Russians and their allies enter Paris in 1814. Artist: Alexei Danilovich Kivchenko (1851-1895)
Copyright Notice: The following article was originally published in the April 3rd, 2014 edition of The Moscow Times. The author Konstantin Sonin, owns the copyright of the article presented below.
Sunday marked the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Paris, when Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops took control of the French capital and forced Napoleon to abdicate. I had honestly expected Russia to celebrate the day with fireworks, parades and church services — or at least with numerous newspaper articles, television programs, conferences and roundtable discussions. After all, that Russian victory put an end to years of conflict and gave Moscow its first opportunity to play an important role in European history. However, the Russian media was largely silent on the topic.
Every Soviet schoolchild learned of the Patriotic War of 1812, even though it only refers to the end of the French campaign on Russian soil. The war lasted for almost another 18 months, with the Russian Army taking active part. It is strange that we focus only on that earlier period of the war. After all, we do not say that World War II ended for Russia in the summer of 1944, when the frontline was pushed back to the Soviet Union's western border.
The end of the Napoleonic Wars was noteworthy not only for the victory of Russian Army — a number of such victories came both before and after that date as well — but also because it led to the greatest victory in the history of Russian diplomacy. The Congress of Vienna held in 1814 to 1815 restructured Europe in such a way that peace prevailed among the major powers for almost a full century. The Crimean War in 1853 to 1855 made that balance of powers even more enduring. And it happens that Russian diplomats, led by Tsar Alexander I, played a key role in that success.
Russia tends to forget this major victory in part because the Soviet leadership denigrated the importance of tsarist achievements. Despite Napoleon's worldwide fame as a formidable opponent, the Soviets considered Russia's victory over him as inappropriate material for propaganda. In fact, that view has held consistently from tsarist times, through the Soviet period and even right up until the present.
Several of the officers involved in the capture of Paris — General Eugen of Wurttemberg, Count Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron and Field Marshall Peter Wittgenstein — are remembered by history buffs more for the fact that they were foreign-born than for their critical role in that battle. In this sense, history has been kinder to Field Marshal Count Barclay de Tolly, but less so to Count von Bennigsen, the first of Russia's generals whose troops managed to hold ranks when battling soldiers under Napoleon's personal command.
There are also other reasons for this collective amnesia. For example, British historian Dominic Lieven refers to what he calls the "Tolstoy factor." His great novel "War and Peace" tells his readers that generals and emperors are nothing, and that the people are everything. Because of Tolstoy, we think of the War of 1812 as a battle between peoples and not between states. And more important, we imagine that the war ended where the book's description of it ends — as Russian troops reach the borders of the Russian empire.
And finally, our modern discourse is so fixated on the victory in World War II that it leaves almost no room to remember victories in other wars. But perhaps the current surge of patriotism will revive interest in them.
Tens of Thousands Sign Petition to Reunite Alaska With Russia Topic: Russian History
According to the Russian news agency RIA Novosti, over *22,000 people have signed a petition calling for the secession of Alaska from the United States to seek reunification with Russia. *The Post-Standard reports this morning that the number of signatures has surpassed 28,000
The petition, available on the White House website, opened on March 21. If the motion attracts 100,000 signatures within a month, the Obama administration is obliged to respond according to its guidelines.
The petition, entitled "Alaska Back to Russia," encourages a vote on secession, citing historic travels of Russian explorers to Alaska, as far back as the crossing of native Siberians across the Bering land bridge over 10 thousand years ago.
The document tracks the settlement of the region by Russians, including Aleuts colonizing the Aleutian Archipelago, and the expedition of famed explorer Mikhail Gvozdez who first sited Alaska in 1732.
Alaska was a Russian colony until 1867 when Russian Emperor Alexander II sold it to the US for $7.2 million -$120 million in today's money after being adjusted for inflation.
In November 2012, a similar petition sought Texas' withdrawal from the US following the state's dissatisfaction with federal economic policy.
Signatories of that petition called for Texas to declare independence in order to maintain a balanced budget and "to protect its citizens' standard of living."
Similar motions were filed by residents of several other American states, including Tennessee, Louisiana, South Carolina, North Carolina, Florida, Alabama and Georgia.
Yet only Texas garnered enough signatures - over 125,000 - to be reviewed by the Obama administration, which turned the petition down saying that while "no one disputes that our country faces big challenges," Americans needed to work together "to find the best way to move forward."
Despite the value of healthy debate, "we don't let that debate tear us apart," the White House said.
War Against the Bolsheviks: Canada's Siberian Expedition 1918-1919 Now Playing: Duration: 2 minutes, 2 seconds. Language: English Topic: Russian History
The following article was originally published in the March 8th, 2014 edition of The Calgary Sun. The author Michael Platt owns the copyright presented below.
One lonely name inscribed on a memorial at The Military Museums of Calgary — and for an Alberta man who died invading Russia, it’s almost all that remains.
Bugler David Higgins was his rank and name, and like the other 4,200 Canadians ordered to occupy Siberia in 1918, the young cobbler’s assistant from Medicine Hat was probably caught between disbelief and despair.
The Great War was supposed to be over: Armistice signed, the Hun surrendered, and everyone in uniform looking forward to a future that didn’t involve rifles, mud and barbed wire.
Higgins, a 21-year-old who’d been conscripted only seven months before the war ended, was surely counting himself lucky, even as he was recruited — imminent German defeat meant no need for the battlefields of Europe, where 61,000 of his countrymen had perished.
Instead of dodging bullets, Scottish-born Higgins could quickly get back to repairing shoes in his uncle Alexander’s shop, or perhaps the job he’d held just before being ordered into the army, working in a Medicine Hat grocery store.
But fate had something more grim in store for Higgins, and on Dec. 26, 1918, he found himself aboard the SS Protesliaus, waving goodbye to the port of Victoria, and wondering what he and 984 other unhappy soldiers from 260th Battalion could expect in Vladivostok, Russia.
Had he anticipated the disease, dreary days, and longing for home ahead, Higgins might have welcomed a good war.
As invasions went, this one was a dud — and about as far from Canada’s First World War glories as you could get.
For the few aware it even happened, the whole half-baked stalemate has become known as the First Cold War.
It’s a good description. If Russia’s current meddling in Crimea leads to a new chapter of the snarly arms race that lasted from 1947 to 1991, the allied invasion of Siberia just after the Great War certainly qualifies as the prologue.
The enemy was Russia’s Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, and responsible for a revolution that had ended in the death of the Czar and a refusal to pay back 13 billion rubles borrowed from Britain and France to finance the war.
Before the Bolsheviks, Czarist Russia had been a staunch ally of Britain and Canada — but as soon as Lenin seized control, Russia quit the war and abandoned the cause.
Hurt feelings, coupled with a fear of the Red revolutionaries and the fate of 700,000 tonnes of allied war supplies stored at Vladivostok, led to the formation of an allied force bent on supporting Russia’s pro-Czarist White Army.
At least partially. Historians have since pointed to a multitude of other excuses for the invasion by Canadian, British, French, Chinese and Japanese forces, including the rescue of 60,000 Czechoslovak legionnaires trapped near Vladivostok by hostile Bolsheviks.
Whatever the cause, the allied soldiers sent to Siberia were not happy, and in Victoria, prior to departure, there was a small uprising that saw Canadian troops fighting their own, using belts to whip the unhappy rabble into order and onto the ship.
With leaders of the mutiny in shackles, the Canadians sailed to Russia — and then they waited. And waited.
Called “the worst hellhole on earth” by one Canuck, Vladivostok left Higgins and his bored comrades desperate for distraction, and soccer, hockey, tug-of-war and hiking were regular actives — plus, of course, visiting prostitutes.
Syphillis was the worst enemy the Canadian forces faced in Russia, with a full-quarter of casualties linked to venereal disease caught from local hookers — being bored young men, no amount of threat or confinement could stop them.
As far as real fighting, other than some minor railway skirmishes with the Bolsheviks, not a single Canadian bullet was fired in anger — and 14 months later, the pox-ridden Canadians were aboard a ship headed back home.
But not Higgins — and not 13 other Canadians left behind at Vladivostok Marine Cemetery, having failed to survive Canada’s only invasion of Russia.
Most were victims of pneumonia, one was a suicide, and in the case of Higgins, a bout with periocarditis — inflammation of the heart — made sure he never saw Alberta again.
Fourteen Canadian soldiers who died during the 1919 Invasion of Russia are buried at the Churkin Naval Cemetery at Vladivostock.
Emperor Nicholas II with the Tsesarevich Alexei Nicholayevich attending a church Parade of the Finlandsky Guard Regiment, December 12, 1905. Artist: Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (1878-1927)
The Finnish Regiment was formed under the patronage of Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich as a battalion of the Imperial militia. In 1811 it was transformed into the Imperial Finnish Lifeguard Regiment. The title came after the first recruitment that was made up of Finnish peasants.
The commanders of the Russian army thought highly of the battle training and courage of the Finnish regiment. They had more George Crosses – Russia’s highest military award, than any other regiment. Plenty of eminent figures served in the regiment including the famous conductor of the regimental band Nikolai Titov and painter Pavel Fedotov.
The Day of Saint Spyridon, which is celebrated by the Russian Orthodox Church on December 12th, became an official holiday for the Finnish regiment. Saint Spyridon’s chapel is in St.Petersburg just next to the building where the Officer Assembly of the Finnish regiment gathered.
Next door you can find the regimental library and a monument to grenadier Leonty Korennoy. Songs were composed about Korennoy, and Napoleon himself even hailed him as an example for his soldiers.
The creation of the monument, that shows Korennoy at the battle of Leipzig, was funded by officers of the Finnish regiment. Dmitriy Klochkov, an expert from the Russian Ministry of culture on the military-historical reconstruction, says Korennoy was a real hero:
“Leonty Korennoy was a soldier of the Finnish Regiment, who showed incredible courage at the Battle of Leipzig – the so-called Battle of Nations. He was also a cavalier of the George Cross for the battle of Borodino. At the Battle of Leipzig he helped his fellow-soldiers, who got caught in the encirclement to recede. Korennoy himself was captured by French troops while covering a field-officer and a few officers who were escaping climbing over the stone fence. Leonty received 18 wounds but the French took good care of him and appreciating his bravery cured him and let him go. When Korennoy came back to his regiment he got promoted to flag-bearer, which was a great honor for an ordinary soldier,” Dmitriy Klochkov said.
Unfortunately, all that is left of the Korennoy’s monument today is a half-ruined pedestal with the inscription “to the dear regiment”. But the memory of the Finnish Lifeguard Regiment’s hero is still alive. There is even a song devoted to the brave grenadier.
Just days before the First World War broke out, the Finnish regiment was celebrating the arrival of a squadron of the French President Poincare. Who would have thought that shortly after the festivities virtually the whole regiment would be wiped out.
On July 26, 1914 the Finnish regiment attended the farewell prayer and a march-past. The lifeguards were heading towards Warsaw. Their task was to stop the German troops on the “Warsaw-Poznan-Berlin” direction,” says Stanislav Malishev, chairman of the military-historical society “Soldiers of the Motherland”.
“The Russian regiments entrained Saint-Petersburg and its suburbs at different times but on August, 7 the whole second division, of which the Finnish regiment was a part, entered the Western province. That is where they encountered the enemy for the first time – near the villages of Grodzisk and Lovich. On August, 21 the lifeguards were moved to the South-Western front, to the region of Lublino. On August, 24 the Finnish regiment engaged in its first major battle near the village of Gelchev,” Stanislav Malishev said.
The Finnish regiment’s troops had quite a few strong points, namely fighting skills and the number of officers. There were lots of non-commissioned officers in the regiment who were used as privates due to overcrowding. For the most part those officers died first.
The three-day-long battle of Gelchev was a baptism of fire for the Finnish regiment in the Great War. On the 25th of August the commander of the regiment announced the strategy. But by that time, the village was already under attack. The next night battalions headed off and attacked the enemy, forcing the Austrians to retreat.
The Finnish Lifeguard regiment also played an important role in the Battle of Galicia – the first battle in the history involving such a great number of troops. The regiment entered Austria-Hungarian territory through the so-called Ivangorodskie gates. After this campaign the commander of the regiment Major-general Teplov received the Order of Saint George fourth class.
The hardest time for the regiment came in summer of 1915 when they fought by the Vepr river. Despite the shortage of ammunition, the Finnish Lifeguard managed to repel all enemy attacks.
The Battle of Kowel is famous thanks to the heroic feats of staff-captain Slashev. He lead his men directly into the enemy’s entrenchment, risking his life for the victory but the soldiers covered Slashev from the German bullets.
During the winter of 1916-1917 the Finnish regiment build up strength for the upcoming spring offensive. On March 15th, 1917 Emperor Nikolai II abdicated. The uprising that followed was the cause of hard feelings among the officers. But leaving the front to establish order back home was out of question. In summer 1917 the Finnish regiment took part in the so-called June offensive – the break through the German frontline. Many great soldiers were lost in this operation – staff-captain Petrovsky, lieutenants Melnitsky and Teglev, warrant officer Bahmutov.
The last battle of the Finnish Lifeguards was in October, 1917. After that the Soviet government decided to disband the regiment,” Stanislav Malishev says.
“All the regiments of the former Imperial army were officially disbanded, but the most loyal officers went to the Don and joined anti bolshevist’s forces. Colonel Alexander Moller was given permission by general Krasnov to form a new Finnish regiment as part of the Don Army. The main body of the regiment consisted of 27 officers later joined by corporals and privates who managed to flee to the Don. They declared mobilization and more and more soldiers came, so on June 13th, 1918 the regiment was restored to life. They took part in most of the campaigns of the Don Army and after the retreat in March of 1920 united with lifeguards of the Volunteer Army,” Stanislav Malishev said.
The Preobrazhensky Lifeguard Regiment Topic: Russian History
Emperor Nicholas II in the uniform of the Preobrazhensky Lifeguard Regiment
The Preobrazhensky Lifeguard Regiment was a heroic participant of the First World War. As the oldest division of the Russian army, the Lifeguard unit was considered elite. The Preobrazhensky Regiment was founded by Tsar Peter the Great himself.
The Emperor took the fate of the regiment close to heart as it was initially formed from his poteshnye voiska or “toy” forces, which the Tsar had assembled at the age of 11. As Peter grew older the regiment started playing a dominant role in the Russian army. The soldiers of the Preobrazhensky Regiment were devoted to the Emperor.
The Preobrazhensky regiment distinguished itself during the major battles of the 18th and 19th centuries. But the main challenge came in 1914, when the First World War broke out. The regiment responded to the call to defend their Motherland with its usual enthusiasm.
The day before their departure to the battlefield, the soldiers went to a public prayer which took place in St. Petersburg in front of the regimental cathedral. Many of those who came to bid farewell to the servicemen on that summer day were confident in the easy victory of the Russian army. Almost nobody doubted that by Christmas the lifeguards would be back in St. Petersburg. The war, however, dragged on for years. Konstantin Zalessky, a Russian historian, says the Preobrazhensky regiment entered the First World War right from the beginning and fought till 1917.
“I can’t say that Preobrazhensky regiment was that much different from other guard regiments but they were the elite of the Russian army with very tight discipline and outstanding fighting qualities. Although, the main factor was the officers – they were best out of best. Nevertheless, throughout the war, Preobrazhensky regiment suffered high casualties. They fought at the battle of Lublino, at the battle of Ivangorod and in the other problem areas of the front,”Konstantin Zalessky said.
The battle of Lublino was one of the first massacres of WW1 but it was won thanks to the Preobrazhensky regiment – a fact acknowledged by all parties.
Over 1500 servicemen of the Kaiser army were taken prisoners. But the regiment sustained significant losses as well. Alexander Kutepov – fourth company commander of the Preobrazhensky regiment life-guards was also badly wounded in the battle of Lublino. But despite his injuries he cheered up his men, who were lying on stretchers, by saying: “There will be no order for retreat”.
The other battles with the Preobrazhensky regiment are no less notable. For instance, the summer battles of 1917, when Russian soldiers managed to stop the German offensive and hold off the assault on Svinyuhi village. The Preobrazhensky pulled off the impossible by stopping the German attack. But again, the regiment paid a high price, losing over 1500 servicemen. The Russian Empress herself wrote about it saying : “I’m in despair because our life-guards lost so many fine soldiers”.
Among those who died were staff-captain Zubov, captain Holodovskiy, Lieutenants Bobrinskiy and Ratkov-Rozhnov and many other officers. Some were killed trying to break through enemy fire and other lost their lives protecting their fellow-soldiers from the German bullets.
One name worth taking a close look at is Alexander Kutepov. The beginning of his career seemed like any other. He was a common combatant officer, who happened to end up in the Preobrazhensky regiment by mere chance. But, as candidate of historical Sciences Ruslan Gagkuev tells us, this brave commander stayed on the line till the very end, being the last living member of the regiment.
“Alexander Kutepov came to the Preobrazhensky regiment in 1905 after disciplinary punishment was imposed on a few officers after the revolutionary events of 1905. There was a need to replace those officers with the new ones who weren’t disgraced by participation in the uprising. That’s when future general Kutepov was selected for the Preobrazhensky regiment. He was initially assigned to the regiment and later enrolled in it. From this point onwards and up until the liquidation of the Preobrazhensly regiment Kutepov’s life was connected with this oldest element of the Russian army.”
Ruslan Gagkuev adds that despite the fact that Alexander Kutepov ended up in the lifeguards by accident and found himself in a completely alien environment, he didn’t lose face:
“He did what he thought was necessary. He conscientiously carried out his duty. But it was not about career-making, it just was so natural for his personality – to do what was needed. That’s why military service was his true calling».
Both by the regiment and the government paid high tribute to Kutepov and the services he rendered to his country. Alexander owned an impressive collection of military awards, including the George Cross. In fact the order was presented to many officers of the regiment. Among them – colonel Konstantin Litke, staff-captain Nikolai Zubov, Lieutenant Ippolit Komarov, staff-captain Michael Moller and others.
They received the George Cross for the outstanding courage shown on the battlefield. But there were also those who became cavaliers of the order without actually receiving the Cross. These were soldiers who distinguished themselves during the summer offensive of 1917. Due to the chaos of the upcoming revolution well-deserved awards were never presented to the officers.
Konstantin Zalessky says it’s important to note that the Preobrazhensky regiment was one of the few that stayed true to the oath during the February revolution:
“A group of officers and soldiers led by Kutepov tried to put up resistance to the rebels and revolution itself. They failed, of course. But the mere fact that the regiment remained faithful to their oath is worth a lot, I believe,” Konstantin Zalessky said.
An even far more disastrous for the Preobrazhensky regiment was the October revolution. In 1918, after the Soviet government came into power, the regiment was disbanded. Sergei Volkov, Doctor of Historical Sciences, says that shortly after that former lifeguards recreated the regiment as a part of the White army.
“The majority of the Preobrazhensky regiment officers that survived by the end of 1917 fought against Bolsheviks on the Southern front. Well, some went to the East too. Few even participated in a First Kuban campaign – the legendary Ice March. After the evacuation of the White army, when many officers ended up in emigration, they formed regimental associations based on the groups of Preobrazhensky soldiers who lived in different countries. First most of these organizations located in Belgrad, then they also appeared in Paris and Belgium.”
Sergei Volkov points out that generation after generation of the Preobrazhensky regiment officers kept traditions of the Russian army alive even years after the founders of the association passed away.
“It is now young man – grandsons and great grandsons of the officers who do their best to maintain the traditions. The association did scientific work too. For instance, they published articles on the history of Preobrazhensky regiment, there was a museum even. We can see some of this activity even nowadays. Some materials can be found in private collections in Russia. In particular, a number pictures and documents were handed to the Russian Foundation for Culture by the “Rodina” association, which collects Russian military artefacts,”Sergei Volkov said.
But that’s not the only tribute to the war-heroes. In December 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin suggested the historical regiments should be revived. In April, 2013 Vladimir Putin signed a decree on renaming the 154th commandant’s regiment after the Preobrazhensky regiment. It is currently based in Moscow’s Lefortovo district where is stands sentry.
1917 Russian Calendar depicting Tsar Nicholas II and his family
This 1917 Russian calendar presents the last Russian Imperial family: Emperor Nicholas II, his wife Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, their four daughters Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and their only son and heir to the throne Tsesarevich Alexei. They are depicted as one big happy family, decked out in all their finery, giving the false image that all was well with the state of monarchy and the Russian Empire. Sadly, however, history tells a different story….
In 1917, Russia witnessed a series of catastrophic events which would change the course of the country’s history, forever.
The acceleration of revolutionary activity continued to threaten the lives of the tsar, his family and the monarchy.
The country was still at war with Germany, a war which had a devastating impact on Russia resulting in the loss of an estimated 1.8 million lives. The war took its toll on Russia as discontent grew, food became scarce, soldiers became war-weary, and the devastating defeats on the eastern front threatened the tsar’s leadership.
The February Revolution was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. It was centered on Petrograd, then the capital (now St. Petersburg), on March 8 (Women's Day).
On March 15, 1917, Tsar Nicholas II was travelling by train bound for Tsarskoye Selo when he was stopped at Pskov. The Duma insisted that Nicholas abdicate, sending representatives Aleksandr Ivanovich Guchkov and Vasilii Vitalievich Shulgin to meet him there. Nicholas complied and signed the papers.
Nicholas abdicates in favour of his brother, Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich.
The following day, on March 16, 1917 (March 3, 1917 old style), Grand Duke Michael ponders the situation briefly and then declines the offer.
Russia is no longer a monarchy.
Vladimir Lenin, exiled in neutral Switzerland, arrived in Petrograd from Zürich on 3 April 1917 O.S. He immediately began to undermine the provisional government.
In July, Georgy Lvov was replaced by the Socialist Revolutionary minister Alexander Kerensky as head of the government.
After months of being under house arrest in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo, the Imperial family are exiled to Tobolsk, Siberia in August.
The October Revolution, officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917 (by the Julian or Old Style calendar, which corresponds to 7 November 1917 in the Gregorian or New Style calendar).
Vladimir Lenin, a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist served as the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917.
On 20 December 1917 the Cheka was created by the decree of Vladimir Lenin. These were the beginnings of the Bolshevik's consolidation of power over their political opponents.
The year 1917 was a major turning point for the history of Russia, and also the Russian Orthodox Church. According to Lenin, a communist regime cannot remain neutral on the question of religion but must show itself to be merciless towards it. There was no place for the church in Lenin's classless society.
The assets of the Imperial family, as well as members of Russia’s aristocratic and noble families were nationalized. The Bolsheviks began the persecution, arrest and murder of thousands of innocent Russians.
Lenin and the Bolsheviks set the stage for the Red Terror.
Russian Crimean War Victims Honoured in UK Topic: Russian History
The obelisk was erected in 1877 at the behest of the Emperor of Russia, Alexander II
The Ambassadors of both Russia and Finland were in Lewes, Sussex, England on Saturday for a moving ceremony.
They attended the re-dedication of the Russian-Finnish Memorial in the churchyard at St John sub Castro.
The Grade II Listed obelisk has been repaired and cleaned at a cost approaching £9,000 and paid for by the Russians and organisations based in the Åland Islands of Finland.
The church was packed as guests were welcomed by Acting Minister the Rev Richard Field, the Russian Ambassador, His Excellency Alexander Yakovenko, and the Finnish Ambassador, His Excellency Pekka Huhtaniemi.
The historical background to the memorial was given by Graham Robins, Curator of Åland Museum.
It is dedicated to the 28 Finnish (*The Grand Duchy of Finland existed between 1809 and 1917 as an autonomous part of the Russian Empire and was ruled by the Russian Emperor as Grand Duke) from soldiers who died as prisoners of war in Lewes during the Crimean War of 1854-56 and are buried in the churchyard. They were from the Åland Islands and serving in the Russian Army.
The 17ft (5.2m) high obelisk was erected in 1877 at the behest of the Emperor of Russia, Alexander II.
Andrew Goodwin, of Lewes-based Mackellar Schwerdt Architects, oversaw the permits for the memorial’s facelift and commissioned stonemason Jon Tilley, of TE Tilley Ltd, Brighton, to carry out repairs.
Saturday’s ceremony continued in the churchyard, with blessings and prayers by the Archdeacon of Lewes and Hastings, the Venerable Philip Jones (in English), the Rev Teemu Hälli (in Finnish) and the Very Rev Vadim Zakrevsky (in Russian).
Wreaths were then laid by Mr Huhtaniemi and Colonel Simo Hautala, by Mr Yakovenko and Colonel Mikhail Klimuk, and by the Premier of the Åland Islands, Camilla Gunell.
Representing Lewes at the re-dedication were Mayor Cllr Ruth O’Keeffe and the Chair of Lewes District Council, Cllr Michael Chartier.
Some 340 members of the Fusilier Grenadiers defending the fortress of Bormasund in the Baltic Sea were captured by British and French forces in August 1854 and taken to Lewes. The men were confined in the old County Gaol, which stood in North Street.
Monument Selected to Honour Russia's Fallen Soldiers During WWI Topic: Russian History
The chairman of the Russian Military Historical Society and Minister of Culture Vladimir Medinsky announced the monument design which had been chosen to commemorate the heroes of World War I on Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow. The author of the winning design is Andrei Kovalchuk, People’s Artiste of Russia and head of the Union of Artists of Russia.
The competition was held from April 2 to September 16, 2013 and included 32 works by Russian artists. Miniatures of the monuments were put on display at the State Historical Museum in July, during which a series of public discussions were held. The Russian Military History Society conducted an online poll in which its more than 200,000 members cast their votes for the winning monument.
“For 100 years we practically did not honor the memory of the millions of our compatriots who gave their lives for their motherland. And at least now we can pay the due respect to our heroes,” Medinsky said.
Members of the Russian Military Historical Society who are descendants of those who died in the war came forward with the initiative to establish the monument. The sculpture will appear on Poklonnaya Hill between the Arch of Triumph and the Museum of the Great Patriotic War by August 1, 2014, the 100th anniversary of the start of the war. The monument is being funded exclusively by donated money. According to the minister of culture 7 million rubles have been collected to date.
Standing at the center of Kovalchuk’s sculptural composition is a soldier in uniform with the Cross of St. George on his chest. The background composition includes the Russian tri-colored flag and soldiers marching into battle.
WWI Russian Soldiers Honoured in Paris Topic: Russian History
Monument to the 1916 Russian Expeditionary Force at Paris
On February 5 representatives of Russia and France laid wreaths at the monument honoring Russian soldiers on the bank of the Seine in Paris. Sergey Naryshkin, speaker of the Russian State Duma, took part in the ceremony, RIA Novosti reports.
In 1916 the Russian Expeditionary Force was sent to Europe to assist allies during World War I. The Russian soldiers together with French troops defended the Champagne-Ardenne region. The Russian infantry performed a key role in stopping the German army and preventing the capture of Paris.
“Without Russia’s participation, many of the battles of the Allies would have ended differently, and for France in particular,” said General Elrick Irastorza, who heads the France’s interdepartmental commission on commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the First World War.
Following the February Revolution, the Russian Expeditionary Force was demobilized, but approximately 1000 Russian volunteers continued to serve among allied forces. This group was called the Russian Legion of Honor.
The monument to the Russian Expeditionary Force was unveiled in summer of 2011 during a visit to France by Vladimir Putin. It is situated in the historical center on the right bank of the Seine not far from the Grand Palais and Pont Alexandre III.
The Russian delegation met at L'Hôtel national des Invalides with representatives of France to discuss preparations for the 100th anniversary of World War I in Moscow and Paris.
Kremlin: August 1 to be Russia's WWI Remembrance Day Topic: Russian History
Tsar Nicholas II blessing his troops during World War I
August 1 will be the date on which, each year, Russia remembers its soldiers who fell during the First World War, the Kremlin Press Service announced on Monday.
“The following changes are introduced to the Federal Law on Days of Military Glory and Remembrance Days in Russia, adding the date of August 1 as a Day of Remembrance for the Russian soldiers who fell in the First World War of 1914-1918,” the press release says.
President Putin suggested creating a memorial to the Russian soldiers who fought in World War I (WWI) during his state of the nation address of December 12.
Allied to Britain and France in WWI, Russia is thought to have lost about 1.5 million soldiers at the front, with about 5 million wounded – according to the history site firstworldwar.com, although some historians question these figures.
Russia’s participation in WWI was downplayed in the Soviet Union, largely due to the Bolshevik view of it as an “imperialist war” that paved the way for revolution.
Speaking with young Russians at the Seliger youth camp in July 2013, President Putin raised the issue of Russia's role in WWI, and blamed the Bolsheviks for how Russia left the war. "It is also known that the Bolsheviks wished for the defeat of their own nation in World War I. And overall, I must say that their input in Russia’s defeat was commensurate."
The Treaty of Brest Litovsk, signed between Bolshevik Russia, the German Empire, Austria Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire on March 3, 1918, officially terminated Russia's involvement in WWI.
"This was an astonishing situation, wherein Germany surrendered to the Allies, but Russia lost to the defeated nation, Germany, and with such grave consequences – losing enormous territories and suffering other truly severeramifications. This is truly a unique large-scale example of national treachery!" Putin said.