the State Council or the State Duma, but not approved by the Sovereign Emperor, cannot be resubmitted for legislative consideration during the same session. Legislative proposals initiated in the State Council or the State Duma and rejected by one of these institutions, can be resubmitted for legislative consideration during the same session, provided the Sovereign Emperor so decrees.

113. Legislative proposals brought before, and approved by the State Duma and then by the State Council, and likewise, legislative proposals initiated in, and approved by the State Council, as well as by the State Duma, are then submitted to the Sovereign Emperor by the Chairman of the State Council.

114. When the State Budget is under consideration, appropriations for the payment of government debts or other obligations taken up by the Russian Government, are not subject to exclusion or reduction.

115. Allocation of funds covering the expenses of the Imperial Court Ministry and of those institutions under its jurisdiction, are not subject to consideration by the State Council or the State Duma if the sums do not exceed the amounts allotted in the State Budget of 1906. Modifications to the allocated funds, which are dependent on regulations found in the Statutes of the Imperial Family and which correspond to the changes within the Statutes, are equally not subject to consideration.

116. If the State Budget is not approved before the accounting period, the budget that had been duly approved the previous year will remain in force, with only such changes that meet the requirements of legislation enacted after the budget's approval. Before the promulgation of a new State Budget, on the decision of the Council of Ministers, necessary funds are gradually made available to Ministries and Departments, not exceeding however, in their totality during any month, one-twelfth of all budgetary expenditures.

117. Additional over-budget funds for war-time needs and for special preparations preceding a war become available to all departments by supreme command in circumstances defined by law.

118. Government loans to cover budget and over-budget expenditures are permitted through the same procedures as established for approval of the State Budget's revenues and expenses. Government loans for covering expenses in cases and according to limits described in Article 116, as well as those loans for covering expenses that are required on the basis of Article 117, are permitted by the Sovereign Emperor, as the supreme administrator. The time and conditions for acquiring government loans are determined at the supreme level of administration.

119. If a legislative proposal, submitted in good time to the State Duma, concerning the number of people necessary to reinforce the Army and Navy, is not enacted into law in due process by May 1, then a requisite number of people, but not exceeding the number assigned the previous year, will be conscripted into military service by a decree of the Sovereign Emperor.

Chapter XI
On the Council of Ministers, Ministers and Chief Administrators of Various Departments

120. The Council of Ministers is charged with directing and unifying the actions of ministers and chief administrators of various departments on matters of legislation and of management on the highest level of government administration, in conformity with the law.

121. Ministers and chief administrators of various departments have voting rights in the State Council and the State Duma only if they are members of these institutions.

122. Regulations, instructions and orders issued by the Council of Ministers, ministers and chief administrators of various departments, as well as other ordinances lawfully authorized, must not contradict laws.

123. The Chairman of the Council of Ministers, ministers and chief administrators of various departments are accountable to the Sovereign Emperor for the general course of State administration. Each one of them is individually responsible for his actions and orders.

124. For official misconduct in office, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, ministers and chief administrators of various departments shall be held liable under the civil and criminal laws.

The Great Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire