The Catherine Palace is a Neoclassical residence of the Empress Catherine II on the bank of the Yauza River in Lefortovo, Moscow. It should not be confused with the much more famous Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo.
The residence is also known as the Golovin Palace, after its first owner, Count Fyodor Alekseevich Golovin (1650-1706), who was the last Russian boyar and the first Chancellor of the Russian Empire, field marshal, general admiral (1700). Until his death he was the most influential of Peter the Great's associates. After his death, Emperor Peter I instructed the State Treasury to purchase the palace and surrounding park.
During her 10-year reign, Empress Anna Ioannovna commissioned Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli to replace the Golovin Palace with a Baroque residence known as Annenhof. It consisted of two wooden two-storey buildings, the Summer Palace and the Winter Palace, and was to be Anna's preferred residence.
Annenhof was abandoned after a fire in 1746. Catherine II, who found both edifices rather old-fashioned and dilapidated, ordered their demolition in the 1760s. In the 1770s, the empress commissioned Antonio Rinaldi to construct a new palace in their place. In 1771, a bridge was constructed to connect the Catherine Palace with the nearby Neoclassical residence in Lefortovo.
Early 20th century view of the Catherine Palace in Moscow
Problems in the construction of the Catherine Palace led to the restructuring under the guidance of architect Carl Blanc, who completed the first phase of construction by the end of 1781. In February 1782, the empress transferred the project to Giacomo Quarenghi, entrusting him with interior decoration, and the facade, in order for the Colic columns to be corrected. The architect Francesco Camporesi also participated in the final stage of construction.
After the death of Catherine II in 1796, her son and heir Paul I, known for his dislike of his mother's palaces, converted the residence into barracks of the Moscow garrison regiment. The decoration of the main rooms, including the throne room, was significantly simplified; while the area in front of the palace was converted to a parade ground.
In 1812, the palace was destroyed by the French - although, according to the French version it was burned by Russian incendiaries. The palace was restored only in 1823 under the supervision of Major-General PS Ushakov, director of the Smolensk Cadet Corps. In 1824, the Smolensk Cadet Corps was housed in a renovated building and was renamed the Moscow Cadet Corps in 1838. The building’s interiors were again renovated by the Italian-Russian architect Joseph Bové.
In October 1917 the Moscow Cadet Corps mounted a fierce resistance against the Bolsheviks in Lefortovo. Colonel V.F. Rahr organized the defence of the barracks with cadets from the senior classes. Fighting lasted for six days, until heavy artillery from the enemy forced their surrender. Some of the prisoners were subsequently shot by the Reds in the neighbouring Lefortovo barracks.
Since 1937, the building has housed the Military Academy of Armored Forces, now the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Given its status as a military institution, the building has generally been inaccessible to the public. In 2004, the Moscow authorities initiated negotiations with the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation on transferring the property rights of the Catherine Palace to the city.
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The Church of St. Mary Magdalene is an historic Russian Orthodox church in Darmstadt, Germany, built for the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, nee Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt. She and Emperor Nicholas II wished to have the opportunity to pray in an Orthodox church while visiting Germany, which usually occurred about once every year-and-a-half or two years.
The architect Leon Benois (1856-1928) created the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in the Russian revival style between 1897-1899; construction was carried out under the direct supervision of the architect Gustav Jacobi, and then his assistant - Friedrich Olleriha. The construction of the church was paid for by Emperor Nicholas II, who spent 310,000 rubles (the original estimate was 180,000 rubles) from his personal funds.
It was decided that the church be built of Russian stone and upon Russian soil. Russian granite, shipped from the Urals, the Caucasus and Siberia, was used, and soil collected in several provinces of the Russian Empire, was brought to Darmstadt by train. The church is built of red brick. The facades are decorated with gilded friezes and bulb-shaped tiles with the Russian double-headed eagle. The exterior tiles and floor tiles were manufactured by the company «Villeroy & Boch» in Mettlach.
The church was consecrated on 8 October (O.S. 26 September) 1899 in the name of St Mary Magdalene, patron saint of Nicholas II's mother the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. The ceremony was attended by Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. The interiors of the church, which included beautiful mosaic decoration, were not completed until October 1903. The interior is unusually decorated: there are few frescoes or icons, and a mosaic of the Mother of God soars above the altar. The iconostasis was imported from London. It consists of only one row, and was painted in oil, a popular method of the period, by Karl Neff. The walls are adorned by stylized lilies, flowers particularly loved by the Empress.
The iconostasis consists of only one row, a beautiful mosaic of the Mother of God soars above the altar
Liturgies were held in the church during visits by members of the Russian Imperial family to Darmstadt, and on the memorial days of their patron saints, and church holidays. The wedding of Prince Andrew of Greece and Princess Alice of Battenberg (the parents of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh) took place here on 6 October 1903. The last service for the Imperial family took place in 1910.
In 1914, repairs were made on the building under the direction of F. Olleriha.
From the beginning of the First World War, the church was closed. All the liturgical objects, bells, part of the roof and stained glass windows were confiscated as "enemy property".
After the war liturgies in the church were rare. As a rule, they were devoted to ceremonial events. A Divine Liturgy has been served every July 17th, the anniversary of the murder of the Imperial family, since the 1930s to the present day.
In 1944, the church sustained significant damage by bombing. A number of items confiscated or stolen were returned to the church in 1946
The church underwent a major restoration between 2005 to 2008, at a cost of 1.1 million euros.
Since 1938, the Church of St. Mary Magdalene has been part of the German Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia. Liturgies have been held in the church every two weeks and on holidays, since 1987. The church serves the Orthodox community of Russians, Serbs, Greeks and Germans from Darmstadt and the surrounding area.
Sketches of the Church of St. Mary Magdalene, by architect Leon Benois in 1897
A Russian Moment No. 72 - Moscow Flower Festival Topic: A Russian Moment
A partial view of the northeast corner of Red Square from the north side of GUM during the Moscow Flower Festival
Back in July, some 600,000 flowers were planted near Red Square for the annual Moscow Flower Festival. This year the GUM department store in Moscow doubled-up as a greenhouse as part of the month-long flower festival.
In all, 28 different species were grown especially for the show, including white petunia, yellow marigold, red salvia, orange coleus, blue lobelia and lilac ageratum, among others.
Muscovites would never have enjoyed such a festival during the dark days of the Soviet Union, when any thing of beauty was considered “Western” or “bourgeoisie”.
The above photograph is interesting, as it reflects so much history in the architecture presented.
The building to the far left is GUM. Built in 1893, it was the largest shopping center in Europe. Before the 1917 Revolution it contained a staggering 1,200 stores. In 1928, GUM was closed by Stalin, but was reopened in 1953, and became one of the most popular sites for the legendary Soviet queues, which could at times extend all the way across Red Square. After privatization in the early 90s, it rapidly became the address of choice for top-end Western retailers, attracting Russia’s nouveau riche and tourists.
The prices in GUM are way beyond my reach, however, that does not stop me from buying an ice cream cone for 50 rubles (Russian ice cream has to be among the world's best) from one of the kiosks located inside the front door, and wandering around admiring the beautiful interiors.
Moving from left to right, the tall red spire is the St. Nicholas (Nikolskaya) Tower of the Moscow Kremlin. Built in 1492, the tower's name stems from an icon of Saint Nicholas of Mozhaysk mounted above the gate. Traditionally, disputes and arguments were resolved beneath the icon. The gate served as an entrance to the boyars’ estates and the Kremlin’s monasteries. The tower measures 70 meters including the red star, replacing the double-headed eagle in 1935.
The original icon of Saint Nicholas, placed above the entrance facing Red Square had been plastered over by Soviet authorities and was uncovered in 2007 and restored. The icon of Saint Nicholas of Mozhaysk was unveiled and blessed by Patriarch Kirill on November 4, 2010.
The large red building is the State Russian Historical Museum. The museum was opened in 1883 to mark the coronation of Emperor Alexander III. It is considered one of the finest examples of Russian Revival style architecture in the country. The State Historical Museum is one of my favourite museums in Moscow, and I never pass up an opportunity to spend a morning or afternoon exploring the current 39 halls of this growing museum. The halls devoted to the Romanov dynasty are particularly interesting, the museum updating the exhibits from their exhaustive collection on a regular basis.
Finally, the peach and white church is the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan. The original wooden church was destroyed by a fire in 1632. Tsar Michael I, ordered it replaced with a brick church. The one-domed edifice, featuring several tiers of kokoshniki, a wide gallery, and a tented belfry, was consecrated in October 1636. In 1936, the year marking the 300th anniversary of the cathedral, the Kazan Cathedral was destroyed as the Bolshevik dictator Joseph Stalin ordered that Red Square be cleared of churches. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Kazan Cathedral was the first church to be completely rebuilt. Construction began in 1990, the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan was consecrated and reopened on November 4, 1993.
When I was a young boy, I would spend hours leafing through picture books of exotic lands, and dream of visiting such architectural marvels as St. Basil’s Cathedral, Neuschwanstein Castle, the Taj Mahal and the Swallow’s Nest, pictured above.
With the exception of the Taj Mahal I have visited all the others, including the Swallow’s Nest during my visit to the Crimea some 15 years ago. The visit was part of a days itinerary during a special Romanov tour which I had organized to the region. The group enjoyed a delicious lunch at the Swallow’s Nest, while taking in the magnificent views of the Black Sea and the Cape of Ai-Todor through the large windows which encircled the dining room.
The Swallow’s Nest is a decorative castle, a curious remnant of Imperial Russia, located at Gaspra, a small spa town between Yalta and Alupka. It has become one of the most popular visitor attractions in Crimea, having become the symbol of regions outhern coastline.
The original structure on the property was a small wooden cottage that was constructed at the behest of a Russian General around 1895. However, several years later the cottage was placed in the ownership of A.K. Tobin, a physician at the Imperial Court and doctor to the Tsar. The cottage again changed hands, this time being purchased by the Baltic German oil millionaire Baron von Stiengel who demolished the original cottage.
The stone Swallows Nest which we see to this day. was built between 1911 and 1912, on top of the 40-metre (130 ft) high Aurora Cliff, in a Neo-Gothic design by the Russian architect Leonid Sherwood. Sadly, the baron did not enjoy his stone fairytale castle for very long: in 1914, the building was bought by Moscow businessman P. Shelaputin, who opened a restaurant on the premises.
The building is compact in size, measuring only 20 m (66 ft) long by 10 m (33 ft) wide. Its original design envisioned a foyer, guest room, stairway to the tower, and two bedrooms on two different levels within the tower. The interior of the guest room is decorated with wooden panels; the walls of the rest of the rooms are stuccoed and painted. An observation deck rings the building, providing a view of the sea, and Yalta's distant shoreline.
In 1927, a powerful earthquake shook the region, and although the surrounding garden was lost to the sea, the Swallow's Nest was suffered minor damage. In the 1930s, the main room was used as a reading room for one of the many sanatoriums created by the Soviets, however it was closed shortly thereafter as a safety precaution due to the damage it had suffered in the quake, remaining closed for the next 40 years.
Over the next 70 years, restoration of the Swallow’s Nest was carried out twice. In the late 1960s, a major restoration of the building included reinforcing the foundation and repairs which had resulted from the earthquake some 40 years earlier.
Since 1975, an Italian restaurant has operated within the building. Because of its inspiring location the castle was used in the exterior shots of multiple Soviet films, including a screen version of Agatha Christie’s famous thriller And Then There Were None.
A Russian Moment No. 70 - State Russian Historical Museum, Moscow Topic: A Russian Moment
The State Russian Historical Museum in Moscow
The imposing building that stands to your right if you enter Red Square through the Resurrection Gate is the State Russian Historical Museum. The museum was opened in 1883 to mark the coronation of Emperor Alexander III. Public inauguration of the museum and its 11 exposition rooms took place in June of that year. During the first decade, numerous gifts were made to the museums’ collections by the emperor, his wife Empress Maria Feodorovna, and their son Tsesarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich (the future Emperor Nicholas II), and other priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty.
In 1894, the museum became the Emperor Alexander III Imperial Russian Historical Museum in honour of the late emperor who had died at Livadia 1 November [O.S. 20 October] of that year. The museum was visited by Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna during their visit to Moscow in August 1898. After the assassination of Grand Duke Serge Alexandrovich in 1905, the Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich - the tsar’s younger brother - was appointed the museum’s chairman. After the 1917 Revolution, the museum was renamed the State Russian Historical Museum.
The building, which prompts mixed aesthetic reactions, is undeniably impressive. A mass of jagged towers and cornices, it is a typical example of Russian Revivalism, the Eastern equivalent of the Neo-Gothic movement. It was built by architect Vladimir Sherwood (whose father was an English engineer) on the site of the old Pharmacy Building, which was the original home of the Moscow University. Its interiors were intricately decorated in the Russian Revival style by such artists as Viktor Vasnetsov, Henrik Semiradsky, and Ivan Aivazovsky. During the Soviet period the murals were proclaimed gaudy and were plastered over. The museum went through a painstaking restoration of its original appearance between 1986 and 1997.
The museum holds a supremely rich collection of artifacts that tell the history of the Russian lands from the Paleolithic period to the present day. Each hall of the museum is designed to correspond to the era from which the exhibits are taken. The wide variety of the ancient cultures that developed on the territory of modern Russia is well represented, with highlights including Scythian gold figures, funerary masks from the Altai and the Turmanskiy Sarcophagus, a unique mixture of Hellenic architecture and Chinese decoration.
Later displays focus on the history of Russia's rulers, with a number of historical paintings, court costumes, thrones, and Carlo Rastrelli's silver death mask of Peter the Great. More recent displays explore the private lives of Russia’s aristocratic and noble families. Today, the total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers in the millions. Despite, this, however, many of the museum's halls are still closed for restoration work, but the museum is still well worth visiting, and makes for an excellent introduction to the history of Russia.
The State Historical Museum is one of my favourite museums in Moscow, and I never pass up an opportunity to spend a morning or afternoon exploring the current 39 halls of this growing museum. Each visit yields new discoveries, as the museum expands with the opening of new halls, and temporary exhibitions. During my most recent visit to the museum in March 2015, I was delighted to discover one of the museum’s most unique exhibits with a Romanov provenance: a beautiful miniature carriage built for the children of Emperor Alexander II, which had been painstakingly restored between 2010-2014.
A Russian Moment No. 69 - English Palace, Peterhof Topic: A Russian Moment
A simple memorial stone was placed on the site of the ruins of the English Palace in 2008.
The photo in the upper right corner shows this "masterpiece of Russian Classicism" as it looked before 1917.
Giacomo Quarenghi's first important commission in Russia was the New Palace, later known as the English Palace at Peterhof. Empress Catherine II commissioned the Italian architect to build her a “place of seclusion on her visits to Peterhof.” Simple, austere and elegant in design, the three-story palace was constructed between 1781-89. Quarenghi created a magnificent rectangular edifice in the Classical style on the banks of a small pond in the English Park at Peterhof. The main entrance was dominated by a wide granite staircase leading to the first floor and eight Corinthian columns stretched across the portico.
The palace, which pleased Catherine II immensely was heralded as a masterpiece of Russian classicism, however, it was never occupied as an imperial residence by either her or her successors. When her son, Emperor Paul I ascended the throne in 1796, the palace was turned into a barracks. Later, during the reign of Emperor Alexander I, the palace was completely renovated under Quarenghi’s supervision between 1802-1805.
Up until the February Revolution of 1917, the palace served as a place where foreign diplomats and other guests stayed, while attending receptions at the nearby Great Palace. From time to time public events were arranged in the palace, such as exhibitions and public concerts, including the famed Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein who performed here on July 14, 1885. After the Revolution the palace served as a sanatorium.
During the second world war, the frontline ran through the English Park. The palace and the surrounding park became an area for shelling by both German and Soviet forces during World War II and both park and palace were utterly destroyed. Despite plans for restoration, apparently approved in 1975, nothing was done and the palace’s shelled ruins were subsequently demolished by the Soviets.
The only evidence of Quarenghi’s masterpiece is a simple memorial stone established on the palace ruins in 2008. Bullet marks from the Second World War are still visible on the granite pedestal it rests on.
A Russian Moment No. 68 - Central Naval Museum, St. Petersburg Topic: A Russian Moment
Bust of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich and a model of the Imperial yacht 'Standart' on display at the Central Naval Museum, St. Petersburg
Russia's main naval museum tells the fascinating story of the development, growth and achievements of the Russian navy. Among the museum’s vast collection of over 800 thousand exhibits, are some 2,000 quality models of historically significant vessels including the luxurious yachts of the Russian Imperial family.
The museum’s collection of imperial yachts - some of which are extraordinary in size and detail - rivals that of the Imperial Yacht Museum at Peterhof. The museum showcases models of some of the most famous of these floating palaces, including the Standart (1864), Livadia (1873), Tsarevna (1874), Slavyanka (1873), Livadia (1880), Derzhava (1871), Polar Star (1890) and the famous imperial yacht Standart (1895).
The models of the imperial yachts, including the Standart (pictured above) are on display in Hall Number 1 of the Central Naval Museum. Situated next to the model is a bust (1893) of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich (1827-1892) by the sculptor Z.G. Abashvili. During the reign of his brother Emperor Alexander II, the grand duke served as an admiral of the Russian fleet and reformed the Imperial Russian Navy.
A Russian Moment No. 67 - Stock Exchange Building, St. Petersburg Topic: A Russian Moment
The 19th century Stock Exchange Building in St. Petersburg will house the new the Russian Imperial Guard and Heraldry Museum
In the early 19th century one of the most elegant architectural ensembles of St Petersburg emerged on the eastern edge (Strelka ) of Vasilievsky Island in St. Petersburg. The imposing white colonnaded building of the Stock Exchange became its focal point, and was flanked by two Rostral Columns. The Stock Exchange, designed by the French architect Thomas de Tomon and built between 1805 and 1810, was inspired by the best examples of Ancient Greek and Roman architecture.
The building was completed in 1810, although the official opening of the Exchange was not until 1816. De Thomon's facades feature 44 Doric columns on a high red granite stylobate, and above the main portico is a statue of "Neptune with two rivers - the Neva and the Volkhov". De Thomon went on to design the surroundings of the building, including the Rostral Columns (gas-fired navigational beacons), the square in front of the Stock Exchange, and the embankment. Thus the building became the focal point of the edge of Vasilevskiy Island - a vital location because it faced the Winter Palace on the opposite side of the Neva River.
When the Bolsheviks seized power, the Stock Exchange Building became a sailor's club, then the Chamber of Commerce of the North-West Region, a labour exchange, the Soviet for the Study of Manufacturing Capability in the USSR and several other institutions before being transferred to the Central Naval Museum in 1939. The museum closed in 2011, reopening in 2013 in the renovated Kryukov Barracks situated on the Moika Canal.
In December 2013, St. Petersburg Governor Georgy Poltavchenko announced that building would be transferred to the State Hermitage Museum. The city handed the keys to the historic Old Stock Exchange Building were turned over to Mikhail Piotrovsky, Director of the Hermitage on April 18, 2014. The event coincided with the 250th anniversary of the State Hemitage Museum.
Earlier this week, the government announced that it is prepared to allocate 1.12 billion rubles from the Federal budget for the repair and restoration of the building. The State Hermitage Museum claim that the building is in a terrible state of disrepair, noting that 1.6 billion rubles are necessary carry out the repairs. The funds are to be allocated from five ministries, including the Ministry of Culture.
Restoration of the building is expected to last until 2017, once complete, it will house the new the Russian Imperial Guard and Heraldry Museum.
A Russian Moment No. 66 - Maltese Chapel, St. Petersburg Topic: A Russian Moment
The interior of the Maltese Chapel, Vorontsov Palace, St. Petersburg
The Maltese Chapel of St. John the Baptist is a former Catholic chapel built for the Order of Malta Knights by Giacomo Quarenghi in 1800 on the orders of Emperor Paul I. After the opening of the chapel on April 29th, the Emperor became Grand Master of the Order of Malta. The chapel is located in the Vorontsov Palace in St. Petersburg which today houses the Suvorov Military Academy.
Built in 1797-1800 in the Classicist style, the chapel served exiled French aristocrats (Catholic knights of the Maltese Order) who resided in the Russian capital at the turn of the 19th century. The chapel was added to the south wing of the palace, and could accommodate up to 1,000 people. The austere facade is decorated with a Corinthian portico; the interior boasts lavish stucco moulding and decorative paintings. In 1810, it was given to the Page Corps, the Maltese Chapel was used as the house church for Catholic pages and foreign diplomats. In 1853, a side-chapel with a marble sepulchre of Duke Maximilian of Leuchtenberg (sculptor A. I. Terebenev) and stained-glass windows was attached to the Maltese Chapel. In 1909, an organ of the German Walker company was installed. In 1918, the church was closed, the building was altered to accommodate a club. In the 1990s, restoration works were carried out under the supervision of architect S. V. Samusenko.
The Maltese Chapel was restored in 2003 for the 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg. Today, the building serves as an assembly hall of the Suvorov Military School. Tours and concerts are held in the chapel on Saturdays throughout the year.
A Russian Moment No. 65 - State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg Topic: A Russian Moment
State Russian Museum - formerly the Emperor Alexander III Russian Museum, St. Petersburg
120 years ago, on April 3 (25), 1895, Emperor Nicholas II decreed the foundation of the State Russian Museum in St. Petersburg. Today, the museum has become the city’s greatest repository of Russian fine art, its collection now numbering more than 400,000 works of art.
Moscow was always a merchant's city, Petersburg – an imperial one. This distinction can be seen even in the cities’ museums. While Moscow’s Tretyakov Gallery was established in 1856 by merchant Pavel Tretyakov as his private collection, the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg was established by decree in 1895 by Tsar Nicholas II in fulfilment of his father's wishes and was called the Emperor Alexander III Russian Museum.
On April 25, the museum, officially opened in 1898 in the specially purchased Mikhailovsky Palace, marks the 120th anniversary of its foundation. In the 12 decades of its existence, the State Russian Museum has established itself as one of the country’s greatest storehouses of Russian art, with a pedigree to rival that of its more illustrious Petersburg counterpart, the Hermitage, and one of the world’s finest collections of art by members of the various movements that made up the Russian avant-garde of the early 20th century.
To celebrate its 120th birthday, the museum is preparing a special commemorative exhibition titled "Gifts and Acquisitions," which will feature 19th-century works acquired by the museum since 1998. Visitors will be able to admire paintings by Russian masters such as Borovikovsky, Aivazovsky, Repin, Shishkin, Goncharov, Kustodiev, Serebryakov and others.
In February of this year, after a complete restoration which lasted several years, rooms No. 18-29 (from the Parade Staircase to the Garden Vestibule) are once again open to the public. The permanent exhibition created in these rooms include some of the finest works by Russian artists, including Fyodor Vasiliev, Vasily Vereshchagin, Nikolai Ge, Konstantin Makovsky, Vasily Perov, Alexei Savrasov, Henryk Semiradski, Pavel Chistyakov, Konstantin Flavitsky, Ivan Shishkin and other masters of Russian art, as well as examples of sculpture of the second half of the 19th century.
The museum is currently home to two monuments to Emperor Alexander III: a bust of the Emperor by the sculptor R.R. Bach (1898), sits on a pedestal at the top of the main staircase under a large banner marking the founding and opening of the museum; the second is a large portrait statue by the sculptor M.M. Antokolsky (1899). It is situated in a passageway on the lower ground floor between the main museum and the Benois Wing.